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Format: Your final paper should be 9-10 pages, and include an additional title page and reference page. It should be double-spaced, properly formatted, and thoroughly and appropriately cited. Features: Your final paper should show off your work from the course, including your growing understanding of our course theme and the skills and lessons you have learned about writing and research. Since this paper has been developed over the course through several different progressive assignments, it is expected that you will use and rework material that has already been submitted (from your proposal, reflections, class activities, annotated bibliography). In this specific circumstance, re-submitting work that has already been submitted for a grade is part of the course objective, and not an academic integrity concern. However, it is expected that your work will be significantly revised/enhanced for each subsequent assignment. Your final paper will include the following: An introduction, statement of your research question/purpose/thesis, relevant body paragraphs, and a conclusion. The “body” of your paper should be divided into different arguments/themes. For example, you might have 3 sections, each with 3 paragraphs for a total of 9 body paragraphs. Students often find it helpful to use headings to help organize these sections.Each paragraph will start with a topic sentence that outlines what the paragraph is about.Your arguments and interpretations will be supported with evidence.Most paragraphs should include reference to at least 2 different sources, with at least 8 sources being used overall. Your unique and original interpretations and analysis should come through. At least some components of the paper should be written in the 1st person (I think, in my experience), locate your position or point of view in relation to your topic, and demonstrate self-reflection. Be sure to explain why your arguments matter, are significant, and how they can lead to desirable changes in society. And here is my annotated bibliography about this topic and the feedback but I got low grades. You can develop your ideas base on it or not. Please use the example about maccess, here is the link :…Thank you so much!

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How can university students effectively help disabled students?
: an annotated bibliography
7 Academic Sources
1. Condra, M., Dineen, M., Gills, H., Jack-Davies, A., & Condra, E. (2015). Academic
accommodations for postsecondary students with mental health disabilities in Ontario,
Canada: A review of the literature and reflections on emerging issues. Journal of
Postsecondary Education and Disability, 28(3), 277-291
2. Fichten, C. S., Ferraro, V., Asuncion, J. V., Chwojka, C., Barile, M., Nguyen, M. N., … &
Wolforth, J. (2009). Disabilities and e-learning problems and solutions: An exploratory
study. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12(4), 241-256.
3. Gordon, M. (2010). Student voice key to unlocking inclusive educational practices. Canadian
Journal for New Scholars in Education/Revue Canadienne des Jeunes chercheures et
chercheurs en éducation, 3(2).
4. Hong, B. S. (2015). Qualitative analysis of the barrier’s college students with disabilities
experience in higher education. Journal of College Student Development, 56(3), 209-226.
5. Imaniah, I., & Fitria, N. (2018). Inclusive education for students with disability. In SHS Web
of Conferences (Vol. 42, p. 00039). EDP Sciences.
6. Slee, R. (2006). Inclusive Education: Is This Horse a Trojan? Exceptionality Education
Canada, 16, 223-242.
7. Woloshyn, V., Bennett, S., & Berrill, D. (2003). Working with students who have learning
disabilities: Teacher candidates speak out. Issues and concerns in pre-service education and
professional development. Exceptionality Education Canada, 13 (1), 7–29.
Condra, M., Dineen, M., Gills, H., Jack-Davies, A., & Condra, E. (2015). Academic
accommodations for postsecondary students with mental health disabilities in
Ontario, Canada: A review of the literature and reflections on emerging issues.
Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 28(3), 277-291. Retrieved from
The article notes that in the past few years there has been an enrollment of students who
are mentally disabled in the different colleges and universities in Canada. Reviews of the article
are most of the challenges that the disabled students face while in the universities and some of
the ways that can be incorporated to accommodate them effectively. In Ontario Canada, the
figures for the number of disabled students enrolled in the post-secondary institutions recorded a
high of 67%. Under the human rights code, the students and more so people living with
disabilities are well protected, and this can be given as the main reason for the increase in the
numbers of admission. A few decades ago this was not the case, and the students with mental
health disabilities would be taken to special schools and institutions where they would receive
special care. By them being allowed to enroll in the universities with others came about with the
different institutions to having to formulate ways to show awareness of their existence. This
includes setting up medical facilities where in case they need treatment would visit for
emergency care services.
Legally the persons living with disabilities are also recognized under the Canadian
Charter of Rights and Freedom which guarantees persons with disabilities freedom against
discrimination. If one is caught in violation of the said law, one can be sued in a caught of law
and also face the risk of being jailed of receiving heavy fines. In Canada, people living with
disabilities are given priority and opportunities according to the people with the act. Through this
act, they were protected against discrimination during learning, telecommunications, privately
and public accommodation and in the offering of services. This article looks at how people living
with disabilities are accommodated in Canada most specifically in the colleges and universities
in Ontario. For so long the people living with disabilities in Canada had been neglected and
looked down upon. Canada had a history of segregation of people with disabilities. This was in
service provision and in cases of employment opportunities and being given the opportunities to
attend learning institutions to access education. University students have a role to play in making
sure that they report any incident that they witness of the students living with disabilities being
discriminated. They should also refrain from discriminating them also and instead show them
love and assistance in their pursuance of education
In Ontario, there has been a set-out and well-defined process of the post-secondary
education accommodation for the people living with disabilities. One of the processes required is
that the given student should have a documented diagnostic statement that described the exact
condition of disability that they are suffering from. This helps the different medical personnel’s
in the university’s medical facilities to understand the condition better and how to approach it in
case a complication is detected. The documentation is also used during the assessment of how far
the disability affects the ability of the student to function and how it impacts academic
functioning. The students are made aware of the presence of the accommodation structures and
how they function as well as the professors who will regularly be interacting with the students in
their university life. These accommodation programs vary from one university to the other in
Ontario where there are no specific procedures to follow for all of them. According to Rae
(2009), the main aim of the accommodation procedures is not necessarily to help the student in
passing the exams or to acquire knowledge. Their main aim is to discover the right procedures to
follow in case a student’s impairment needs special care and attention.
There exist several challenges that students with the mental health disability in
postsecondary institutions face. One of the main challenges that are faced by all students is the
transition from the high school setting to the college or university setting. With the students
suffering from the mental health disability this stress of transition escalates more especially
while trying to adapt to a new environment in pursuit of achieving their academic goals. The
setting of the post-secondary institutions requires a student to exhibit high levels of cognitive and
behavioral signs, and anything less than that poses a considerable challenge. Another barrier for
the mentally disabled students is in the complexity that is found in the treatment methods of their
conditions. The treatment of the disability requires some experimentation and some regular
checkups which might interrupt the normal learning process of the students. Additionally,
exposing the students to different medications and prescriptions may, in the long run, pose some
side effects that might affect the student physically and emotionally. Lastly, the students may
suffer more in the process where they struggle in striking a balance between educations and
attending to matters of the health of their disability conditions.
The article shows different ways in which the students with mental health disabilities can
be accommodated in the universities. Many lessons can be learned by the regular students on
how they can effectively help their fellow students that have different disabilities according to
the article. One of the ways that students can achieve this is by refraining from any
discrimination activities directed towards the students with disabilities. By showing them love
and interacting with them in a freeway, the suffering students will have an easy time and much
focus on their studies. Secondly, students should report any incident of discrimination of the
disabled students to the relevant authorities. This is according to the Canadian Charter of Rights
and Freedom which protects them against discrimination. They can also effectively help the
disabled students by assisting them during the transition period from the high school setting to
the post-secondary setting. This is usually a hard stage for them, but with assistance from the
established students, it becomes easier. Lastly, university students can effectively help the
disabled students by assisting them to report for the recommended regular checkups in case they
forget. This would mostly help in the recovery process.
Gordon, M. (2010). Student voice key to unlocking inclusive educational
practices. Canadian Journal for New Scholars in Education/Revue Canadienne des
Jeunes chercheures et chercheurs en éducation, 3(2). Retrieved from
This article argues on the different educational policies and procedures in the whole of
Canada on why the inclusion of the students with disabilities in the typical class programs should
be the main agenda. In Canada, inclusive education over time has recorded some variances in the
way it is implemented and has driven a need to be reviewed. According to the particle interaction
with the students is the best way to find out the best methods to use to find the best solution to
inclusive education. This is mainly because the students themselves are the main key players
where most of the time they are the ones that spend more time with the disabled students.
Currently, Canada is one of the countries that fully support the equity when it comes to the
distribution of educational resources. Some few decades ago the country did not consider the
views or opinion of students when it came to the formulation of educational policies. Students
with disabilities used to be segregated and did not get access to education like other students.
However, with time these types of traditions became outdated, and the disabled began to be
admitted in the various colleges and universities.
The article also tries to argue from an insider perspective whereby it urges schools with
the inclusive education systems to provide strategies that accommodate the different interests of
the diverse students in them. It also terms students as the primary users in these institutions and
their input and output should be the SI unit of determining the success or failure of a particular
inclusive education system. There is the stereotype by the media that people with disability
cannot be able to work or functionally usually like other individuals. An example of stereotyping
by the media is the stereotype of the disabled people. The stereotype was that when a disabled
person can do something, they are seen as a superhero by the media. When a person with a
disability does something glorified, they are glorified for only living their lives. The situation of
using the media stereotype positively is by using it to encourage the people in the society to work
extra hard so that they can prosper economically. These acts of stereotyping should stop
especially in the different universities in Canada and instead the disabled should be given an
equal opportunity to participate in any activity of the institution.
Student’s voice should always be given a chance to be heard, and the article discusses the
main motives why their voices should be listened to. Universities or colleges without students
cannot be termed as learning institutions, and this articulates the students as the key players.
With that notion in mind, it is therefore vital that any decisions made in the institutions should be
student-centered at all times. One of the ways to achieve this is to interact with the students and
get to hear some of the grievances or views that they have. On the matter of inclusiveness of the
students living with disabilities, the students should be included in make the decisions too. This
is by asking them how they want the disabled students to be accommodated and the different
gaps that exist in the proposed achievement of an all-inclusive education system. Some of the
researchers have agreed that the views and contributions of disabled students should be heard
and be considered in the decision making in schools. However, others still feel that their voice is
still not getting the attention that they deserve regarding that they are the key players in this
The article also looks at some of the benefits that accompany the all-inclusive education
system. It is important to note that what keeps the students up and learning in any learning
institutions is the friendships that they make as each day passes. This friendship helps in the
smoothening of school life especially for the students living with disabilities. Another benefit of
the inclusive system is that it helps in raising the self-esteem of many of the students because
after realizing how important they are in the decision-making program they can believe in
themselves and also gain the ability to make tough decisions. The article also talks about some of
the barriers that block the all-inclusive education system. The assumption is always that when
students who are abled different mix and interact with the regular students they can share their
cultures and ideas and collect each other where possible. However, according to the article, some
educators still think that the disabled students cannot make decisions on their own and this has
been a significant barrier. Another challenge has been that of that of physical education lessons
which have proofed to be hard especially with the physically disabled children who cannot
perform them effectively.
Many lessons can be drawn from the article on how university students can effectively
help their fellow students who have disabilities. According to the article, one of the ways that
this can be achieved is by appreciating them in the regular classes by giving them a warm
welcome when they are enrolled in the schools. This can help very much as compared to the
situation whereby one may decide to seclude themselves with them. Avoiding them may cause
conditions like those of trauma to the students and can be worse to especially those who suffer
from mental disabilities. Another way that university students can effectively help students with
disabilities according to the article is by assisting them in the process of making their voice be
heard. This would automatically raise their self-esteem and make them feel better which will be
an advantage to their healing process. Lastly, another way to effectively help the disabled
students is by raising any concerns that may come by, and that may seem to oppress the students
living with disabilities. This would help very much because the people who have the opportunity
of understanding the students with disabilities better are their fellow students and not the teachers
or the lecturers.
Fichten, C. S., Ferraro, V., Asuncion, J. V., Chwojka, C., Barile, M., Nguyen, M. N., … &
Wolforth, J. (2009). Disabilities and e-learning problems and solutions: An
exploratory study. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12(4), 241-256.
Retrieved from
This article analyzes a study that was conducted to determine the levels of e-learning
problems and solutions with the students that lived with disabilities. The research study involved
several people all from different colleges and universities in Montreal Canada. The article notes
that the world is becoming digital and technological whereby as each day passes more
innovations are being brought up from all corners of the world. Students living with disabilities
have not been left behind whereby several technologies have been developed in their favor. One
example is where blind students nowadays can read and write using specific technologies such as
brail. However as long as we are supporting these moves that are being taken, it is also important
to come up with ways to ensure that the technological advancements are being used to perfection
by all the stakeholders who include the lecturers in the universities, the students with disabilities
and the students themselves who don’t suffer from disability issues. The article conducts a study,
and it can note some o the problems and some of the solutions to the problems related to elearning and technological advancement of the people living with disabilities in the different
colleges and universities in Montreal, Canada.
The study chose to pick and use 223 students with disabilities, 58 campus disability
service providers, 28 professors, and 33 e-learning professionals. Among the 223 students with
disabilities involved 74 were male while the other 149 were female. Also, the participants that
were chosen for this particular study were from 318 Canadian postsecondary institutions. The
study also made sure that the students that were picked had at least involved themselves in one elearning course throughout the last three years before the study is conducted. The disability
service providers were picked from 33 junior community colleges while 23 were chosen from
various universities across Canada. Additionally, the professors used for the study had taught at
least one student with disabilities using e-learning throughout the last three years before the
study is conducted.
Most of the recruitment process for the study was done online where the interested
participants would click on a button of consent to be approved for participation. After approval,
the research method used was that of filling out an online questionnaire. The online
questionnaire had a different set of questions which ranged from the topics of demographic
questions, definitions of e-learning and accessibility, e-learning benefits, problems and solutions,
coding problems, solutions, and benefits questions. While the plight of the disabled students is
yet to be wholly communicated, it is evident according to the article that there is a growing
awareness of the group. Many participants across the country are creating policies and
regulations that ensure that members of the group are not oppressed. In the past five years, there
has been better organization of disabled persons as well as the creation of laws that require for
the equal representation of all minority groups. Under the current setting, the sidelining of the
disabled persons in the recruitment, as well as the underfunding of their programs, can be termed
as being a violation of their rights. It has the effect of subjecting them to both mental and
economic suffering thus lowering their quality of life. The study was conducted successfully, and
the researchers in charge were able to collect some different set of results and information on
what the students with disabilities needed.
Some of the results from the study were that 62% of the students with disabilities
recorded that they needed adaptive technologies to participate effectively in their learning
process. According to the survey by the article, it was noted that majority of the students who
accounted for 55% preferred some online classes and notes as compared to having to attend to
daily lessons in the school. This would be enhanced in a better way by the existence of different
technologies such as text to speech devices which help the blind people in their learning. The
study also recorded some of the problems that the different participants raised and pointed out to
be the main hindrance to e-learning for the students with disabilities. These problems included
problems while accessing websites or course management systems, technical hitches, professors
having to use the e-learning process poorly, difficulty in connections to websites/course
management systems, and students’ lack of k …
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