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This assignment is due at the end Week 6. This assignment is a continuation of assignment one (1). In Assignment one (1) you choose from the six (6) problems children experience daily. For this assignment, address the same issue from an applied perspective. What is being done to address this problem?Is there a consensus about how to improve this problem, or is there a great deal of controversy?What solutions have already been tried for this problem?How successful have these solutions been?What are the barriers to solving this problem?What resources are available in YOUR community to deal with this problem? Future approaches to the problemHow will this problem be addressed in the future?How successful are these solutions likely to be? Number of published, peer-reviewed sources required; must all be published within the last 8 years. (5) Length required (not including title page and references 800 to 1200 words The problem I selected was Cyber Bullying. Attached is the paper you wrote previously on the subject.
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Running head: CYBERBULLYING
1
Cyberbullying
Byron Sago
American Military University
CYBERBULLYING
2
Cyberbullying
Cyberbullying involves the use of technology to, embarrass, threaten, and harass another
person. Notably, it includes an array of harmful actions and words taking place in the digital
world among young people. It takes place through, web forums, chat rooms, social networking
platforms, apps, and text messaging. In essence, frequent cyberbullying leave both the bully and
the victim at a greater risk of stress-related disorders such as anxiety, depression, or even suicide.
This essay will, therefore, discuss cyberbullying among children.
The use of the internet among young people has become pervasive. However, some
children use this technology negatively to target others in online bullying. Cyberbullying entails
the use of the cellphone and internet to send images or post text with the intent of hurting or
embarrassing someone else (Englander et al., 2017). As a result, a child becomes repeatedly
humiliated, harassed, threatened, and tormented by another child using instant messaging, chat
rooms, or email. Unfortunately, this menacing problem is dramatically increasing and more
young people are ending up becoming victims. Based on statistics, 35.2 % of children aged
between 12-17 were victims of online bullying while 12.5% had engaged in cyberbullying in
their lifetime (Barlett et al., 2016). This implies that cyberbullying has become a prevalent
menace and creates a lot of problems for young people.
Cyberbullies post embarrassing information or personal data of their victims on digital
media forums in order to humiliate them. Generally speaking, a cyber-bully is a product of a
harsh environment where he or she is verbally or physically abused (Brewer & Kerslake, 2015).
Nevertheless, there are several theories that try to explain this detrimental behavior.
CYBERBULLYING
3
Consequently, the victim is negatively affected by online bullying. As a result, online bullying
has an adverse implication on children. For instance, the emotional effects of online bullying
include fear, embarrassment, depression, sadness, loneliness, anxiety and anger (Aboujaoude,
2015). Furthermore, the behavioral effects of online bullying include substance use, assaultive
conduct, psychosocial difficulties, lower academic performance, absenteeism, school difficulties,
and decreased family relationship quality.
Examining cyberbullying using a theoretical framework is fundamental in establishing
reasons and identifying opportunities to intervene. That being said, cyberbullying theories help
us to comprehend the correlation between children, technology, and cyberbullying (Brewer &
Kerslake, 2015). Furthermore, the theories can be used in making informed decisions regarding
addressing, intervention, and prevention of cyberbullying. The following are the possible
theories that explain cyberbullying behavior among children. First, the dual-perspective theory of
bullying views cyberbullying from the perspective of a self-proclaimed bully as well as a selfproclaimed victim.
Second, peer ecology unifying the theory of bullying views bullying as a socially
complex phenomenon. Third, the general strain theory of aggression in which a positive attitude
towards online bullying propagates the behavior (Zych, Baldry, & Farrington, 2017). Fourth,
routine activities victimization theory in which a motivated cyberbully and a suitable victim
propagates the behavior. Other theories include uses and gravitational theory, ecological system
theory, and choice theory. Rudimentary to the theories, the predictors of cyberbullying include
perceived anonymity, descriptive norms, injunctive norms, previous victimization, lack of
consequences, and perceived online disinhibition.
CYBERBULLYING
4
The research critically explores the prevalence of cyberbullying, its consequences, and
theories of cyberbullying. However, the research has not been comprehensive in exploring
cyberbullying since due to lack of psychometric evidence including evidence of validity and
reliability. Besides, inconsistencies that prevail in online bullying measurements limits the
research. With a setting like this, there is an absolute need to develop a comprehensive
explanatory framework for online bullying in order to create effective intervention measures. In
the end, I find the research relatively credible (70%).
There prevail key aspects concerning cyberbullying in children. As such, the following
are common key aspects of online bullying.it is a form of bullying using electronic media and
device. Online bullying is a deliberate act with an aim of causing harm (Englander et al., 2017).
Moreover, it is a repetitive act. It entails a relationship characteristic attributed by an imbalance
of power. Furthermore, there is a perception of anonymity in the act. Finally, online bullying has
an extensive audience. However, there are definition discrepancies of online bullying (Zych,
Baldry, & Farrington, 2017). For instance, the legal definition of online bullying does not match
as some integrate child pornography, harassment, or stalking.
To sum up, online bullying has become increasingly pervasive due to the advancement in
IT including social media sites, chat rooms, text messaging, and email. Cyberbullying has an
adverse implication to the victim including depression, embarrassment, anxiety, anger,
psychosocial difficulties, substance abuse, absenteeism, and low academic performance. There
are an array of theories that try to explain online bullying behavior. However, there is a need to
create a comprehensive explanatory framework for online bullying that will drive the
development of intervention strategies.
CYBERBULLYING
5
References
Aboujaoude, E., Savage, M. W., Starcevic, V., & Salame, W. O. (2015). Cyberbullying: Review
of an old problem gone viral. Journal of adolescent health, 57(1), 10-18.
Barlett, C. P., Gentile, D. A., & Chew, C. (2016). Predicting cyberbullying from
anonymity. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 5(2), 171.
Brewer, G., & Kerslake, J. (2015). Cyberbullying, self-esteem, empathy, and loneliness.
Computers in human behavior, 48, 255-260. Retrieved from
https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/44692214/Cyberbullying_
self-esteem_empathy_and_lo20160413-7500db2jlr.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=154
9630865&Signature=%2FDhJBUM3aT3a3GVk8xU80qZajbs%3D&responsecontent-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DCyberbullying_selfesteem_empathy_and_lo.pdf
Englander, E., Donnerstein, E., Kowalski, R., Lin, C. A., & Parti, K. (2017). Defining
cyberbullying. Pediatrics, 140(Supplement 2), S148-S151. Retrieved from
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/140/Supplement_2/S14
8.full.pdf
Zych, I., Baldry, A. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2017). School bullying and cyberbullying:
Prevalence, characteristics, outcomes, and prevention. In Handbook of
Behavioral Criminology (pp. 113-138). Springer, Cham.
Cyberbullying outline
Introduction to cyberbullying
Cyberbullying situation

Prevalence of cyberbullying
Effects of cyberbullying
Theories of cyberbullying

Significance of the theories of cyberbullying

Dual-perspective theory of bullying

Peer ecology unifying theory

General strain theory

Routine activities victimization theory

Other theories
Credibility of the research
Key aspects in cyberbullying
Conclusion
References
Aboujaoude, E., Savage, M. W., Starcevic, V., & Salame, W. O. (2015). Cyberbullying:
Review of an old problem gone viral. Journal of adolescent health, 57(1),
10-18.
Barlett, C. P., Gentile, D. A., & Chew, C. (2016). Predicting cyberbullying from
anonymity. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 5(2), 171.
Brewer, G., & Kerslake, J. (2015). Cyberbullying, self-esteem, empathy, and loneliness.
Computers in human behavior, 48, 255-260. Retrieved from
https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/44692214/Cyberbullyi
ng_self-esteem_empathy_and_lo20160413-7500db2jlr.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1
549630865&Signature=%2FDhJBUM3aT3a3GVk8xU80qZajbs%3D&resp
onse-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DCyberbullying_selfesteem_empathy_and_lo.pdf
Englander, E., Donnerstein, E., Kowalski, R., Lin, C. A., & Parti, K. (2017). Defining
cyberbullying. Pediatrics, 140(Supplement 2), S148-S151. Retrieved from
http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/140/Supplement_2/S
148.full.pdf
Zych, I., Baldry, A. C., & Farrington, D. P. (2017). School bullying and cyberbullying:
Prevalence, characteristics, outcomes, and prevention. In Handbook of
Behavioral Criminology (pp. 113-138). Springer, Cham.

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