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Please respond to the following with 200 words: Based on the lecture, describe one change that you think was an important idea made by Protestant Churches (either Lutheran, Reformed, Presbyterian, or Episcopal) when they separated from the Catholic Church. State what the Church is, the change made, and why you think it was important. the lecture is attached

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The Christian Protestant Reformation
A 16th century movement to reform
the Catholic Church
Image: inside Protestant church
The Reformation started in Germany
Beginning in the early 1500s, and within a century,
several new Christian groups broke away from
the Catholic Church and formed their own
Christian “Protestant” Churches.
Image: map of Europe with Germany highlighted
Theological reasons for the Reformation: the solas
1. Sola Scriptura – by scripture alone
2. Sola Fide – by faith alone
3. Sola Christus – through Christ alone
4. Sola Gratia – by grace alone
5. Soli Deo Gloria – glory to God alone
Reformers felt that this is what the Catholic Church lacked.
Image: inside Protestant church with bible as focus
Prior to the Reformation:
Seeds of the Protestant Reformation
1. Mysticism
2. Radical Poverty & Piety Movements
3. The University System
4. Early Reformers: John Wycliff & Jan Hus
5. Invention of the printing press
1. There was a flowering of Mysticism in the 14th century
Definition of mysticism – a spiritual union with God
Individuals who devoted their lives to spiritual practices
were sharing insights obtained through union with God
Some insights went against Catholic teachings.
Image: forest with flowers and light shining through
For example:
Meister Eckhard (1260 – 1320) was a German mystic
He wrote about the presence of God in the human soul
He was condemned as a heretic by Church.
For the Church, God and humans did not touch.
image: Meister Eckhard
Julian of Norwich (1342-1416)
was a mystic from England
She wrote that God views our failings
not as sins to be punished,
but as a parent responds to a
toddler who has tripped.
We are growing in love and compassion
and at times we trip up.
The Catholic view at the time was Divine retribution
Image: Julian of Norwich
Teresa of Avila, Spain (16th century)
She was the original flying nun.
Many reliable witnesses reported this ability.
All the mystics practiced the spiritual
disciplines several hours a day:
Prayer, quiet meditation, fasting
They experienced a union with the Divine.
They grew in spiritual awareness and compassion,
and because their spirit was so strong, some could fly.
Image: Teresa of Avila
2. Radical poverty & piety movements
These arose in opposition to the wealth and power
of the Catholic Church.
Image: paying taxes to the Church
Early groups before the Reformation
1. The Humilati
2. Waldensians
3. Beguines
4. Cathars
Such groups were greatly persecuted by the Church
The picture is a monument for Cathars in France
who were killed by the Church.
It reads: “To the martyrs of the pure Christian love”
3. The rise of the University system in the 14th century
Prior to this:
Europe experienced a Dark Age (6th to 13th centuries)
Because the Catholic Church burned books,
such as the Greek classics and suppressed new ideas.
Meanwhile Muslim Spain experienced a Golden Age
They preserved the Greek classics
Developed further intellectual research in
math (Algebra), medicine, literature, and law
Through Muslim Spain, the Greek classics came into Europe
This influx of intellectual works started the Renaissance:
which literally means a “re-birth” of learning.
New universities were built across Europe.
Image: inside university
Prior to universities,
medieval workers guilds
educated workers at trades
• One moved up the ranks:
from Apprentice to Master Craftsman
Received a certificate
• This system became the “degree” system at universities
• One received a certificate of Teacher or Master Scholar
4. Early Reformers:
John Wycliff in England, 14th century
Professor and Priest in the Catholic Church
All nations at the time were paying tribute (taxes)
to the Pope in Rome
Wycliff wrote against this.
Image: John Wycliff
Wycliff’s concepts
1. In temporal things (as opposed to eternal things),
rule should belong to the King, not the Church.
The pope should not be the head of the Church;
Christ is the head.
2. The Church should not hoard wealth,
but exist in poverty like the early Church
3. The Bible should be the basis for the Christian life and
doctrines of the Church, not the traditions of the Church.
was the first to translate the Bible into English.
Wycliff’s followers were known as Lollards.
They were burned at the stake by the Catholic Church
Wycliff died in 1384 of natural causes
He received a proper burial
Then in 1428, his body was exhumed
by the Catholic Church, burned,
and the ashes scattered in the River Swift.
image: the River Swift
The Church also burned the books he wrote
But a student, Jan Hus, carried forward his ideas.
image: Jan Hus
Jan Hus
was a Catholic Priest and Professor
at the University of Prague,
in the Czech Republic (then called Bohemia)
Image: map of Europe with Bohemia highlighted and the University of Prague
Jan Hus started The Hussite movement
His ideas:
1. The Liturgy (the words spoken at the worship service)
should be in the common language, not Latin
2. Indulgences should be eliminated
An indulgence is paying the Church to shorten time in purgatory
Purgatory: afterlife limbo between heaven and hell.
Hus emphasized:
1. personal piety – prayer & bible study
2. music
3. Missions
Image: music hymnal with notes
Jan Hus was burned at the stake by the Church
Statue of Jan Hus
Czech Republic
Hus’ followers organized a Church:
The Bohemian Brethren Church
Image: a Bohemian Brethren Church
The Catholic Church sent military forces
to stamp out this Church
starting the Hussite Wars
Image: painting of Hussite Wars
Within a century,
90% of Bohemia was Hussite
Image: Hussite Church in Bohemia
In the 18th century
There was a revival of Hussite ideas in Germany
This led to the founding of the Moravian Church
in Hernhut Germany
Image: Moravian Church in Hernhut Germany
Moravian missionaries
came to America in the 1730s
In the 1740s to 1750s they began Moravian cities
in Pennsylvania such as Bethlehem, PA
image: Moravian Church, Bethlehem PA
5. The invention of the printing press, 1440
in Mainz, Germany
by Johannes Gutenberg
Image: sketching of printing press
The first book he printed was the Bible
now known as the Gutenberg Bible
The printing press greatly helped spread the ideas of Reformers
(pamphlets & books)
Image: Gutenberg Bible
The Protestant Reformation
officially began October 31, 1517
when the Catholic Priest Martin Luther nailed his 95 Theses
to the door of the Castle Church, in Wittenberg,
image: Martin Luther and the door of the Castle Church
The 95 Theses
are 95 reasons against the practice of indulgences.
image: sketching of Martin Luther nailing 95 Theses to Castle Church door
Luther said
where one ended up after death
had to do with the state of the soul,
how much love was in one’s soul.
Image: heart
He also sent copies to other priests
Luther had been a professor of Biblical Theology at the
University of Wittenberg, and Priest at the Castle Church.
Image: Castle Church
Luther was excommunicated (expelled)
from the Catholic Church in 1521
Image: burning the 95 Theses
Luther was not burned at the stake,
because he took refuge with
Prince Frederick III of Saxony,
a wealthy nobleman.
German priests and peasants rioted in the streets
in support of Luther’s ideas
Luther’s followers started the Lutheran Church
in Augsburg, Germany, 1530
image: Lutheran Church, Augsburg
Highlights of beliefs of the Lutheran Church
Augsburg Lutheran Confession of Faith
1. Justification by faith alone – not deeds or indulgences
2. The Church should teach the Bible to the people
3. Clergy are not government rulers
(an early idea of separation of church and state)
4. Clergy may be married
5. Agreed with Catholic Church, infants may be baptized
The Augsburg Confession was presented to Charles the 5th
War broke out between German nobleman and Vatican Army
8 years later, the Lutheran Church was granted legal status
within the Holy Roman Empire
Image: Charles the 5th
The Lutheran Church spread throughout
Germany, the Netherlands,
and into the Scandinavian countries
Map of Europe highlighting Germany in green
The first Lutheran colonists
came to America in the 1620s from the Netherlands
(part of The Dutch East-India Company)
settling in New York, Delaware, Pennsylvania
In the late 1600s and early 1700s,
A large influx of German immigrants came to Pennsylvania.
The local English colonists were suspicious and fearful
of these German speaking people. They made them sign a
document that they would follow the English laws of the colony
and pledge their allegiance to the English king. They signed.
Many had also brought papers
from their Lutheran pastors
as references.
Image: German immigrants
The German Lutheran immigrants
purchased land,
chopped down trees to build log cabins,
farmed and raised livestock.
Images: log cabin and cattle
The first German Lutheran Church in America
was the New Hanover Lutheran Church in Pennsylvania
organized in 1700.
Image: historic landmark for first Lutheran Church
The 2nd primary Reformer
of the Protestant Reformation
was Ulrich Zwingli of Switzerland
Images: Zwingli and map of Europe with Switzerland highlighted in orange
Beliefs of the Reformed Church of Switzerland
1. Salvation by grace alone
2. The sacrament of the Eucharist does not save souls
3. Sola Scriptura – sermons would be based on the Bible
4. Denied monastic orders (no monks or nuns), no celibacy
Image: bible
War broke out throughout Switzerland:
Catholics vs. the Reformed
Zwingli was killed
Image: Catholics and Reformed battling in Switzerland
A Peace Treaty was worked out
Each province in Switzerland could decide
whether to be Catholic or Reformed
Today Switzerland is one of the most
Peaceful nations in the world.
Images: Catholic Swiss church on left, Reformed church on right
The Reformed Church spread to the Netherlands.
It was Dutch colonists who came to America and
in 1628 they started the first Reformed Church in America
in New Amsterdam (New York City). Their worship services
were held in the Dutch language until 1764.
image: artist’s rendering of New Amsterdam
The 3rd primary reformer of the Protestant Reformation
was John Calvin from France.
image: Calvin
He wrote a book entitled
The Institutes of the Christian Religion
Only 2 sacraments – baptism & Lord’s Supper
Justification by faith not deeds such as indulgences
Original Sin
Image: book cover of Calvin’s Institutes
According to the concept of Original Sin
• We inherit Adam’s sin
• This idea was first developed in Catholicism by St. Augustine
• Calvin takes it further
He said, we are blinded by our own sin
Our minds are so polluted with sin
that we can’t think straight
Image: tree with fruit and snake wrapped around
The French did not accept Calvin’s ideas
He fled to Switzerland.
image: Calvin
The Reformed Church of Switzerland
adopted Calvin’s ideas.
image: meeting of Reformed Church
Some churches in America today
stem from Calvinism, and some do not.
At each church, one should ask – is it just the Bible that is an
authority, or is your brain regarded as functional as well?
Calvinist Churches:
Presbyterian, Some Baptist, Reformed,
United Church of Christ
Arminianism is the opposite:
They stress free will,
in the sense that our minds do work
Mennonites, Methodists, Catholics
Some Baptists
image: thinking man
John Knox took Calvin’s idea to Scotland
John Knox started the Presbyterian Church in Scotland
Images: a Presbyterian church in Scotland and map of Europe with Scotland highlighted
Presbyterian beliefs –
reforms to the Catholic church
1. Removal of all statues and pictures in the Church
2. No musical instruments in the Church
3. Predestination – God has already (pre-determined)
decided on your salvation.
Nothing you do makes a difference.
This is taking salvation by grace to the extreme.
Image: expression of shock
Inside of Presbyterian Church vs. Catholic Church
The Word is the focus
Comparison of music for Protestants
Luther’s view on music and instruments was
• anything that aided spirituality was valued
• Many great classical musical composers were Lutheran
• Moravians highly valued music &
brought classical music to America
• Yes, Classical music in Church!
• Image: organ
The 4th Protestant Church of the Reformation:
The Church of England
Early in the 1500s in England
King Henry VIII wanted a divorce from Catherine
because she had not provided a male heir
But the Pope would not grant a divorce
Image: King Henry the 8th
King Henry’s advisors (Cranmer & Cromwell)
were sympathetic to ideas of the Reformers,
John Wycliff & Luther.
They advised the King to split from the Catholic Church
Cranmer & Cromwell
English parliament debated this for years
In 1533 Parliament decided England would have its own Church,
The Church of England. In this Church, the King is the
head of the Church. This is called the Submission of Clergy
Law: All the clerics in England, including the Catholic priests
were to renounce their allegiance to the Pope and the Catholic
Church. Can you imagine what this would be like if you were a
Image: expression of shock
The Church of England is also called the Anglican church
In America, it is called the Episcopal Church
Image: inside of an Anglican Church
King Henry divorced Catherine
and married Anne Boleyn.
Anne did not produce a male heir
but she had a daughter,
who became Queen Elizabeth
She was one of the best monarchs
England ever had.
Image: Queen Elizabeth I
Immigrants from England
who were part of the Church of England (Episcopal)
first established churches in Virginia in the early 1600s
Image: map of U.S. with Virginia highlighted
The first town in Virginia was Jamestown, established 1607
The chaplain was Robert Hunt.
He held church services every Sunday
and led morning and evening prayers every day.
Image: reconstructed village of Jamestown
Princess Pocahontas, daughter of a native tribe Chief
was baptized in Jamestown, Virginia in 1613.
She married a colonist, John Rolfe.
They had a son Thomas Rolfe. Their descendants live on.
image: Pocahontas
The Jamestown settlers
planted corn and tobacco
and traded with the natives.
Relations with the natives were sometimes friendly,
and sometimes there was conflict.
Images: tobacco field on left, ear of corn on right
In 1619, a slave ship
arrived with 20 African male slaves
plus women and children
who worked to bring in the crops.
Virginia would become
dependent upon slave labor.
Image: historical marker to first African slaves in America
George Washington (1732-1799)
was a Virginian, an Episcopal, and a slave holder
as well as America’s first President.
In his will, he freed his slaves.
image: George Washington
More ships from England arrived with settlers for Virginia.
The first Protestant church building in America
was St. John’s Episcopal Church in Hampton, Virginia in 1610.
image: St John’s Episcopal Church
• The 3 primary Protestant Reformers
(reforming the Catholic Church) were
Luther, Zwingli, and Calvin
• New Protestant Christian Churches which were started:
The Lutheran Church,
The Reformed Church,
The Presbyterian Church
The Church of England (Episcopal Church)
In the next lecture, we will look at Protestant Churches
which separated out from the Church of England.
Protestant Churches are called protestant
because they protested against the Catholic Church.
Protestant Churches are also called Denominational Churches.
To “denominate” means to give a name to.
When these protestant movements separated out
of the Catholic Church, they were given a name.
The opposite of Catholic is not “Christian,”
the opposite of Catholic is Protestant.
Lecture by J. Corey, Victor Valley College, 2019

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