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I have attached the two reference. no plagiarize, spell check, and check your grammar. Please only use the attached below. Only 300 words. the third references I dont have. Imagine that you are Daisy’s manager. Daisy’s approach to her work is unorganized, and she has not completed a single assignment all week. She appears to be distracted and unfocused, and seems either unable or unmotivated to keep up with the necessary pace of work. You have a very important project deadline that is fast approaching, and you desperately need Daisy to be attentive and to perform at peak capacity. Detail how you plan to encourage Daisy to meet performance standards. Include at least two outside sources that share important motivation and performance management techniques.ReferencesLombard, C. A., & Müller, B. C. N. (2018). Opening the Door to Creativity: A Psychosynthesis Approach. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 58(6), 659. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.proxy-library.ashford….Scekic, O., Truong, H.-L., & Dustdar, S. (2013). Incentives and Rewarding in Social Computing. Communications of the ACM, 56(6), 72–82. https://doi-org.proxy-library.ashford.edu/10.1145/…Yukl, G. (2013). Leadership in organizations (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall
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research-article2016
JHPXXX10.1177/0022167816653224Journal of Humanistic PsychologyLombard and Müller
Article
Opening the Door
to Creativity: A
Psychosynthesis
Approach
Journal of Humanistic Psychology
2018, Vol. 58(6) 659­–688
© The Author(s) 2016
Article reuse guidelines:
sagepub.com/journals-permissions
https://doi.org/10.1177/0022167816653224
DOI: 10.1177/0022167816653224
journals.sagepub.com/home/jhp
Catherine Ann Lombard1
and Barbara C. N. Müller2
Abstract
Given the great importance of creativity in society, and in health psychology
in particular, investigating how creativity can be enhanced is a valuable area
of research. Interventions that enable individuals to become more creative
vary in their focus from increasing divergent thinking to task reactivation
during sleep. This article introduces psychosynthesis psychology as an
additional theoretical and therapeutic approach for enhancing creativity
through its concept that creativity originates from different levels of
the unconscious. We show that the subpersonality model, one of the
fundamental psychosynthesis techniques, is an effective intervention for
aiding creative expression as it helps people connect to different levels
of their unconscious creativity. It is assumed that through the use of this
technique, clients are able to release and unblock energies that not only
allow them to rebuild their personal identities but also become actively
creative in their daily lives. We support this assumption with qualitative
findings that include testimonies from eleven clients in The Netherlands
who received psychosynthesis counseling. In addition, qualitative data of a
case study demonstrates subpersonality integration and its role in helping
clients to become more creative in their personal and professional lives. The
1Istituto
di Psicosintesi, Centro di Firenze, Florence, Italy
Science Institute, Radboud University Nijmegen, Nijmegen, Netherlands
2Behavioural
Corresponding Author:
Catherine Ann Lombard, Istituto di Psicosintesi, Centro di Firenze, Via S. Domenico, 16,
50133 Florence, Italy.
Email: [email protected]
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Journal of Humanistic Psychology 58(6)
present article is, to the best of our knowledge, the first to demonstrate
the beneficial effects of using psychosynthesis to facilitate creativity. The
framework of psychosynthesis psychology, its techniques (which include the
subpersonality model), and its therapeutic approach are viable methodologies
for anyone searching to unblock and activate new creative energy and
achieve personal and professional growth.
Keywords
creativity, psychosynthesis, subpersonality, personal growth, self-actuation,
self-individuation
Introduction
The creative process has been of interest to great thinkers since the time of
Plato and Aristotle, yet after more than 2,000 years, no general consensus
exists for its definition. It is, however, generally accepted that creativity
involves a novel product, idea, or solution that is of value to the individual
and/or larger social group (Amabile, 1983). One of the essential abilities fundamental to creativity is cognitive flexibility (Chi, 1997; Jausovec, 1991,
1994; Müller, Gerasimova, & Ritter, 2016; Runco & Okuda, 1991; Thurston
& Runco, 1999). Cognitive flexibility is the ability to break cognitive patterns, to overcome fixed association patterns, and to avoid a reliance on conventional ideas or solutions (Guilford, 1967). Researchers describe cognitive
flexibility as the cognitive core of creativity and an important component of
“real life” creativity (Baghetto & Kaufman, 2007; Hennessey & Amabile,
2010). In addition, studies have shown that high cognitive flexibility relates
positively to better and even exceptional creative achievement (e.g., S. H.
Carson, Peterson, & Higgins, 2005).
As creativity has been suggested to have many positive outcomes for
health and well-being (for a review, see Stuckey & Nobel, 2010), techniques
to foster creativity are well investigated. Well-known techniques to enhance
creative thinking and cognitive flexibility are, among others, practicing
divergent thinking and metaphor generation (for a review, see Scott, Leritz,
& Mumford, 2004). Perhaps three of the most broadly applicable tactics are
(1) a shift of perspective, (2) questioning one’s own assumptions, and (3) the
use of analogies (e.g., Cropley, 1997; Nickerson, 1999; Scott et al., 2004).
Often these three tactics can function in sequence. For example, it is assumed
that by questioning our assumptions, we begin to release our expectations
and open up avenues for new ideas, activities, and possibilities (i.e., new
Lombard and Müller
661
perspectives) and, consequently, begin to engage more readily in analogical
reasoning.
A change of perspective can occur outwardly in a literal and sensory way
or inwardly in how the individual thinks about or defines a problem. For
example, a current tactic often used in programs designed to enhance creative
potential is to ask participants to “stand the problem on its head,” that is, turn
the issue upside down to obtain a different point of view (Runco, 1999).
Often our perceptions of a problem are held in place by our assumptions.
While assumptions can be beneficial in directing our daily behavior and
allowing us to be free from thinking through every detail of routine issues,
they can also inhibit creativity by limiting our perceptions. Too often assumptions are patterns of thinking that are difficult to break away from and even
incorrect when facing new problems (Davis, 1999). Once we are able to
change our assumptions and open up our perspectives, analogical reasoning
can also occur. Analogical reasoning involves the active construction of
coherent relational mappings, such as metaphors. Studies in this field have
focused on how people use existing knowledge to draw inferences about new
situations and, in particular, the successful combination and reorganization of
ideas to generate new understandings (e.g., Mumford & Porter, 1999).
This present article shows that psychosynthesis, until now lacking in
the creativity literature, is a needed framework and therapeutic approach
to enhancing creativity. One of the concepts of psychosynthesis is that
creativity not only emerges from the lower unconscious but also from the
higher unconscious. Psychosynthesis therapy includes techniques, such as
the subpersonality model, that encourage clients to connect to their different levels of unconsciousness and, consequently, to a broader range of
their creative energies. This article is a qualitative study showing how psychosynthesis counseling works to enhance creativity. In the next sections,
we introduce psychosynthesis concepts, its views on creativity, and its
therapeutic techniques, in particular the subpersonality model, used to foster creativity.
Surprisingly, notions of creativity are not widely found in the counseling
literature. However, research has shown parallels between creative training
processes and counseling methods (Cole & Sarnoff, 1980; Frey 1975; Schubert
& Biondi, 1975). Similarly, studies have shown that outcomes of both creative
training as well as counseling include an increase in participants’ personal
growth, enjoyment, and self-confidence in a variety of nontechnical areas;
increased levels of functioning in relationships, communication, and problem
solving; and improved performances in divergent thinking and feeling
(Mansfield, Busse, & Krepelka, 1978; Parnes & Noller, 1973). Although correlation studies have shown evidence that creativity and self-actualization are
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Journal of Humanistic Psychology 58(6)
related, there is some uncertainty about the direction of effect (Buckmaster &
Davis, 1985; Runco, Ebersole, & Mraz, 1991).
Divergent thinking is a central feature of creativity and tends to be tentative
and exploratory, oriented to multiple possibilities, including the ability to hold
contradictory ideas simultaneously in one’s mind while incorporating and
modifying new ideas. In fact, for many clients in counseling, their first step
toward positive growth and change can be learning and practicing divergent
thinking and feeling (e.g., D. K. Carson, 1999). In line with this assumption,
Milenković (2007) has stated that “psychotherapy is a scientific discipline but
also an art of re-creation for people, their personality and behavior, . . . implying new attitudes towards oneself, others, and the future that involves awakening the creativity in the client” (p. 56). Rogers (1961) also argued that “the
mainspring of creativity appears to be the same tendency . . . as the creative
force in psychotherapy” (p. 351). Jung (1922/1966) believed that creativity
plays a pivotal part in the process of self-realization, and Maslow (1971) concluded that self-actualization and creativity are interdependent, with each one
facilitating the other, and may in fact “turn out to be the same thing” (p. 57). As
such, the counselor and client can be seen as coproducers of ideas and solutions
that are both novel and useful in that they create a new way of being for the
client that is more satisfying, empowering, and ultimately creative.
Despite psychosynthesis psychology having the possibility of providing a
holistic framework for the enhancement of creativity, this approach remains, for
the most part, missing from the creativity literature. Psychosynthesis is an integrative transpersonal psychology that provides a universal framework to incorporate an understanding of one’s body, feelings, attitudes, and behavior into a
harmonious and synthesized whole that includes all the human dimensions—
physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual. Psychosynthesis also provides a therapeutic approach that focuses on enabling clients to work toward such a
synthesis. Psychosynthesis differs from psychoanalysis in that psychosynthesis
emphasizes personal and spiritual synthesis, not analysis (Assagioli, 2000,
2002; Nguyen, 2002). Before introducing how psychosynthesis can increase
creativity, we first provide an overview of the psychosynthesis model of the
human personality followed by a brief description of its therapeutic techniques,
in particular, the subpersonality model. We then present our qualitative findings,
including a case study, of how the subpersonality model enhanced creativity for
eleven international clients who received psychosynthesis counseling.
An Overview of Psychosynthesis
In 1933, Assagioli (1888-1974) first published in English his model of the
human psyche (Figure 1), which he described as a:
Lombard and Müller
663
Figure 1. Assagioli’s (2000, p. 15) model of the structure of the psyche.
Note. Dotted lines indicate permeable boundaries.
Conception of the constitution of the human being in his living concrete reality
. . . It is, of course, a crude and elementary picture that can give only a structural
static, and almost “anatomical” representation of our inner constitution, while
it leaves out its dynamic aspect, which is the most important and essential one
(Assagioli, 2000, p. 14).
As Assagioli was quick to recognize, his model of the human psyche may
appear “crude and elementary,” but one could view it in the same light as, for
example, the Pythagorean theorem, the mathematical abstraction that provides an equation for a perfect right triangle. Even though no triangle in the
physical world actually exists that equates to its formula, this theorem helps
our understanding of right triangles. We propose that Assagioli’s model of the
human psyche is similar, providing an abstract formula for the human
psyche—a working model for the structure, mechanisms, and processes triggering personal and spiritual growth.
The Self and I–Self Connection. According to Assagioli (2000), the Self is a
transpersonal center, a “unifying and controlling Principle of our life” (p. 21).
The Self (6) is represented in Figure 1 as a star, and stands in relationship
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Journal of Humanistic Psychology 58(6)
with the “I” (5), the “inner still point that we experience as truly ourselves”
(Hardy, 1987, p. 28). In addition, every individual has a field of “I” consciousness (4), which contains our conscious sensations, images, thoughts,
feelings, desires, and impulses. The Self and the “I” are ideally aligned as
indicated by the vertical dotted line, and the connection between them is
referred to as the I-Self. Both the Self and the “I” have two central functions:
consciousness and will. From a psychosynthesis point-of-view, our life’s
journey is to seek, reconnect, and synthesize the consciousness and will of
the “I” with the consciousness and will of the Self—in other words, to synthesize the personal with the transpersonal. With the Self incorporated into
his model, one could assert that the Self, as defined by Assagioli, has a more
systematic role than the Self as defined by Jung. The Self, as proposed by
Jung (1979), is a fundamental transcendent archetype that expresses human
wholeness and the union of opposites, most generally, the union of the polarity of the conscious and unconscious. What is strikingly different from Assagioli’s concept of the Self is that, according to Jung, the Self (like all
archetypes) cannot be directly experienced by the individual but is rather a
guide and attractor through the process of individuation. In contrast, Assagioli believed that the Self is a reality that can be directly experienced by the
individual, and is actually the key part of the individual (as opposed to outside the person) that connects the transpersonal with the personal and, hence,
the personal with the universal. For a full comparison of Assagioli and Jung,
please refer to Rosselli and Vanni (2014).
Different Levels of Personal Unconsciousness. Psychosynthesis subdivides the
personal unconscious into (1) lower, (2) middle, and (3) higher. The lower
unconscious contains basic psychological activities which coordinate bodily
functions, fundamental drives, and primitive urges, as well as complexes
containing intense emotion (Assagioli, 2000). Although on first sight comparable to Freud’s psychoanalysis, psychosynthesis goes beyond analyzing the
human personality and its dysfunctionalities by placing an emphasis on fostering synthesis. Like psychoanalysis, psychosynthesis also aims to develop
a healthy ego and heal (childhood) trauma, however, its ultimate goal is to
create a well-integrated whole that encompasses the client’s personal and
spiritual levels (Assagioli, 2007).
The middle unconscious contains the awareness that lies within the periphery of our consciousness and remains “easily accessible to it” (Assagioli,
2000, p. 15). This is where memories are held that are easily retrievable and
where “imaginative activities are elaborated and developed in a sort of psychological gestation before their birth into the light of consciousness”
(Assagioli, 2000). The higher unconscious or superconscious holds our
Lombard and Müller
665
greater human potential and is the region from which we receive our “higher
intuitions and inspirations—artistic, philosophical or scientific, ethical
‘imperatives’ and urges to humanitarian and heroic action” (Assagioli, 2000).
Personal Psychosynthesis and Spiritual Psychosynthesis. What distinguishes psychosynthesis from most other psychologies is the understanding that the Self
relates to the higher qualities within human beings allowing them to foster their
I-Self connection and grow toward their authentic personality. One’s authentic
personality is defined as an “expression of the natural, authentic sense of self,
of who we truly are” which is more than the sum of one’s social roles (Firman
& Gila, 2002, p. 48). The reestablishment of the I-Self connection can occur
along two lines: personal psychosynthesis and transpersonal or spiritual psychosynthesis. Human growth that involves work with either the middle unconscious or the lower unconscious is referred to as personal psychosynthesis
while spiritual psychosynthesis is aimed at integrating material from the higher
unconscious (Firman & Gila, 2002). These two developmental paths correspond with Maslow’s (1968) recognition that some individuals are “self-actualized” and other “transcending self-actualizers,” the latter distinguished as
people in touch with superconscious material or peak experiences.
Psychosynthesis Psychotherapy. While psychosynthesis counseling sessions
might look similar to other forms of counseling such as Psychodynamic,
Person-Centered or Gestalt, what is distinct to psychosynthesis is the idea
that there is a Self and all counseling is ultimately trying to achieve the recovery of the Self (Whitmore, 2004). Fluent in Sanskrit and a scholar of Eastern
religions, Assagioli (n.d.) understood that the realization of the Self was a
“supreme paradox” which could manifest through three distinct attitudes: (1)
the Buddhist understanding of “No Self,” (2) the mystical merging in Another,
in God, and (3) the Vedanta philosophical realization of the true Self, of one’s
true Being. He wrote,
If one identifies “Self” with the empirical personality, then the attitude is either
1) or 2), according whether one is mystical or not. If one identifies oneself with
the emerging spiritual consciousness and transfers the self-identity to each
higher level, then 3). There are advantages and drawbacks of each attitude.
What is important is to recognize that the three attitudes are three ways of
realizing the same glorious Reality, of attaining the same sublime goal.
(Assagioli, n.d.)
Perhaps this inclusion of such distinct attitudes and their equal potential in
helping us reach great inner freedom and joy is what makes psychosynthesis
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Journal of Humanistic Psychology 58(6)
so fruitful. By including a higher consciousness within the psyche’s framework and a Self to which we all have a universal and yet personal connection,
psychosynthesis concepts and techniques provide a framework in which the
realization of the Self is not only permitted but also nurtured, anticipated, and
longed for.
On a practical level, psychosynthesis counselors work within a flexible
yet structured framework helping clients to examine and ruminate over the
situations that trigger their problems, interpersonal relationships involved,
physical sensations and emotions evoked, attitudes and beliefs stimulated,
and the values which may be hidden and implicit (Assagioli, 2000; Nguyen,
2002; Whitmore, 2004). Problems and obstacles are seen not as pathological
states to be eliminated but rather as creative opportunities that “at their deepest level are inherently meaningful, evolutionary, coherent, and potentially
transformative” (Whitmore, 2004, p. 11).
Psychosynthesis View of Creativity
Psychosynthesis literature on creativity and the creative process have mainly
focused on methods to foster, regulate, and direct children’s and young adult’s
education and creative expression (Assagioli 1963, 1988; Whitmore, 1986).
The psychosynthesis perspective regarding creativity is that the creative process often starts and is almost wholly carried through our three different
fields of unconsciousness (1, 2, and 3 in Figure 1) as opposed to our field of
consciousness (4 in Figure 1). This idea corresponds precisely with Maslow’s
(1962) statement that the generation of new ideas—what he defined as primary creativeness—is derived from the unconscious and is a “heritage of
every human being” (p. 95).
One’s creative imagination and its subsequent creative expression differs
according to the level of unconsciousness from which it originates. Assagioli
(1963) states that the most frequent sources of creative expression are drives,
urges, desire, and emotions that spring from the lower or middle levels of the
unconscious. In addi …
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