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InstructionsFor decades, relational databases remained essentially unchanged; data was
segmented into specific chunks for columns, slots, and repositories, also
called structured data. However, in this Internet of Things (IoT) era,
databases need to be reengineered because the very nature of data has changed.
Today’s databases need to be developed with the needs of IoT in mind and have
the ability to perform real-time processing to manage workloads that are
dynamic. For example, relational databases should be able to work with
real-time data streaming and big data (an example was presented in the Unit
III Lesson).Scenario: Falcon Security wants their customers to be able to view security
video footage in real-time and provide customers with the ability to query
video footage for viewing. Choosing a database solution such as MongoDB would
allow Falcon Security to store customer video footage in the same database as
the metadata.To do this, Falcon Security needs a way to manage the demands of real-time
data streaming for real-time analytics. Conduct some research for a NoSQL
database application, such as MongoDB or Cassandra, that could meet this need.
How would switching to a real-time database solution help Falcon Security
remain competitive? Create a PowerPoint presentation that includes the
components listed below.Provide a brief introduction to IoT.Present the argument to the Falcon Security CEO that switching to a more
dynamic database structure (NoSQL real-time database) will meet the
demands of IoT.Introduce some features of the database you chose, whether it is MongoDB,
Cassandra, or another database.Describe how switching to a more dynamic database will give Falcon
Security a competitive advantage.Your presentation must be a minimum of six slides in length (not counting the
title and reference slides), and you must use at least two academic resources and speaker notes.
Any information from a resource used must be cited and referenced in APA

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Hardware, Software, and Mobile
Systems and Database Processing
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit III
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
8. Evaluate major types of hardware and software used by organizations.
8.1 Describe the features of a chosen NoSQL database.
8.2 Discuss how the use of a NoSQL database will affect competitive strategies in this era of IoT
(Internet of Things).
Learning Outcomes
Learning Activity
Unit Lesson
Chapter 5
Unit III PowerPoint Presentation
Unit Lesson
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
Unit III PowerPoint Presentation
Reading Assignment
Chapter 4: Hardware, Software, and Mobile Systems, Q4-1 – Q4-7
Chapter 5: Database Processing, Q5-1 – Q5-7
Unit Lesson
In Unit II, we investigated ways that information systems (IS) can support collaboration, and we reviewed
Porter’s five forces model. In this unit, we will discuss the basic concepts of hardware and software. We will
also discuss open source software development and database management systems and compare the
differences between native and thin-client applications. Lastly, we will explore mobile systems and the
characteristics of quality mobile user experiences.
It is important that business professionals understand hardware components, types of hardware, and
computer data. We will start with bits and bytes. Computers use bits to represent basic units of data such as
ones and zeros. You should know the difference between bits, bytes, kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes,
terabytes, petabytes, and exabytes (see Figure 1).
A group of binary bits
1,024 bytes
1,024 K or 1, 048, 576 bytes
1,024 MB or 1,073,741,824 bytes
1,024 GB or 1,099,511,627,776 bytes
1024 TB or 1, 125,899,906,842,624 bytes
1,024 PB or 1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes
Figure 1: Storage capacity terminology
(Kroenke & Boyle, 2017)
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management
A byte generally contains eight bits. A switch can be open or closed. An open UNIT
switchx represents
0 or off, and
a closed switch represents 1 or on. Bits are basic units of data, such as ones and
Titlezeros, while data can be
represented by variables such as numbers, images, graphics, and characters to name a few (Kroenke &
Boyle, 2017).
The categories of computer software are clients and servers. Personal computers (PCs) use non-mobile
operating systems (OSs) such as Microsoft (MS) Windows and Apple Macintosh (Mac) OS X. Remember that
OSs are developed for specific hardware and are often referred to as native applications. In other words, MS
Windows was created specifically for hardware-based PC systems, so you cannot install MS Windows on an
Apple Mac as a base OS, nor can you install the Apple OS on a PC-based system. The Windows OS is a
popular OS; it resides on nearly 85% of desktops (Kroenke & Boyle, 2017). Other examples of OSs are Unix
and Linux. Be careful not to confuse OSs with applications. MS Windows is an OS, while MS Office is an
application (Kroenke & Boyle, 2017).
A client is a device, such as a laptop or tablet, that obtains information from a server. An example of a client is
a massive multiplayer online role-playing game (MMORG); the client, a desktop computer, laptop, tablet, or
smartphone downloads data from the game server at a remote location, which will load game scenarios for
the user to play (Figure 2). The client is the computer that runs the game program, but the server is what the
user will connect to so that he or she can play. In other words, the client is a window into the game world,
while the server is the instrument that runs the game.
Figure 2: A typical MMORPG architecture
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management
Thin clients are computers that were designed for a server-based environmentUNIT
launching applications, and storing data. They were also designed to perform Title
remote tasks (Figure 3). In
other words, a thin client does not contain the components of a typical computer such as a hard drive,
CD/DVD ROM drive, and memory or expansion slots. Instead, it connects to a server and uses its hard drives
to perform tasks. For example, at the
Department of Motor Vehicles, you can sit
down at a computer terminal and perform
various tasks via a web browser or
application, but without a connection to the
server, you will not be able to do any of
these tasks. The server will usually be
located at a remote location so that the
user cannot physically access it. You will
not see a computer at the terminal but,
instead, a keyboard, monitor, mouse, and
a thin client box; this is called a thin client
terminal. Because thin clients mostly
perform application tasks, they are less
expensive to operate and maintain and are
also less vulnerable to viruses and
malware attacks.
A server is a centralized resource for data
and information that can be sent to other
computer devices called clients (Figure 4).
For example, a database server maintains
Figure 3: Thin client architecture history
and controls access to a database. This
means that users must be authorized to
access the server to obtain information from it. Let’s use a payroll database server as an example; users will
usually log in and use an interface, such as a browser, to access payroll information (e.g., requesting copies
of pay stubs, downloading W2 tax forms).
Figure 4: Server architecture
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management
Virtualization is a virtual version of something such as another machine or server
that device.
example, the Mac OS includes an application (app) called Bootstrap, which allows
Titleusers to create another
hard drive partition, so they can run MS Windows and Windows applications without having to use a PCbased Windows machine (Figure 5). The virtual machine will use disk space, memory, and other resources of
the native device to run.
Figure 5: Mac using Bootstrap to run both Mac OS and Windows.
The Cloud
When people talk about the cloud, they are not referring to a cloud in the sky or to the weather. The cloud is a
technical term that refers to how information is exchanged via the Internet. In other words, the cloud is a term
that refers to software and services that are accessed and run over the Internet instead of on a computer. You
can access the software or services using an Internet browser or mobile app. An example would be a movie
service such as Netflix; with Netflix, you can log in and watch a movie on your device via the Internet without
having to download the entire movie to your computer’s hard drive.
Mobile IS
A mobile IS is a system that enables users to remain mobile (Kroenke & Boyle, 2017). Today, workers are
increasingly mobile, working on laptops, tablets, and smartphones from just about anywhere and at any time.
Think about how you use your smartphone—you are able to use it just about anywhere and at any time. You
can use the device to check e-mail, surf the web, make purchases, and play games. Without mobile IS, this
would not be possible.
Mobile devices use a variety of OSs. The Apple iPhone and iPad use iOS, and the Samsung Galaxy,
OnePlus, and Google Pixel use the Android OS for both smartphones and tablets.
What characterizes quality mobile user experiences? The primary emphasis is on users’ content and giving
such content as much display as possible rather than showing menus, toolbars, and heavy window borders.
Content should be shown cleanly and be center stage. In addition, a context-sensitive interface uses options,
such as pop-ups in the display, to assist the user with selections or navigation. Because mobile screen size is
much smaller than that of a typical computer monitor, modern mobile applications try to maximize the limited
screen size as much as possible (Kroenke & Boyle, 2017).
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management
Bring-Your-Own-Device Policy
BYOD, or bring your own device, is a policy that dictates how employees are expected to use their personal
devices at work. This type of policy is important because personal devices may have vulnerabilities that can
put the organization’s network at risk. For example, if your mobile tablet does not have the latest OS or
patches installed, and you connect to the network, the virus or malware on your device could exploit a
vulnerability in the organization’s network (Kroenke & Boyle, 2017).
As an example, an organization in recent years had a very restrictive policy on laptops—any laptop in use onsite that wanted access to the organization’s WiFi services had to be physically registered with the Central
Information Technology Services organization. Because of this policy, any user who wanted to access the
organization’s network was required to have certain malware protection installed. However, as technology
evolves, BYOD policies will have to evolve as well to accommodate the wide array of devices and respond to
user demands.
Challenges of personal mobile devices at work: Organizations have a love/hate relationship with their
employees’ use of their own mobile devices at work. They love the cost-saving possibility of having
employees buy their own hardware, but they hate the increased vulnerability and loss of control.
What Is the Internet of Things?
Smart refrigerators, like the one pictured here, can help the user
manage the food stored in the refrigerator and create a grocery list.
(Berkowitz, 2011)
The IoT, or Internet of Things, is a term we
use to describe how devices, such as our
smartphones, tablets, and even home
appliances, can communicate with us and
with each other using the Internet (Kroenke &
Boyle, 2017). For example, smart
refrigerators can connect with your
smartphone to keep you informed about its
contents. This is especially helpful when you
go grocery shopping and forget your
shopping list. Family members can add
grocery items to your grocery list as a part of
the smart refrigerator’s hub that will send this
information to your phone while you are in the
grocery store in real-time. These devices
depend on not only hardware, such as
processors and memory, but these devices
also depend on software, such as database
applications to process vast amounts of data
transmitted by these devices in real-time.
Database Processing
In this unit, you will learn about the why, what, and how of database processing. We may not realize it, but we
use databases every day. When we use a search engine, such as Google, we are using their databases to
help us find what we are looking for. A database contains a collection of tables (e.g., invoice, customers), and
each record in the table contains a selection of fields or columns (e.g., invoice number, customer name).
Relationships between tables help connect information such as the primary key. Primary keys are unique
identifiers such as invoice numbers and customer numbers. These make each record unique and also make
searching for a specific record much easier. For example, suppose you had four customers who are each
named Tom Jones; how do you find the right one? The primary key will help you differentiate one Tom Jones
from the other.
A database management system (DBMS) is a program that allows for the administration of databases. Be
careful not to confuse databases and DBMS; databases are a collection of tables, relationships and metadata
while DBMS is the software that helps you manage the database.
Data models are logical representations of what the database structure would look like (Kroenke & Boyle,
2017). One such model is the entity-relationship model (ERM). This model uses shapes and connectors to
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management
identify the content of the database, such as entities, and the relationships between
as customer
UNIT xthem,
invoices, inventory, or customer contact information. An entity has attributes that
further define it such as
invoice number, product description, number of units, and cost. Entities have an identifier that is associated
with only one entity instance such as order number. Order number is an identifier because there can only be
one order number (Kroenke & Boyle, 2017).
Figure 6: An entity-relationship diagram that shows the relationships among a database, database applications, and users
In logical database designs, database designers will use diagrams called entity-relationship diagrams or ERD.
Relationships between entities in the diagram are represented with the use of crow’s feet (Figure 6). The
forked lines indicate the type of relationship (Kroenke & Boyle, 2017).
Entities and their relationships are defined by their cardinalities, which is a number of entities in a set or
group. For example, let’s consider the relationship between an academic advisor and a student. See the
examples below.
N:1 – An advisor is assigned many students; a student is assigned one advisor. The “N” represents the
advisor (assigned to advise more than one student), and the “1” represents the student (students are
assigned to one advisor).
1:1 – An advisor is assigned one student; a student is assigned one advisor. The “1” represents one advisor,
and the “1” represents one student. See the visual representation below.
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management
5:1 – An advisor is assigned no more than five students; a student is assignedTitle
one advisor. The “5”
represents the student limit for the advisor, and the “1” represents one advisor per student. See the visual
representation below.
1:5 – An advisor is assigned one student; a student is assigned no more than five advisors. The “1”
represents one advisor, and the “5” represents the limit on the number of advisors a student can have. See
the visual representation below.
After developing the database design using diagrams and models, the next thing is to review the database
schema for normalization. A database schema can be described as a blueprint of how the database is
designed, much like how you would view a blueprint of a home. The schema details the database tables and
how they relate to one another. What is normalization? At times, tables are poorly designed and thus may
suffer integrity problems. Normalization can be used to analyze the relationships between attributes within
each entity and then determine if the structure needs improvement, usually by confirming that each table has
only one theme (Kroenke & Boyle, 2017). In other words, normalization checks for data integrity and ensures
that data is accurate and is not duplicated. If the data is not accurate, then the information produced will not
be effective, and if there is duplication, then this also affects the integrity of the data.
Per the Unit III Reading Assignment, the Falcon Security 3D-printing issue discussed at the beginning of
Chapter 4 provides a good example of why it is important to understand basic hardware and software
concepts as well as how innovations in hardware and software can affect an organization’s competitive
advantage. It is also important to understand how databases work and how they can also be leveraged for
competitive advantage, especially in this era of IoT.
In the scenario at the beginning of Chapter 5, Falcon Security failed to implement a database management
system to help them manage hundreds of hours of video footage. As a security company, this puts them at a
disadvantage that could hurt their bottom line. Many security companies use DBMS to manage their video
footage so that they can quickly locate specific events for their clients, and this puts them ahead of their
competitors that do not have this type of data collection or storage process.
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management
Berkowitz, D. (2011, January 7). LG smart refrigerator at CES 2011 [Image]. Retrieved from
Kroenke, D. M., & Boyle, R. J. (2017). Using MIS (10th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.
Suggested Reading
The following chapter, which is located in the textbook in uCertify, is not required for this unit, but it still
contains beneficial information. You are highly encouraged to read it.
Chapter 4: Hardware, Software, and Mobile Systems, Q4-8
In order to access the following resource, click the link below.
The following website takes a closer look at NoSQL and provides valuable information that will help you with
this unit’s assignment.
Datastax Academy. (n.d.). What is NoSQL? Retrieved from
Learning Activities (Nongraded)
Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit
them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.
To test your knowledge of the material covered in this unit, complete the following activities:

Chapter 4 Active Review
Chapter 4 Using Your Knowledge
Chapter 4 Collaboration Exercise
Chapter 4 Review Questions
Chapter 4 Cards
Chapter 5 Active Review
Chapter 5 Using Your Knowledge
Chapter 5 Collaboration Exercise
Chapter 5 Review Questions
Chapter 5 Cards
The activities are located within the chapter readings in uCertify. The Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 Active Review
sections, Using Your Knowledge sections, Collaboration Exercises, and Review Questions are located at the
end of each chapter. The cards can be accessed by clicking on the Cards icon within uCertify, which is
located to the right of the chapter title, and the icon in uCertify resembles the image shown below.
BBA 3551, Information Systems Management

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