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Understanding and Coping with ChangeChange is everywhere, yet very few people seem to embrace the concept. We are, for the most part, creatures of habit and follow daily routines. When change occurs, our activities and thought patterns are disrupted.Write a five-page APA formatted paper (excluding the title and reference pages), using a minimum of three scholarly sources in addition to the textbook, analyzing the internal and external factors contributing to an individual’s resistance to change.Describe a situation where you or someone you know was resistant to change as identified in one of following areas:Self-interestLack of understandingLack of trust in managementDiffering assessments of the need for changeLow tolerance for changeExplain whether the resistance to change was caused by an internal or external factor. Using Kotter’s theory for change, provide a plan for overcoming that resistance. What will be done and how will you know that the plan has worked?Carefully review the Grading Rubric (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment.Required ResourcesTextBaack, D. (2017). Organizational behavior (2nd ed.). Retrieved from https://ashford.content.eduChapter 9: Communication in OrganizationsChapter 10: Organizational Design and ChangeMultimediaFilms Media Group. (2008). Balance in life and work (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. [Video clip]. In 9 to 5 No Longer. Retrieved from https://secure.films.com/OnDemandEmbed.aspx?token=…
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BUS610.W5A1.09.2018
Description:
Total Possible Score: 10.00
Describes a Situation Where There Was Resistance to Change
Total: 1.50
Distinguished – Thoroughly describes a situation where there was resistance to change.
Proficient – Describes a situation where there was resistance to change. Minor details are missing.
Basic – Briefly describes a situation where there was resistance to change. Relevant details are missing.
Below Expectations – Minimally describes a situation where there was resistance to change. Significant details are missing.
Non-Performance – The description of a situation where there was resistance to change is either nonexistent or lacks the
components described in the assignment instructions.
Explains Whether the Resistance to Change Was Caused by an Internal or
External Factor
Total: 2.00
Distinguished – Thoroughly explains whether the resistance to change was caused by an internal or external factor. Expertly
applies the concepts and vocabulary from the text or scholarly sources.
Proficient – Explains whether the resistance to change was caused by an internal or external factor. Sufficiently applies the
concepts and vocabulary from the text or scholarly sources. The explanation is slightly underdeveloped.
Basic – Partially explains whether the resistance to change was caused by an internal or external factor. Somewhat applies the
concepts and vocabulary from the text or scholarly sources. The explanation is underdeveloped.
Below Expectations – Attempts to explain whether the resistance to change was caused by an internal or external factor;
however,concepts and vocabulary from the text or scholarly sources are not applied and/or the explanation is significantly
underdeveloped.
Non-Performance – The explanation of whether the resistance to change was caused by an internal or external factor is either
nonexistent or lacks the components described in the assignment instructions.
Provides a Plan for Overcoming the Resistance Using Kotter’s Theory for
Change
Total: 2.00
Distinguished – Provides a detailed and appropriate plan for overcoming the resistance, using Kotter’s theory.
Proficient – Provides a mostly appropriate plan for overcoming the resistance, using Kotter’s theory. The plan is slightly
underdeveloped.
Basic – Provides a somewhat appropriate plan for overcoming the resistance, using Kotter’s theory. The plan is undeveloped.
Below Expectations – Attempts to provide a plan for overcoming the resistance; however, the plan may not be entirely appropriate
or does not use Kotter’s theory. The plan is significantly underdeveloped.
Non-Performance – The planned approach for overcoming the resistance, using Kotter’s theory, is either nonexistent or lacks the
components described in the assignment instructions.
Written Communication: Content Development
Total: 0.50
Distinguished – Uses appropriate, pertinent, and persuasive content to discover and develop sophisticated ideas within the
context of the discipline, shaping the work as a whole.
Proficient – Uses appropriate and pertinent content to discover ideas within the context of the discipline, shaping the work as a
whole.
Basic – Uses appropriate and pertinent content, but does not apply it toward discovering or developing ideas. Overall, content
assists in shaping the written work.
Below Expectations – Uses content, though it may be unrelated or inappropriate to the topic. Content does not contribute toward
the development of the written work, and may distract the reader from its purpose.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Critical Thinking: Explanation of Issues
Total: 1.00
Distinguished – Clearly and comprehensively explains in detail the issue to be considered, delivering all relevant information
necessary for a full understanding.
Proficient – Clearly explains in detail the issue to be considered, delivering enough relevant information for an adequate
understanding.
Basic – Briefly recognizes the issue to be considered, delivering minimal information for a basic understanding.
Below Expectations – Briefly recognizes the issue to be considered, but may not deliver additional information necessary for a
basic understanding.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Reading: Analysis
Total: 0.50
Distinguished – Appraises tactics for relating ideas, text structure, or other textual features in order to gain knowledge or insight
within and across texts and disciplines.
Proficient – Recognizes connections among ideas, text structure, or other textual features, to analyze how they support a
sophisticated understanding of the text as a whole.
Basic – Recognizes the connections among portions of a text in considering how these connections contribute to a fundamental
understanding of the text as a whole.
Below Expectations – Makes an effort to recognize portions of a text as needed to respond to inquiries posed in the assignment.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Written Communication: Control of Syntax and Mechanics
Total: 1.00
Distinguished – Displays meticulous comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar.
Written work contains no errors, and is very easy to understand.
Proficient – Displays comprehension and organization of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work
contains only a few minor errors, and is mostly easy to understand.
Basic – Displays basic comprehension of syntax and mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work contains a few
errors, which may slightly distract the reader.
Below Expectations – Fails to display basic comprehension of syntax or mechanics, such as spelling and grammar. Written work
contains major errors, which distract the reader.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Written Communication: APA Formatting
Total: 0.50
Distinguished – Accurately uses APA formatting consistently throughout the paper, title page, and reference page.
Proficient – Exhibits APA formatting throughout the paper. However, layout contains a few minor errors.
Basic – Exhibits basic knowledge of APA formatting throughout the paper. However, layout does not meet all APA requirements.
Below Expectations – Fails to exhibit basic knowledge of APA formatting. There are frequent errors, making the layout difficult to
distinguish as APA.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Written Communication: Page Requirement
Total: 0.50
Distinguished – The length of the paper is equivalent to the required number of correctly formatted pages.
Proficient – The length of the paper is nearly equivalent to the required number of correctly formatted pages.
Basic – The length of the paper is equivalent to at least three quarters of the required number of correctly formatted pages.
Below Expectations – The length of the paper is equivalent to at least one half of the required number of correctly formatted
pages.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
Written Communication: Source Requirement
Total: 0.50
Distinguished – Uses more than the required number of scholarly sources, providing compelling evidence to support ideas. All
sources on the reference page are used and cited correctly within the body of the assignment.
Proficient – Uses required number of scholarly sources to support ideas. All sources on the reference page are used and cited
correctly within the body of the assignment.
Basic – Uses less than the required number of sources to support ideas. Some sources may not be scholarly. Most sources on
the reference page are used within the body of the assignment. Citations may not be formatted correctly.
Below Expectations – Uses inadequate number of sources that provide little or no support for ideas. Sources used may not be
scholarly. Most sources on the reference page are not used within the body of the assignment. Citations are not formatted
correctly.
Non-Performance – The assignment is either nonexistent or lacks the components described in the instructions.
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Weekly Lecture
Week Five Lecture
This week we will discuss communication in organizations and organizational design and change. In
organizations, communications flow between individuals, between levels in the organizational hierarchy,
between departments, and between the company and outside publics (Cutler, 2010). How effective is the
communication within your organization and what means are utilized to communicate? What can
organizations implement to ensure communicative efforts are clear, concise, and available? What makes
communication a critical success factor? First, communication takes place in every managerial activity
(Scott & Mitchell, 1976). Also, poor communication leads to conflict and quality communication helps to
resolve conflict (Trewatha, Newport, & Johnson, 1997). Further, communication skills are a key factor in
career success. Those who can make effective verbal presentations are more likely to be perceived as
potential leaders. Individuals who write well make positive impressions during a job search and as
employees
Communicative Techniques
Nonverbal communication plays a major role in one-on-one interactions. Along with spoken words, tone
and other nonverbal cues accompany every message transmission. The forms of nonverbal communication include kinesthetic cues, appearance and dress, artifacts, touch, space, and paralanguage.
According to Birdwhistell (1970), kinesthetic cues are messages communicated by nonlinguistic body
language or movements. These include messages conveyed by various parts of the body. How would
you perceive an attempt at communication if the messenger had their hands placed on their hips, and the
head was in a downward movement? Could this be perceived as a challenging stance? What message
can be interpreted and what would be a like response?
Written messages at work can take the form of memos, e-mails, instant messages, letters, and reports.
The messages may range from short texts or tweets to longer, more formal letters and reports to
committees or management teams. As is the case with spoken messages, the sender and receiver
should be aware of potential barriers to communication. The advantage of writing results from the ability
to carefully consider each word and sentence prior to transmitting the message (Bell, 2004, 79–92).
Barriers to Communication
Barriers can be associated with every element of a basic communication model, or as sender, encoding,
transmission medium, decoding, receiver, and feedback barriers. A second approach analyzes
communication barriers in terms of individual differences, situational factors, and transmission problems.
Overcoming these barriers includes duties carried out by the sender, the receiver, and both parties.
Formal communication consists of information that travels through organizationally designated channels.
Many traditional written channels have been adapted to more sophisticated technologies. Computer-
based digital channels include e-mail, instant messaging, social media, videoconferencing, intranets, and
extranets (Baack, 2012).
Organizational design
How would you describe your current organization? Is there a Hierarchy of authority, coordination of
activities or common purpose or goal? An organization, according to Barnard (1938/1968), is a system of
consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more persons. Organizing involves completion of
the company’s structure by establishing lines of authority and responsibility. There are three types of
authority to include line authority, staff authority, and functional authority. Where does your organizations
authority practices fall in line? It is critical, according to Baack (2012) that when an organizational design
has been completed, several key elements are in place, including the chain of command/hierarchy of
authority as well as vertical and horizontal dimensions of structure.
The Virtual Organization
Emerging technologies have led to two new types of organizational design. Virtual organizations are
geographically distributed, with members bound by a long-term common interest or goal, communicating
and coordinating their work through information technology. The boundaryless organization seeks to
eliminate internal barriers and hierarchy along with the vertical and horizontal boundaries between a
company and its customers and suppliers (Baack, 2012). Ahuja and Carley (1998) define a virtual
organization as a geographically distributed organization whose members are bound by a long-term
common interest or goal, and who communicate and coordinate their work through information
technology. Virtual organizations work across space, time, and organizational boundaries with links
strengthened by webs of communication (Lipnack & Stamps, 1997). Often, virtual organizations employ
small numbers of workers and outsource most business functions, commonly including manufacturing,
distribution, and marketing, which are facilitated by the Internet (Cascio, 2000). Do you have the ability or
motivation to work or manage a virtual organization? What if your organization decides to change its
structure do you feel you could accept the change or become resistant? Unfortunately there are some
leaders and members that cannot or refuse to accept change and this can be a crippling factor in terms
of productivity and meeting set goals. Baack (2012) suggests organizational structure and changes in
organizational structure influence a series of outcomes. These impact the nature of a manager’s job.
Among outcomes influenced by organizational design are the number and types of decisions made at all
ranks; the amount of authority held at all levels; the number of tasks performed by entry-level employees;
formality of relationships; role clarity and role ambiguity; and perceived chances for advancement.
References
Ahuja, M. K., & Carley, K. M. (1998). Network structure in virtual organizations. Journal of ComputerMediated Communication, 3(4).
Baack, D. (2012). Organizational behavior. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Barnard, C. (1968). The functions of the executive. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (Original
work published 1938).
Bell, Arthur H. (2004). Writing effective letters, memos, and e-mail. Hauppauge, NY: Barron’s
Educational Series.
Birdwhistell, R. (1970). Kinesics and context. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Cascio, W. F. (2000, December). Managing a virtual workplace. Academy of Management Executive, (4),
1149–1168.
Lipnack, J., & Stamps, J. (1997). Virtual teams: Researching across space, time, and organizations with
technology. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Scott, W. G., & Mitchell, T. R. (1976). Organization theory: A structural and behavioral analysis.
Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin.
Trewatha, R., Newport, G., & Johnson, L. (1997). Management: Embracing change in the 21st Century.
Houston: Dame.
Running Head: Changes in Organizations
Changes in Organizations and Businesses
BUS610: Organizational Behavior
1
Changes in Organizations
2
Understanding and coping with change
Organizations and businesses go through changes; it’s inevitable and even necessary
most of the time. “For many years, the world of business has experienced an increasing rate of
change” (Baack, 2012). In 1970, Alvin Toffler made a prediction that change would happen to
all businesses and that people would exhibited a natural tendency to reject change. It’s important
for an organization to manage this resistance to change. Individuals will respond to change in
their own specific way, these variations in response to change will produce different outcomes
but management will recognize this and resolve it as it’s an essential step in development and
implementing an effective change management strategy.
Change whether it’s a positive or negative will foremost still be unsettling, people like
stability. For the most part, we are creatures of habit. There are some individuals that are more
resistant to change than another’s, some expressing certain characteristics. For example, lack of
trust in management can contribute to that individual’s resistance to change. To be more specific,
the employee may be acting out over self-interest, lack of income, prestige, power, job security
and other personal conveniences can become the deciding factor whether the employee will
accept the change are not. In short, lack of trust, low tolerance, and self interests are all major
factors that will measure the resistance to change.
How a company can counteract resistance to change is by communicating with the
employees. I believe that lack of understanding and misinformed individuals is the number one
reason why change becomes so difficult. Take for example, naturally a person will plan and
work around a schedule for their own personal changes such as changing homes. When a change
is made for the individual by superiors or management, that person needs to at least know why so
Changes in Organizations
3
they can process the reasoning behind it. The organization has full control over what the
employees know about the company and the changes being made so why not give them peace of
mind and informed them properly.
Recently my employer has begun a process in which the company will no longer have
contracted workers, everyone will become an employee. This is brought upon us an
overwhelming amount of hostility in the workplace. Every single worker is unhappy with these
changes and is resisting the changes every step of the way. Our truck drivers like to have full
control of their expenses and what they claim at the end of the year. It was clear to me that the
only solution was to sit down with every single worker in the company and explain to them why
these changes are mandatory. The company has to grow and in order to grow; the company has
to play by the rules. The US government will not recognize an organization as a real business
entity if 90% of people working there are contracted. The end result was workers still unhappy
with the changes but willing to accept them. Furthermore, the company had decided that workers
in the main offices who have been here for a long time were the only ones that will cross over
into employment for the time being. The reason for this is that throughout the years an individual
working for an establishment will gain a sense of investment in that company, which means they
will be more hesitant to leave. These investments can come in various forms, such as pensions,
401(k), health benefits and other perks such as vacation hours that developed through time. A
person’s investment in a company is known as the sunk cost doctrine. The sunk cost doctrine is
as follows, “the investment in the organization can in turn lead to greater resistance to change as
the employee seeks to maintain the status quo” (Patti, 1974). This leads us to believe that
information is not just beneficial but necessary in helping those that invested in the company feel
Changes in Organizations
4
that their opinion matters. Communication is the first step in eliminating doubt from the
employees.
John Kotter of the harvest business golf has developed an existing models of change in
order to create a more detailed approach for implementing change. Kotter started by listing
common mistakes that businesses make when trying to establish change. One of these mistakes
is the organization failing to create a sense of urgency for those changes, failure to create a
coalition for managing th …
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