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There are some grammatical errors that need to be addressed. The beginning of each paragraph sound too alike so if you could change some of those up a little. Also, can you fix the reference page so it is APA format?attached is the paper and paper directions so you know how the paper should be
term_paper_directions.doc

punishment_of_offenders.docx

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TERM PAPER:
You may select a topic or chapter from our textbook. You are to write a 4 page term paper due at the end
of the term. All APA requirements are required.
– Make sure to apply a variety of outside references (rather than just the textbook).
TERM PAPER:


You may select a topic or chapter from our textbook. You are to write a 4 page term paper. All
APA requirements are required.
Make sure to apply a variety of outside references (rather than just the textbook). Please
write a 4 page paper using APA citing.
Term Paper Rubric
What Should I Do?
Points Available
TERM PAPER:
You may select a topic or chapter from our textbook. You are to write a 4 page term
paper. All APA requirements are required.
– Make sure to apply a variety of outside scholarly references (rather than just
the textbook).
Term Papers, I do not need to approve topics for the term papers as long as the topic
comes from the textbook, however remember to avoid using the book for the term
paper. You can use outside topics but they must relate to the course or field.
Things that need to be present in every APA paper and/or assignment:
1.
Title Page (all double-spaced and centered)
1. Title of paper
2. Student’s name
3. School Name
4. Time spent on assignment
5. Running head needed (the words ‘Running head’ must be present
as well… this is only on the Title Page though)
6. Page number of 1
7. Abstract (all double-spaced)
1. The word ‘Abstract’ should be centered on page
100 Points
Did I do This?
Where?
Points Earned
2.
3.
4.
5.
1.
2.
The first line of the Abstract is not indented or tabbed
Running head needed, however, the words ‘Running
head’ should not be present
Page number of 2
Content/body of paper (all double-spaced)
1. Running head needed, however, the words
‘Running head’ should not be present
2. Appropriate page numbers (3 through how many
pages are presented)
3. Must have in-text citations (should be from
academic sources)
4. Must appropriately address short and long
quotes
5. Must address all questions/issues from
assignment/research paper instructions
6. Reference Page (the word ‘References’ should
be centered; should be double-spaced between
references; references themselves can either be
double-spaced or single-spaced; it looks tidier
when references are single-spaced with a
double-space between references)
1. Hanging indentions
2. Sources should have the appropriate
page numbers in references (when
applicable)
3. Running head needed, however, the
words ‘Running head’ should not be
present
4. Appropriate page number
Running Heads
1. Be at the top of every page and it should be even with the page
number; it should be flush on the left margin
2. The words ‘Running head’ should only be present on the Title
Page and the ‘R’ in Running should be capitalized, but the rest
should be lower case (Running head:)
3. The title or partial title used for the Running head should be in all
capital letters on every page
Page numbers
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Should be a page number on the top of every page and it should be
even with the Running head; it should be flush on the right margin
Page numbers start on the Title Page; the Title Page is always
page 1
The Abstract is page 2
Content should begin on page 3 +
References page should also have a page number
A number of students are still struggling with APA style. I have attempted to point
out examples in your posts. The best way to learn APA style is to buy the book and
practice. Here is a tip that you may appreciate more, however (smile). When you
search in the Academic Search Premier/ EBSCO database you can actually choose a
function that allows you to change the citation to APA format and email it to
yourself. Then all you would have to do is copy and paste it into your paper.
Here are the steps:
1. Enter your search terms and locate article of interest.
2. Click on the add to folder
3. Enter the folder and click email option
4. Look to the lower right of the screen and click on the arrow to change citation
style. I believe AMA is the default style. Choose APA instead.
5. Click send to send the article to your email account.
6. You should see the APA reference at the beginning of the article when you open
the file.
You still need to change the sentence capitalization (only the first word she be
capitalized) and always double check the APA citation because I have caught a few
minor errors at time. Hope this helps.
Also, I am not always sure if students who are listing multiple references for their
posts are citing original sources that they personally read, versus paraphrasing works
cited in one article. If you did not personally read the material it is called a
secondary source. To properly cite secondary sources, refer to both sources in the
text, but include in the References list only the source that you actually used/read.
For instance, suppose you read Lowe and Mascher (2001) and would like to
paraphrase the following sentence within that chapter: Bandura (1989) defined selfefficacy as “people’s beliefs about their capabilities to exercise control over events
that affect their lives” (p. 1175).
In this case, your in-text citation would be (Bandura, 1989, as cited in Lowe and
Mascher, 2001). Lowe & Mascher (2001) would be fully referenced within the list
of References. Bandura (1989) would not be listed. For more information on citing
secondary sources, see Example 22 on p. 247 of the 5th edition Publication Manual
(soft cover version).
It is my aspiration that you leave this course with an increased knowledge in APA
style 🙂 Make sure that you are using APA formatting in your final paper.
TOTAL POINTS
100 points
Running head: PUNISHMENT OF OFFENDERS
Punishment of Offenders
Student’s Name:
School’s Name:
Date:
Abstract
1
PUNISHMENT OF OFFENDERS
2
An offender is a person who commits a crime that has adverse effects on society. A criminal
receives a penalty in accordance with the crimes committed. Punishment contains three elements
that include offense, infliction of pain and the purpose of the punishment. The penalty that is
given to an offender should aim at making the criminal a better person. However, that is not the
primary goal of punishment. There are situations where when a criminal is punished and is
confined in jail for some time. During the jail term, they get to make resolutions about their lives.
We have had stories of criminals becoming essential people in society after completing their jail
term. This is similar in a case where a criminal committed a specific crime under the influence of
drugs. Such a criminal is taken to a rehabilitation center that helps them to cease using the drugs
gradually. Besides, there are programs, which exist within prisons where the criminals can take
part in. For instance, we have educational and rehabilitation programs in the United States.
Body
A crime is defined as an unlawful act that is punishable by law. A crime may have adverse
effects on the criminal himself or herself, the victims and the community. Criminals engage
themselves in these acts due to different reasons. Some of the criminals commit crimes when
they want to revenge, other it is because of greed. There are different types of crimes such as
personal crimes, inchoate crimes, property crimes, and statutory crimes. Personal crimes refer to
the crimes that are committed to a specific individual. Personal crimes are such as kidnapping,
murder, rape or physical assault. Property crimes are offenses that involve robbery, use of fake
receipts or burglary. Inchoate crimes are attempted crimes such as attempted robbery. In such
crimes, law enforcement officers may have caught the criminals before they completed their
activities. Therefore, they are arrested without the completion of their mission. Statutory crimes
are crimes that involve the violation of state rules and regulation. There are laws that the
PUNISHMENT OF OFFENDERS
3
American citizens are supposed to adhere to. Therefore, going against these laws is considered a
crime. Some of the statutory crimes are when one is driving a car when drunk. There are crimes
that are more harmful than others. According to the article, what are the Different Types of
Crimes, there are two categories of the levels of crimes; felony and misdemeanor. Felony refers
to the crimes that are severe and have significant effects on people, the community and the state.
In this category, terrorist attacks are included. The misdemeanor is the less severe crimes whose
punishments include paying fines. There are four categories of punishment: retribution,
deterrence, rehabilitation, and deterrence. Retribution refers to actions taken on a criminal that is
of the same weight as the crimes they have committed. Retribution is a punishment that many
people question about. Some people do not understand the main aim of retribution. Some take it
as a form of vengeance. Retribution is a punishment that causes a lot of pain to the criminals, and
they may get injured. Some of the examples of retaliation are paying fines, imprisonment or
death. Retaliation is only directed to individuals who have committed crimes and, therefore it is
different from revenge. The punishment that a criminal is given through retribution is directly
proportional to the offense that they committed, (McKee et al., 2008). For instance, if a criminal
committed murder, the retaliation would be death.
It is important to note that there are two principles that are involved in retribution. They are
punishment and deterrence. In retribution punishment, a guilty person receives a penalty that
relates to their crimes. In addition, retribution punishment intends to discourage the repetition of
similar crimes in the future, (Fisse, 1982). For instance in a case when a murderer receives the
punishment of death. The issue of the person being a threat to society is eliminated. The
retribution punishments avoid a situation where the public takes the law into their own hands.
PUNISHMENT OF OFFENDERS
4
Deterrence is a form of punishment that is meant to prevent people from committing crimes,
(Fisse, 1982). Deterrence makes an individual afraid of engaging in criminal activities. In such a
case, the criminal justice system punishes an individual and lets the public be aware of the
situation. The punishment is harsh and painful. Therefore, every person will think before
committing any crime. When a child or a youngster observe the kind of punishment that one
receives after committing a crime, they try to avoid being involved in crimes. It is an effective
way to shape the behaviors of people. The punishment that an offender receives is intended to
discourage him or her from committing similar or other crimes in the future.
General deterrence refers to the kind of punishment given to an individual with the aim of
preventing the population from engaging in crimes. The criminal receives the penalty in public
view instilling fear in people. In simple terms, the punishment that a criminal gets serves as an
example to the others. Sincerely speaking, this punishment attains its goals of making people
afraid of committing crimes. Specific deterrence is where the penalty is aimed at discouraging
the criminal from committing crimes in the future. The pain and the harshness experienced that is
obtained from the punishment changes the behaviors of the criminals (McKee, 2008). No one
would ever wish to have a painful experience that they once encountered.
Rehabilitation is a punishment that is humane and considerate. It gives the criminals and the
prisoners an opportunity to change their behaviors. In the rehabilitation centers, there are
rehabilitation programs that help in developing occupational skills. Also, psychological problems
such as drug addiction are resolved during this period. During the sessions that the criminals
attend for rehabilitation, they are taught and encouraged to overcome their situations and have
the urge to live a better life. In cases where an individual committed a crime under the influence
of a drug, they tend to live a life full of regrets. The incident traumatizes them and, they may
PUNISHMENT OF OFFENDERS
5
cause even mental problems. In such a scenario, the rehabilitation programs are of great help.
There are times when rehabilitation punishment is used as a supplement of the imprisonment
punishment. The primary purpose of rehabilitation is to change the behaviors of criminals and
make them of benefit to society and the state.
Incarceration is a punishment where a criminal is confined in prison. People who are a threat to
society are locked in cells to keep them off from committing the crimes. Imprisonment can be
combined with other types of punishment such as deterrence and rehabilitation. Imprisoning the
crime offenders restricts their movements. It limits their capacity to be in a position to carry out
their criminal activities. Through the confinement of criminals, the public feels safer and secure.
While in prison, investigations are carried out to obtain all the necessary information that may
lead the officers in arresting the other criminals.
The punishment that is given to the criminals is beneficial when the criminals make positive
resolutions. Some people have benefited from the programs that are offered in prisons.
Individuals who are imprisoned for more than 5 years engage in one or more of the programs
that are offered. We have educational programs that help the prisoners be better people before
the end of their jail terms. Punishments help a great deal in minimizing the occurrence of crimes.
People are afraid of being separated from their families. Therefore, one avoids being associated
with illegal practices that may lead them to be arrested.
There are certain theories as well as objectives as to why offenders are mostly punished.
Punishing of offenders has been a great debate among the philosopher’s lawyers as well as
political leaders for a century now. Each theory of punishment has its own explanation as to why
they try to justify the practice of punishing offenders in some ways as well as its proper
PUNISHMENT OF OFFENDERS
6
objectives. Due to the introduction of humanitarian movement that moves with the notions of
theories of punishment, there have been a lot of changes in ways of punishing offenders. In
Europe, the movements mostly emphasize on how to treat the offenders according to the human
right bills. From that moment the quantity, as well as the severity of the punishment, was greatly
reduced. More so it led to the study of the psychology of crime as a way of distinguishing classes
of criminals and prison systems have been greatly improved (Cullen, 2017).
Through the humanitarian movements and the coming up of the punishment theory, the theory of
rehabilitation is usually the most preferred one. The main reason is that rehabilitation is seen as a
way of applying some treatment and training to offenders so that when they return to the society
they are capable of acting as law abiding citizens. Rehabilitation in the 19th century was viewed
as an alternative to deterrence and retribution through the offender under rehabilitation will not
receive some lesser punishment when undergoing rehabilitation. When one is under rehab they
are punished according to the law and according to the crime they committed but also being
nurtured to be important people in the society.
There are legal aid provisions that are laid so as to help law offenders in accordance with the rule
of law. Justice is in opposition of the legal aid as well as assistance that are set so as to enable the
provision of legal aid part of the bill as well as I accordance with the relevant schedules. It is a
customary act for human beings to conventionalize and ritualizes their necessities (McNeill,
2015). Punishment is a social custom is in some way a conventionalized that is a ritual that is set
up in an elaboration. This has led to the portion of some punishing classes that have been a zeal
to appear to assign some benefits in accordance with their culture and time. Punishing of the
offenders has evolved from the corporal punishment to some humane punishment. The kinds of
punishment that are introduced recently have in so many ways changed the lives of the criminals
PUNISHMENT OF OFFENDERS
7
and offenders. More so those behind the bars have really changed from the assault and strict
punishment to friendly ways of making them change their lives in prison and after imprisonment,
they come out as crucial people in the society.
Conclusion
The introduction of the new bill in the United States of Legal Aid and the punishment of
offenders Acts 2012 covers a wide range of issues. The introduction of this bill and the push by
the humanitarian movements has helped in making a lot of positive changes in the prisons. For
instance, the law has made a number of changes on the sentencing provisions such as giving
court express power compared to the previous law compared to the current law. In these changes,
the court is in the position of making compensation orders in case of any victims harm or loss
and amends the law so as to suspend prison sentences.
PUNISHMENT OF OFFENDERS
8
References
What Are the Different Types of Crimes? (n.d.). Retrieved from:
https://www.legalmatch.com/law-library/article/what-are-the-different-types-of-crimes.html
Fisse, B. (1982). Reconstructing corporate criminal law: Deterrence, retribution, fault, and
sanctions. S. Cal. L. Rev., 56, 1141.
McKee, I. R., & Feather, N. T. (2008). Revenge, retribution, and values: Social attitudes and
punitive sentencing. Social Justice Research, 21(2), 138.
Cullen, F. T., & Jonson, C. L. (2017). Labeling theory and correctional rehabilitation: Beyond
unanticipated consequences. In Labeling Theory (pp. 63-85). Routledge.
McNeill, F., & Robinson, G. (2015). Reductionism, rehabilitation and reparation: Community
punishment in Scotland. In Community Punishment (pp. 191-208). Routledge.

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