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I attached the requirement for the language report. It is the final report that requires to analysis 50 words in one language with IPA. I plan to analysis either Korean or Cantonese.
lign110_w2019_project_manual.pdf

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Manual for Preparing
LIGN 110 Individual Research Projects
This document is based on the Manual for Preparing Linguistics 103 Term Projects
Revised and edited by Seung Kyung Kim, Marc Garellek and Eric Baković
Date of this revision: January 5, 20191
Contents
§1.
Individual Research Project ………………………………………………………………………. 2
§2.
How to pick a research project speaker/language…………………………………………… 5
§3.
Brief research project proposal…………………………………………………………………… 5
§4.
Sample research report: “The Phonetics of Noisiveletian” ………………………………. 6
§5.
Searching for reference sources………………………………………………………………….. 9
§6.
The role of phonology in a LIGN 110 research report ……………………………………11
§7.
How reference sources describe phonemes and allophones ……………………………..15
§8.
Finding allophones when your reference source lists none ………………………………17
§9.
The role of orthography ……………………………………………………………………………17
§10. How to make your word list ………………………………………………………………………18
§11. How to make your recording……………………………………………………………………..19
§12. Transcribing your recording ………………………………………………………………………21
§13. Writing up your research report …………………………………………………………………22
§14. Plagiarism ……………………………………………………………………………………………..24
§15. Some hints on formal academic English ………………………………………………………24
Copyright © 2019 by the Regents of the University of California. This material may be used by anyone
for teaching, study, or any other nonprofit purpose. Commercial use is prohibited by copyright law.
1
Special thanks to Bruce Hayes for sharing the editable document with Eric Baković (Version 1.4, March 28, 2012, prepared by
Linguistics faculty at UCLA, revised and edited by Bruce Hayes). All credits in the preface of that document also apply here.
Winter 2019
Manual for Preparing LIGN 110 Individual Research Projects
p. 2
§1. Individual Research Project
Write a research report of about five to seven pages, illustrating the sounds of some language that you do
not speak yourself, based on the speech of fluent native speaker of the target language whom you will
recruit to serve as your consultant. Include a sound file with your report that illustrate the sounds of the
language as spoken by your consultant.
The goal of the project is to give you an opportunity to practice your skills of listening to, transcribing,
and reproducing the speech sounds of a language other than English or your native language. You will
also get experience working with phonemes and allophones, in extracting facts from a reference source, in
working with a native speaker consultant, and in writing up an original research report.
For a sample report and other information about the project, see §4 of this manual.
Here are the steps involved in a LIGN 110 research project. The notations for WEEKS show a recommended schedule for working on the project without having a frantic rush at any one time.
1. WEEKS 1-2. Choose a speaker and language for your project. Do not use a speaker who has
already been studied. Do not use a speaker who has studied linguistics. Do not use a language you speak or know. We will give extra consideration to projects on languages that are less
familiar or more difficult (e.g. tone languages). Be sure that your consultant is a native speaker
who still speaks the language fluently,2 and has some time to work with you.3 You should be able
to make a recording of sufficiently high quality. A quiet room is necessary; a good microphone
helps. It helps if both you and the consultant can read the orthography (spelling system) of the
language. For more advice, see §2 of this manual.
A preliminary report (.pdf) should be uploaded to TritonEd by 5 pm on Friday of Week 3 (Jan. 25). See
§3 for more details.
2. WEEKS 2-3. Find at least one reference source (by which we mean a published book or journal
article) on the phonetics of the language, or (if nothing on the language is available) on some
closely related language. You want something that lists and describes the sounds of your language, ideally including a description of all the variants of each sound in different contexts.
Take a trip to the 7th floor of Geisel Library (mainly the P section) or to the Linguistics Lab & Library
(AP&M 3432A) to find books and articles on all kinds of languages. If that doesn’t work out, try this: (a)
Patterns of Sounds by Ian Maddieson, on reserve in Geisel Library, which contains charts of the phonemes and references to books, for many (but not all) languages. (b) The World’s Major Languages (ed.
by Bernard Comrie), also on reserve, has short sketches and references for about 50 languages. (c) Handbook of the IPA, also on reserve, with phonetic sketches of 29 languages; (d) textbooks that teach the language; (e) Roger, the UCSD online library catalog (http://roger.ucsd.edu/); (f) Google Scholar
(http://scholar.google.com/) and Google Books (http://books.google.com/). The latter source usually
won’t give you the whole book, but you can then get the book from the library, or via Interlibrary Loan.
You must use at least one authentic peer-reviewed source, by which we mean: something that appeared
in a published book or scholarly journal. Sometimes amateur web sources (like Wikipedia4) can be very
good, and you may use them to supplement your main research. But we think it is important to get practice in finding primary sources, which is why we are emphasizing them.
The better the published material you find, the less time you’ll have to spend with your consultant. But
don’t try to read every book in the library. They are bound to disagree with each other, and you will get
2
A native speaker is one who learned the language no later than early childhood and has continued to have the opportunity to
speak the language since then. One way to check for purposes of this course is to ask: “Do native speakers of your language think
you speak with an accent?”
3
Ideally: (I) Session 1, one hour, draft word list. (II) Session 2, 45 minutes, revise the list. (III) recording, 20 minutes. Less is
possible in a pinch.
4
If you use Wikipedia to supplement your main research, be sure to check the references listed. Also, if you occasionally use
Wikipedia to consult the IPA chart, beware! There is an “unofficial” chart with non-IPA symbols, which are never to be used!
Winter 2019
Manual for Preparing LIGN 110 Individual Research Projects
p. 3
confused. What you want is to find is a careful and detailed source rather than conduct a fishing expedition. Feel free to bring sources to our student hours (see the syllabus) and we will assess them for you.
Dictionaries usually don’t have a systematic presentation of the sound system, but they certainly can be
helpful for finding relevant words. Geisel Library has many foreign language dictionaries.
The earlier you look for your reference sources, the less likely you will find all the material you want already checked out of the library. When you don’t find a book on the library shelf, don’t despair! Often,
it’s checked out to another reader, and you can have it called in from them; click on the “Request” button
in the catalog entry for the book on Roger. Also, it is sometimes possible to get hard-to-obtain stuff with
Interlibrary Loan (https://library.ucsd.edu/borrow-and-request/interlibrary-loan/index.html).
For more on finding reference sources, see §5 of this manual.
3. WEEKS 4-5. Make a tentative list of the phonemes of the language, their allophones, and lots of
words illustrating them (including vowels, consonants, and suprasegmentals). Make sure you understand phonemes and allophones before you do this.5 Your word list should include minimal
pairs or sets for phonemes where possible. The word list should be short, and it should:





illustrate the consonants with a minimal set,
illustrate the vowels with a minimal set,
illustrate the tones (if any) with a minimal set,
provide a small set of words illustrating allophones, and
a sentence that includes several words from the list.
If your reference source does not describe allophones (or even if it does), study · of this manual.
Since at this point you are preparing a list to work on with your consultant, you should have extra examples, since some words are bound not to work out. The more work you do now, the more efficiently you
can spend the time you have with your consultant. Every linguist regards consultant time as precious!
Remember that a draft of your word list (.pdf) should be uploaded to TritonEd by 5pm on Friday of
Week 5 (Feb. 8). For more on preparing your word list, see §10 of this manual.
4. WEEKS 6-7. Once you have a tentative word list, you can meet with your consultant. Go over
the list with your consultant in one or more preliminary sessions, noting with IPA just how your
consultant pronounces the words you have assembled. You may ask the consultant to help in finding more or better example words. Be opportunistic: if you notice things in your consultant’s
speech now, you can include relevant words on your list and thus in your report.
Consider the consultant as the authority on the language. Do not try to convince him/her to pronounce
things the way the book has them, and do convince him/her that you want a normal, everyday pronunciation. Consultants are sometimes afraid that their native dialect is not “good enough” for what you “want,”
and that your book must be “right.”
It may help to go home, work on an improved list, and meet with the speaker again. Be aware that most
languages vary quite a bit from dialect to dialect, and don’t let differences between your consultant’s
speech and your reference source startle you. What you want to achieve is an accurate description of your
consultant’s speech, NOT a rehash of your reference source. In fact, accurate description of these differences (when they occur) is one hallmark of a good term report.
5. WEEKS 7-8. Make a final, written version of the list, choosing from your long original list a
shorter list of words that illustrate just the phonemic contrasts and the significant allophones. As
in the class demonstration, start with examples of the basic sounds, then move on to interesting
allophones. For difficult, unusual, or other interesting sounds, add extra words in minimal pairs
with more usual sounds. For example, use minimal pairs to prove that a particular place of articulation in your language really is distinct from the other places of articulation. You might want to
5
A study source: http://www.linguistics.ucla.edu/people/hayes/103/HayesOnPhonemes.pdf.
Winter 2019
Manual for Preparing LIGN 110 Individual Research Projects
p. 4
think of it this way: use your final list (and the recording of your consultant reading it) to prove to
us that the book’s description of the sounds is right (or wrong) for this particular speaker.
The length limit for the word list is as follows: number of segmental phonemes, plus number of stress
and tone contrasts, plus 25%. Examples: American English (in the IPA Handbook analysis) has 39 segmental phonemes and phonemic stress; so (39 + 1) x 1.25 = 50 words. Cantonese (in the IPA Handbook
analysis) has 42 segmental phonemes and 9 tones, so (42 + 9) x 1.25 = 64 words.
Be sure you and your consultant have agreed on how the words are to be written for the recording session:
native orthography, romanization, or whatever.
6. Arrange an appointment for your consultant to make a recording. Each word in the word list
should be repeated twice. The recording should be made in .wav format (not .mp3 or any other
format), which you turn in with your report. For full directions on how to make the recording,
see §11 of this manual.
7. WEEK 9. Listen to the recording and make a careful phonetic transcription. Your transcription
should reflect the actual pronunciations of your consultant, and will be graded as such. Compare
the two pronunciations on the recording with each other (very often, they’re not the same, and
you get credit for noticing this). Also, compare your consultant’s pronunciation with what you
had expected when you made up your list. You can improve your transcription in delicate places
by using acoustic software, which will be demonstrated in class.
For more on transcribing your recording, see §12 of this manual.
8. WEEK 10. Write the report. The complete report will include:
a. The recording itself.
b. Vowel and consonant charts, in standard format, showing the phonemes. Place the charts
within the text, at the most relevant spot. Include your allophones on the chart as well, using a
different color or in parentheses to distinguish them.
c. A transcription, with a phonemic transcription as well as a narrow phonetic one (indicating
the sounds that the consultant actually produced when making this recording), and English
glosses; and if possible, an orthographic version in the language’s own writing system. It is
very important that the transcription have the same order of words as the recording,
since the transcription is graded by listening to the recording.
d. The transcriptions should appear embedded within a written account of the phonetic characteristics of the language, including the name and background of the consultant, the language,
where it is spoken, comments on the distribution of sounds, detailed descriptions of unusual
sounds, or remarks about conflicts with your reference source. Please “interleave” transcriptions and text; see the sample report (§4 of this manual) for how to do this.
e. A copy (scanned) of the reference source from which you got your data and include this copy.
If this is more than ten pages, include just the ten most important pages.
f. Lastly, upload your report to TritonEd. (Instructions for doing this will be provided.)
The report should be fairly closely related to the LIGN 110 course material. So, don’t waste your space
with a long introduction covering background on the language, and avoid repeating naïve or imprecise
terminology from your source material.
Reports will be graded on the following basis: focus on speaker rather than reference sources, accuracy of
transcription, knowledge of course material, organization, clarity and correctness of writing.6 Points are
awarded for bravery, in particular, for going out on a limb in seeking an accurate and detailed description
of your own speaker. For more information on writing up your research report, see §13, §14, and §15.
6
Please do write the paper in standard scholarly prose; it’s meant to be practice in writing this way. For hints, see §15.
Winter 2019
Manual for Preparing LIGN 110 Individual Research Projects
p. 5
Deadlines (see also the lateness policy outlined on the syllabus):
• Brief preliminary report due by 5pm on Friday of Week 3 (Jan. 25).
• Draft of word list due by 5pm on Friday of Week 5 (Feb. 8).
• Final report due by 5pm on Wednesday of finals week (Mar. 20).
§2. How to pick a research project speaker/language
1. Your speaker should be an authentic speaker, who learned the language at his or her parent’s/caretaker’s knee and still speaks it regularly.
2. Your speaker should not have been studied before. Your speaker should not have studied linguistics before.
3. Your speaker should be available to make a recording in a quiet room somewhere.
4. You must not speak the language, beyond the level of one year of instruction in school. (Some
exceptions may be granted, but you must seek and receive permission from Prof. Kim by
Wednesday, Jan. 16, 5 pm.)
5. Your speaker should want to help you and be free to spend some time in elicitation before you
make the recording. Size up your loved ones carefully; they may love you but find the job so
disagreeable that they are bad consultants anyway. Often what is more important is that the
speaker be truly interested in their own language and want to share it with you.
6. It’s nice to do research on a little-studied language — in grading, we tend to reward this kind of
initiative. But this shouldn’t be your main criterion.
§3. Brief preliminary report7
For your preliminary report (due by 5pm on Friday of Week 3: Jan. 25), you should provide a short
summary of some relevant information about the language you are working on and the speaker who will
be your consultant. Additionally, you may include preliminary results of work that you have already done
at this point (such as your word list) so that we can give you some constructive comments.
This summary should include the following information, and needn’t be longer than a few paragraphs:
name of the language, its genetic affiliation (e.g. “English is an Indo-European language”, “Mandarin is a
Sino-Tibetan language”), where it is spoken, and by approximately how many people. For the speaker,
you should include information about how they learned the language (i.e. at home, school), from what age
they have spoken the language (i.e. birth, since 1st grade, etc.), and how often they use it currently. You
should also mention whether they can read and/or write their language. Note that inability to read or write
the language does not preclude participation as a consultant. It’s just information for you (and us) to be
aware of as you are preparing word lists and thinking about how to elicit the data.
The information on the language should be found in most encyclopedias and perhaps even some large
dictionaries. Another good source for basic data on languages is the Ethnologue, which is published both
in written form and also on the web at http://www.ethnologue.org/. On this website you can perform
searches by language to locate basic facts. For each language, information is given on the number of
speakers, their location, and the genetic affiliation of the language. This last piece of information is associated with a link to a family tree illustrating the position of languages within linguistic families.
7
This section borrows heavily from a similar document by Matthew Gordon at UCSB.
Winter 2019
p. 6
Manual for Preparing LIGN 110 Individual Research Projects
§4. Sample research report: “The Phonetics of Noisiveletian”
4.1
Noisiveletian
Noisiveletian is the national language of Noisivelet, and as such is spoken by about 2 million people. Possibly an additional 100,000 people in neighboring Dnaloidar speak Noisiveletian as a second language
(Smith, 1997). Noisiveletian is a Tsacdaorbic language of the Aidemic family, and is closely related to
Dnaloidarese within the Tsacdaorbic subgroup.
Charles Noisivelo, my consultant for this report, is a native speaker of Noisiveletian. He was raised in
Noisitown, the capital city of Noisivelet, and is a speaker of the Noisitown dialect, which is the standard
form of Noisiveletian. He also speaks English. He is currently an undergraduate at UCLA, and has been
in the U.S. for the past two years. Although he mainly speaks English now, he does speak Noisiveletian
regularly when Skyping with his parents at home in Noisivelet.
We used just one source in preparing this report, Smith (1997). Most of the examples were taken from
Smith, though there were a few words that Charles didn’t know, so I got him to think of phonetically similar words by himself. In genera …
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