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After you write your research paper, you will create a five minute narrated presentation. Your presentation should meet this basic criterion.Title slide with the topic, course number, and author (student) identified.Overview or introduction slide to describe the presentation content.Sufficient number of slides to convey the method and findings of the review.Audio that further describes the slide content.Summary or conclusion slide to close the presentation.Reference list to show the sources cited within the presentation.Video, animation, or other supporting elements as desired to enhance the presentation.Please read the paper and Create a powerpoint Presentation
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Running head: RESEARCH PAPER
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RESEARCH PAPER
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Abstract: Airbus A 380 is the largest passenger Airlines in the world manufactured
by the Airbus. Airbus launched $10.7 billion A380 programmes on December 2000. The
paper states the reason behind the failure of the Airbus A380. Some of the reasons are
sales were hindered by fundamental problems, growth outlook has changed causing a
restructuring of aircraft orders, and end-to-end flying is taking over from hub-and-spoke.
It is important to study the issue so that precautionary methods can be found and
implemented during the need.
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Introduction
Production is one of the major factors in any of the business deals with the
conversion of raw material to the finished goods. It is an act of creating and output in the
form of goods are the services that provide value and utility to the end consumers. The major
factors of production include land, labor, capital, and enterprise. Often, the high production
means that more people are employed and the production is also more than the average. On
the other hand, low productivity means the less number of people employed and the
production is also less than the average.
Airbus A380 is the largest passenger Airlines in the world manufactured by the
Airbus. Airbus launched $10.7 billion A380 programme on December 2000. The first
prototype was launched on January 2005 and the first flight on 27th April 2005. Initially it
was delivered to Singapore Airlines in October 2007. The production increased to 30 aircrafts
per year in 2012 and 2014. The total investment on the aircraft was more than $25 billion and
the company concedes that the invested amount cannot be recouped. The company also states
that the production will end by 2021 with the production of 14 aircrafts. It is important to
study the reason behind the production failure of the Airbus A380 and the paper will also
compare and contrast the research findings with the principles and concepts presented by
Heizer, et al.
Review of literature
The technological development has been taken place at an increased rate resulting in
the introduction of smart manufacturing systems and unmanned production lines. Smart
manufacturing helps to reduce human intervention and also permits the systems to control the
sites intelligently. Considering this, various Global manufacturers like Aviation and
Aerospace companies are trying to develop various smart manufacturing methods. The virtual
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factory system is the Digital manufacturing system that solves and manages the problems
related to the overall production process by Linking with various sites in the virtual
environment. The research proposals the systematic design as well as the strategic plan for
the efficient implementation and usability to the real manufacturing companies. Moreover, a
systematic and efficient way of introducing the virtual factory is presented with the help of
diagnosis, analysis as well as the establishment of strategy, implementation plan and system
design. (Choi, Kim, & Noh, 2015)
The authors intended to identify the critical factors that constrain the implementation
as well as the sustenance of the line strategies in the aviation industry and also the ways to
avoid the slow attrition within the annals of lean. The research is exploratory and the survey
methodology was used to assess the post lean management implementation. The purpose of
the study is to cross sectional within the aircraft industry on the basis of information collected
from the case study as well as the survey. The various reason behind the weak
implementation of lean initiatives identified. Some of the measures undertaken in the study
imply the successful turn around of the particular department. The comparison was also done
with the automobile industry indicating the suggestions as well as pitfalls to be avoided. The
reason behind the study was aircraft manufacturers and the limitations to them in terms of
scope. The research has implications for the managers in almost all the industrial
environment especially in the aviation sector for a lean supply chain establishment. The
inputs were obtained based on both Industrial Research as well as case study having an
impact on the lean management in industries. (Kumar, Sharma, Agarwal, 2015)
The purpose of the research was to analyze empirically as well as with the use of the
industry wide survey to establish and extent of the adoption of lean. It also verified the
suitability in mitigating the prevalent maintenance repair and overhaul challenges. The
empirical study mentioned in the paper was facilitated by the industry wide survey to gather
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information from various organizations across the spectrum. The responses obtained from the
industry leaders executive and professionals were synthesized with the existing literature to
ascertain the extent of adoption of lean within the operational framework of the industry. The
study helped in validating the usability of maintenance repair and overhaul context. However,
it was found that the focus was skewed towards the production oriented functions as
compared to the services oriented functions. The positive influence of lean has been observed
by the results of the paper. (Ayeni, Ball, & Baines, 2016)
The authors outline the application of Six Sigma methodology is the way to reduce
the risk in the supply chain in the Aerospace maintenance repair and overhaul functions. In
this context, the LSS method is utilized to know the economic impact on the selection of the
maintenance strategy for aircraft display units and reduction in the turn around time variation
of the display units. The research develops the approach that includes the development of the
Monte Carlo technique to identify the most cost effective maintenance repair and overhaul
strategy along with reducing variability in the turnaround time servicing in the display units.
The authors found an effective development of the Six Sigma approach and the effectiveness
in subsequently evaluated highlighting the benefit of the host organization. It is also found
that there is a possibility to identify the most cost effective maintenance repair and overhaul
strategy and suggestions regarding the suitable replacement policy to allow the development
of appropriate maintenance schedules for the organization. (Andrew J. Thomas, Rachel
Mason-Jones, Alan Davies, Elwyn G. John, 2015)
The authors intended to review the current literature to analyze the human factors in
the maintenance and areas that need improvements. The review is based on the novel
framework for systematically grouping the human factors in three major categories Human
Resource Management, workplace design, and human error. The Framework also included
the two most important human factor frameworks: the economic domains framework and the
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Swiss Cheese model. It is found that human factors in maintenance are the major issue. The
important insights in context to the influence of human factor for the maintenance decision
making. A robust framework has been established after incorporating various approaches.
(Sheikhalishahi, Pintelon, & Azadeh, 2016)
Martínez-Jurado & Moyano-Fuentes, (2014) intended to identify the critical
explanatory factors that play an important role in the adoption of lean production. Qualitative
methodology was used to accomplish the goal specifically a case study research in the
Aerospace industry. The results stated that there are certain factors that resulted in the
adoption of lean production and other strategies affecting the success of adoption includes the
deeply rooted culture of Total Quality, the role of lean leader, the structure of the lean
organization, the role of top management, and the institutional support. To control factors
identified in the process of adoption are resistance & skepticism of people and unionization.
(Martínez-Jurado & Moyano-Fuentes, 2014)
The accidental events occurring in the manufacturing industries are mainly due to the
factors like work method, maintenance, reliability, equipment design, and lack of training.
The study is targeted to determine the contribution of failures of commonly used industrial
equipment like machines, tools, material handling equipment, so as to analyze the casualty of
industrial incidents and accidents. On the basis of the case study that targets to analyze the
prevailing paper and pulp company accident database, analyses the number, type as well as
gravity of failures involved in the accidents and their causes. The results show that the
equipment failure results in a severe impact on the severity and number of accidents
accounted for the database. 272 from 773 accidental events work closely associated with
failure of equipment, out of which 13 had direct human consequences. The failures resulting
in a direct or indirect impact were analyzed. (Bourassa, Gauthier, & Abdul-Nour, 2016)
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The failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is based on systematic methods to
analyze the possible problems in the products or processes. The research also analyses the
impacts of these problems on the products and processes that facilitate the adoption of
improvement and prevention measures. FMEA focuses on the problem creating factors and
also the solution for the problem according to the critical nature of the factor. FMEA
identifies the factors to be improved. IPA was used to discuss the improvement of the
performance of the factors. DEMATEL analysis explore the causal relationship and
interaction with other factors. The study held in making decisions to solve the core problems.
(Tsai, Yu, Ma, Luo, Zhou, Chen, & Xu, 2017)
With the increase in the complexity of the Technologies systems, it has become very
difficult for human operators to understand the working of the system. This resulted in the
need for understanding the reasons behind the human error. Human error is considered as a
constraint on the processes. A new process methodology was created to show how the
technical systems, human error, external factors, evolve over time in the process. The
applicability demonstrated with the help of the data set of studies. The method allows the
analysis of cases individually and collectively for the patterns. The research states the
methodological contribution and suggestions related to the new insights for the human error
occurrence at landing. (Pons & Dey, 2015)
The research focused to study the accidents caused due to the aviation which also
includes the environmental, aircrew, supervisory as well as the organizational factors
associated with two major types of commercial aviations which include commuter and your
career. The accidents have been observed with the help of human factor analysis and
classification system. It is a system which is based on the analysis and investigation of human
errors for any kind of incidents and accidents. The research has shown that the system is
reliable to identify the human factors with the military as well as general aviation accidents.
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The research utilized the data obtained from Federal aviation administration, National
transportation safety board, 6 pilot raters, and environmental factors associated with more
than 1000 commercial aviation accidents took place in the past 13 years. The research found
that most of the accidents were caused due to the causal factors like aircrew and the
environment, and very fewer factors are associated with organizational and supervisory
causes. Various comparisons were also made between the traditional situational variables like
regional differences injury severity and visual conditions with the causal categories of the
system. The research supports the continuation and modification of interventions for
commercial aviation safety. (Lawry & Pons 2013)
Analysis
It’s without a doubt a pitiful moment for the flight business, as this achievement of
innovation and building enters its dusk years. Any of the 120 million travelers in the A380’s
12-year history would without a doubt have affectionate recollections of first entering the
twin-decked flying machine, visiting its on-flight bars and just taking in its sheer size.
Airbus neglected to anticipate how purchasers’ preferences for air travel would
change throughout the years. They clutched the conviction that people would lean toward
traveling to real airplane terminal “centers” like Singapore, Tokyo, New York and other
enormous urban communities, making the twin-deck A380 the perfect decision for aircrafts.
It would ease blockage in these bustling ports, offloading up to 800 travelers a period.
Notwithstanding, Boeing got the high ground with their vision that explorers would incline
toward taking littler, direct courses to their goals, paying little mind to the little planes and
airplane terminals on offer. It took care of business for workers, and the proficient
coordinations implied flights could be booked all the more adaptable and oblige all the more
needs. Aircrafts purchase dependent on the requests of its travelers, and Boeing appears to
have edged Airbus out in this two-tied race for the present.
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While a seating limit of 800 may appear to be noteworthy at first, it is no simple
accomplishment to top off. For carriers, it’s a battle to simply breakeven, don’t worry about its
benefits. To augment income, carriers need to fill their seats, which is boosted with limits and
advancements. This makes it hard to keep to income targets, particularly amid times when the
economy is doing gravely – much increasingly void seats or dropped flights. Littler planes
are less demanding to top off and less delicate to the financial downturn, turned out to be
more economical and dependable than the enormous young men.
Airplane terminals are required to experience a wide range of changes, from more
extensive runways, bigger holding rooms and comforts for travelers, to greater storages. Its
four gigantic turbines present an entirely different rundown of updates required, including
more grounded landing area on the runway to withstand the sheer power of its four epic
turbines, and signs that should be tilted, or moved, so they don’t escape. These alterations
don’t come modest. Airplane terminals like San Francisco International Airport spent over $2
billion to construct new terminals that would encourage planes of such extents, and the Port
Authority of New York and New Jersey spent up to $175 million on infrastructural redesigns
for the A380 alone. Different air terminals just avoided the thought, narrowing the market for
the A380.
The open fly, which had its first business trip in 2007 with Singapore Airlines, was
prominent with travelers however it was convoluted and costly to work, to a limited extent on
account of the way creation was spread crosswise over different areas. At the end of the day
interest for the A380 from aircraft evaporated as the business moved far from bigger planes
for littler, wide-body planes. At the point when Airbus was imagining the A380, Boeing was
additionally considering designs for a superjumbo. In any case, the US organization chose to
scrap the thought for its littler, productive – and increasingly effective – 787 Dreamliner.
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Considering the principles and concepts presented in Heizer, et al. Textbook, it is
found that Boeing’s procedure for its 787 Dreamliner is exceptional for its mechanically
propelled product plan and huge worldwide store network. The Dreamliner joins the most
recent in a wide scope of aviation advances, from airframe and motor structure to
super-lightweight titanium-graphite cover and carbon-fiber composites. The electronic
observing framework that enables the plane to report support prerequisites progressively to
ground-based PC frameworks is another item development. Boeing’s joint effort with General
Electric and Rolls-Royce has brought about the advancement of increasingly proficient
motors and an outflows decrease of 20%. The advances in motor innovation contribute as
much as 8% of the expanded fuel/payload proficiency of the new plane, speaking to an about
two-age bounce in innovation. (Heizer, Render, & Munson, 2017)
The 787 is worldwide not just in light of the fact that it has a scope of 8,300 miles,
yet additionally on the grounds that it is constructed everywhere throughout the world. With
an immense monetary duty of over $5 billion, Boeing required accomplices. The worldwide
idea of both the innovation and the airplane advertise implied finding remarkable building
ability and providers, wherever they may be. It likewise implied building up a culture of joint
effort and incorporation with firms willing to venture up to the hazard related to this
progressive and extravagant new item. (Heizer, Render, & Munson, 2017) The creative
Dreamliner, with its worldwide range and overall inventory network, is setting new
dimensions of operational proficiency. Accordingly, it is the quickest selling business stream
in history with more than 1,100 planes sold. Boeing’s Dreamliner mirrors the worldwide idea
of business in the 21st century.
Conclusion
Airbus A380 is the largest passenger Airlines in the world manufactured by the
Airbus. Airbus launched $10.7 billion A380 programme on December 2000. The production
RESEARCH PAPER
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increased to 30 aircrafts per year in 2012 and 2014. Reasons for failure in the production
management of Airbus A380 are sales were hindered by fundamental problems, growth
outlook has changed causing a restructuring of aircraft orders, and end-to-end flying is taking
over from hub-and-spoke. On the other hand, Boeing 787 Dreamliner seemed to be
successful due to technologically advanced product design and vast global supply chain.
12
RESEARCH PAPER
References
Airbus scraps A380 superjumbo jet as sales slump. (2019).
https://www.bbc.com/news/business-47231504
Andrew J. Thomas, Rachel Mason-Jones, Alan Davies, Elwyn G. John, (2015) “Reducing
turn-round variability through the application of Six Sigma in aerospace MRO
facilities”, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 26 Issue: 3,
pp.314-332
Ayeni, P., Ball, P., & Baines, T. (2016) “Towards the strategic adoption of Lean in aviation
Maintenance Repair and Overhaul (MRO) industry: An empirical study into the
industry’s Lean status”, Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 27
Issue: 1, pp.38-61
Bourassa, D., Gauthier, F., & Abdul-Nour, G. (2016). Equipment failures and their
contribution to industrial incidents and accidents in the manufacturing industry.
International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, Volume 22, Pages
131-141.
Choi, S., Kim, B., & Noh, S. (2015). “A diagnosis and evaluation method for strategic
planning and systematic design of a virtual factory in smart manufacturing systems”,
International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Volume 16, Issue
6, pp 1107–1115
Heizer, J. H., Render, B., & Munson, C. (2017). Operations management: Sustainability and
supply chain management.
RESEARCH PAPER
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Kumar, R., Sharma, M., & Agarwal, A. (2015) “An experimental investigation of lean
management in aviation: Avoiding unforced errors for better supply chain”, Journal of
Manufacturing Technology Management, Vol. 26 Issue: 2, pp.231-260
Lawry K, Pons DJ. (2013). Integrative Approach to the Plant Commissioning Process. J
Indust Eng (572072): 1-12.
Martínez-Jurado, P. & Moyano-Fuentes, J. (2014). “Key determinants of lean production
adoption: evidence from the aerospace sector”, Production Planning & Control,
Volume 25, 2014 – Issue 4
Mohammad Sheikhalishahi, Liliane Pintelon, Ali Azadeh, (2016) “Human factors in
maintenance: a review”, Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, Vol. 22 Issue:
3, pp.218-237
Pons, D. & Dey, K. (2015). Aviation Human Error Modelled as a Production Process. The
Ergonomics Open Jou …
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