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InstructionsInitially, review the issues discussed in this unit, such as marketing, hospitality management styles, planning, organizing, leadership or other topics from the three textbook chapters in your required reading. Then, choose two of the issues listed above, and search the CSU Online Library for two articles pertaining to each of two issues. This will give you a total of four articles to critique in this assignment. The chosen articles should be less than three years old and should exceed three pages in length.Analyze and evaluate the articles as to their relevance in today’s marketplace, and organize your Article Critique as follows:Part 1 of the critique consists of the identification of the two issue areas that you have selected and the articles that pertain to each issue or topic. Be certain that you provide readers with enough information about the articles through proper APA formatting in in-text citations and in your references list at the end of your submission. This way, the reader can find the articles themselves if he or she wishes to read them.Part 2 presents an abstract of each article in which you briefly summarize the main points the author(s) established.Part 3 offers your actual critique of the articles. You are to provide your reaction (insightful, critical, and logical) to the points the authors made in their respective articles. A simple statement of agreement or disagreement is not sufficient. While you may make such a statement by way of an introduction to your reaction, you must clearly and logically state the reasons for the position you have taken toward the data presented within the articles.Your critique should be a minimum of 1,000 words. Be sure to utilize proper APA formatting throughout your critique, including citations and references.Textbook:Walker, J. R. (2013). Introduction to hospitality management (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
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UNIT VII STUDY GUIDE
Leadership and Management,
Planning, and Organizing
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
5. Determine marketing strategies within the operations of hospitality and tourism entities.
5.1 Create a marketing program for a new hospitality product introduction.
8. Distinguish necessary components of management styles for successful hospitality/travel industry
professionals.
8.1 Explain the differences between leadership and management.
Reading Assignment
Chapter 14: Leadership and Management
Chapter 15: Planning
Chapter 16: Organizing
Unit Lesson
In this unit, we will look at the management, leadership, planning and organizing of hospitality operations. The
initial focus is to differentiate leadership and management. To make it simple, leadership is the more formal
aspect, while management is the working side of the big picture (Walker, 2013). The leader must organize his
or her troops and get them ready for action. The leader has a strong and significant influence on the group
and the direction in which they will be moving. Rather than get into the complex issues of leadership, which
have been defined and redefined over the years, the simple definition of a leader is one who has followers.
Management or managers are charged with the task of accomplishing predetermined goals through the
utilization of others. The managers must empower employees to make decisions to achieve these goals, all
the while verifying that they have the resources to do this. Managers will not necessarily become involved in
the day-to-day operations; however, they will supervise and monitor group progress. Leaders and managers
will not work behind the counter at their units; their time and expertise are more effective at making the
company operate more efficiently and preparing it for the future. In management, it is said that managers
work with the 5 Ms: money, machinery, manpower, materials, and market (Walker, 2013).
Today’s trends in leadership and management include the following: managing diverse groups, training a new
generation in basic job skills, reducing the number of full-time employees, hiring more part-time employees,
keeping up with the benefits of technological advances, emphasizing ethics in the workplace, and maintaining
global security and safety. The functions of leadership and management must withstand increased demands
and responsibilities and still achieve the pre-determined goals (Walker, 2013).
A major portion of both leadership and management is effective planning and organizing to achieve goals.
Things do not happen by themselves, at least not the way you want them to, but the proper planning and
organizing will allow the desired results to be achieved. The utilization of long term planning (strategic) and
short term planning (operational) will establish the forward path for the organization (Walker, 2013). Both
types are critical in the development of a successful hospitality operation.
The planning and organizing process is a major function of project management. A project has critical
mandates for completion time and budget—both of which must be met. Increasingly, hospitality companies
utilize project management to achieve a rapid response to opportunities. Taking into account the rapid
changes occurring in the hospitality business and the trends in sustainability, technology, and global
BHM 3010, Introduction to Hospitality
1
communication, the planning and organizing processes must keep pace. The UNIT
education
and training
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leaders, managers, supervisors, and the majority of the organizational chart must
Titlebe a priority, particularly in
the principles of efficiency and effectiveness.
As we mentioned the organizational structure, we must discuss the important elements in its design. The
structure of the organization is intended to divide work into functional areas. Formal lines of authority and
communications are established for development of a framework in which job functions are grouped. In the
hospitality business environment, the trend is to have flatter organizational structures or fewer levels. This
allows more flexibility in decisions and actions, which is a good thing for the guests and their satisfaction. If
there is an issue with a guest, employees are empowered and/or have fewer hoops to jump through to obtain
a resolution decision by management, or they can make one themselves.
The organizational chart will also visualize the chain of command. Departments and titles are shown so that
the line of authority can be traced top to bottom or vice versa. The size of the organization will determine the
levels and reporting structure. Whether it is 30 employees or 10,000, there will be an organizational structure
that is best to achieve designated goals.
Think of a small hospitality company, such as a local hotel in your town, as compared to a large, national
chain of hotels. They must operate in a similar fashion, and the number and methods of their employees will
be organized and grouped by functional area, even though the small hotel may have one person in a group
(Walker, 2013). The goals can be the same, but it will be a different management process to make it to the
top of the mountain.
Leadership cannot be defined as a one-size-fits-all convention. Constructing the best ensemble with the
correct choices and the right style, at the right time and proper situation, is a primary key to being successful
and effective. Choosing an inappropriate leadership style can lead to negatives such as misunderstandings,
production decline, poor work performances, absenteeism, and high turnover (Motowidlo, 2003). As stated by
Goleman (2000), there should be awareness by leaders in recognizing how their leadership style is
synonymous with organizational success.
Successful leaders are unambiguous in their ability to get things done through others. Conversely, their
leadership style will influence their competency level, just as the subordinate’s performance will determine
their competency to perform assigned tasks. According to Bennis (2002), the primary goal of an effective
leader is the ability to articulate vision and instill trust, belief, and loyalty, and it should lead towards achieving
goals. In order to be successful, the leader must cultivate trust and form relationships with employees to
complete directives. This will be the determinant of a leadership style(s) (Kelloway & Barling, 2000). The
selection of a leadership style ultimately concerns the necessities of the people and the organization being led
(Goleman, 2000). Goleman (2000) discusses three leadership styles: transformation leadership, transactional
leadership, and situational leadership.
Transformational Leadership
Choosing a transformational leadership style, leaders establish values for their subordinates that will motivate
and persuade them to achieve goals (Jung, 2000). Transformational style allows a sense of mission, vision,
pride, respect, and trust. Mulla and Krishnan (2011) theorized an association between transformational
leadership and a subordinate’s moral values. The positive effect of transformational leadership is that it
enhances self-knowledge and increases the performance expectation value to the financial performance of
the teams.
These leaders are visible and inspirational, since they expect the best, hold themselves accountable, and
have good conflict resolution skills. They generally possess high emotional intelligence, demonstrate
leadership qualities in a group, and are generators of increased morale, motivation, and morals (Zafra,
Retamero, & Landa, 2008). Transformational leaders are highly visible, know how to delegate, and spend a
lot of time communicating. Transformational leaders generate positive change that emphasizes the
characteristics of task-goal efforts and the importance of values.
In its ideal form, transformational leadership creates valuable and positive change in its followers, with the
end goal of developing followers into leaders—enhancing motivation, morale, and performance through a
variety of mechanisms. These include connecting the follower’s sense of identity and self to the mission and
the collective identity of the organization; being a role model for followers that inspires them; challenging
BHM 3010, Introduction to Hospitality
2
followers to take greater ownership for their work; and understanding the strengths
weaknesses
UNIT and
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followers so the leader can align tasks that optimize their performance (Bass, Title
Avolio, Jung, & Berson, 2003).
As written by Berson, Shamir, Avolio, and Popper (2001), the concept of transformational leadership
facilitates innovation and maintains a smooth, positive-forward momentum during these changes—
establishing value in the changes while encouraging employees to pursue the shared vision.
Transactional Leadership
The transactional leadership style is utilized by organizations transacting pay increases, recognition, and
promotions for strong performers, and punishment for weak. Individuals consent to obey this type of leader
upon acceptance of the job. The role of effective leaders in the transactional style is rewarding subordinates
on a contingency, handing out incentives and various honors for those who have met their promise of fulfilling
the goals of the organization. All roles are clarified since individuals are judged on performance.
Those motivated by external rewards often thrive. The environment can be negative, leading to high turnover.
Knowledge-based and creative work is generally non-existent. This type of leadership lends itself more
towards the management side of the spectrum and works by creating an economic exchange in which
employees’ material needs are met in return for services rendered for the company. Transactional leaders are
often put into a position where followers are obligated to act, such as in government, the military, or schools.
Observations have demonstrated the effectiveness of transactional leadership when organizations are
desirous in achieving goals and objectives. Drawbacks include the propensity of leaders to exploit workers by
abuse of their power (Franke & Felfe, 2011).
Situational Leadership
The situational leadership theory presents the argument that there can be a customization of leadership styles
dependent upon team members. As written by Hersey and Blanchard (1977), the theory denotes there is not
a singular ideal or effective style of leadership to lead employees to their set goals, which indicates that any
style can be applied, affording the situation in which it has to work effectively. Maturity level is the deciding
factor. Immature individuals require a more direct approach, while higher maturity levels require a more
participative or delegating leadership style. This tags itself as a critical component in any organizational
structure, and the reason why the best leaders concentrate on the development of future leaders for
mentoring and relationship building (Gadot, 2007).
Hersey and Blanchard (1977) have performed extensive research and writings on situational leadership, the
basis being that the better and most effective method for leaders is task relevant. Successful leaders
customize their leadership to the maturity level of the group(s) or individuals in their purview (Hersey &
Blanchard, 1977). An effective leader should demonstrate flexibility in order to change his or her method per
the varying scenario. Leaders must also be aggressive in the introduction of enthusiasm for the work being
performed and demonstrate this behavior to their followers (Hersey & Blanchard, 1997).
The claim cannot be made that situational leadership is correct for all situations. Certain situations may
indicate a preferred model of leadership such as autocratic, democratic, or transactional. This concludes that
even if the method of leading people is flexible, this does not guarantee a positive result since there are
situations which may require a rigid and strong style to be more successful (Hersey & Blanchard, 1997).
Eventually, the decision is made to choose the best leadership theory. This will encompass a combination of
them all to create a custom approach that demonstrates your personality and involves learning. This will
establish you as a strong leader (Zafra et al., 2008).
References
Bass, B. M., Avolio, B. J., Jung, D. I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing
transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 207-218.
Bennis, W. (2002). Become a tomorrow leader. In L. C. Spears (Ed.), Focus on Leadership: ServantLeadership for the 21st Century (pp. 101-109). New York, NY: Wiley.
BHM 3010, Introduction to Hospitality
3
Berson, Y., Shamir, B., Avolio, B. J., & Popper, M. (2001). The relationship between
strength,
UNIT xvision
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leadership style, and context. The Leadership Quarterly, 12(1), 53-73.Title
Franke, F., & Felfe, J. (2011). How does transformational leadership impact employees’ psychological strain?:
Examining differentiated effects and the moderating role of affective organizational commitment.
Leadership, 7(3), 295- 316.
Gadot, E. V. (2007). Leadership style, organizational politics, and employees’ performance. Leadership Style,
36(5), 661-683.
Goleman, D. (2000, March). Leadership that gets results. Harvard Business Review
Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. (1977). Management of organizational behavior. New York, NY: Prentice-Hall.
Jung, D. I. (2000). Transformational and transactional leadership and their effects on creativity in groups.
Creativity Research Journal, 13(2), 185–195.
Kelloway, E. K., & Barling, J. (2000). What we have learned about developing transformational leaders.
Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 21(7), 355-62.
Motowidlo, S. M. (2003). Job performance. Handbook of Psychology, 12.
Mulla, Z., & Krishnan, V. (2011). Transformational leadership: Do the leader’s morals matter and do the
follower’s morals change? Journal of Human Values, 17(2), 129-143.
Walker, J. R. (2013). Introduction to hospitality management (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Zafra, E., Retamero, R., & Landa, J. (2008). The role of transformational leadership, emotional
intelligence, and group cohesiveness on leadership emergence. Journal of Leadership Studies,
2(3), 37-49. 135-154.
Suggested Reading
Click here to view the Chapter 14 PowerPoint presentation or here to view a PDF of the presentation.
Click here to view the Chapter 15 PowerPoint presentation or here to view a PDF of the presentation.
Click here to view the Chapter 16 PowerPoint presentation or here to view a PDF of the presentation.
Use the Business Source Complete database to locate and read the following article:
cre•a•tive•ship. (2013). T+D, 67(4), 15.
BHM 3010, Introduction to Hospitality
4
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e
and
Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e
John R. Walker
Leadership and Management
Chapter 14
Leadership
• Leaders can and do make a difference when
measuring a company’s success.
• Few groups can accomplish much without an
individual who acts as an effective leader.
• The leader can and often does have a
significant influence on the group and its
direction
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Leadership Traits
• Courage
• Decisiveness
• Dependability
• Endurance
• Enthusiasm






Judgment
Justice
Knowledge
Loyalty
Tact
Unselfishness
• Initiative
• Integrity
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Identifiable Practices
Common to Leaders
• Challenge the process
• Inspire a shared vision
• Enable others to act
• Model the way
• Encourage the heart
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Definitions of Leadership
• “Leading is the process by which a person with
vision is able to influence the activities and
outcomes of others in a desired way.”
• Leaders know what they want and why they
want it—and they are able to communicate
those desires to others to gain their cooperation
and support
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Transactional Leadership
• Process by which a leader is able to
bring about desired actions from others
by using certain behaviors, rewards, or
incentives
• In essence, an exchange or transaction
takes place between leader and
follower
– A hotel general manager who pressures the
food and beverage director to achieve certain
goals in exchange for a bonus is an example
of someone practicing transactional
leadership
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Figure 14-1 Transactional Leadership Model
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Transformational Leadership
• Eliciting performance above normal
expectations
• Three important factors:
– Charisma
– Individual consideration
– Intellectual stimulation
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Examples of Excellence
in Leadership
• Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
• Herb Kelleher
• Bill Fisher
• Richard P. Mayer
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Demands Placed on Leaders
• Includes those made by owners, the
corporate office, guests, employees,
regulatory agencies, and competitors
• Figure 14-2:
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Common Traits Among
Leaders Include:
• High ego strength
• Strategic thinking ability
• Orientation towards the future
• Belief in principles of human behavior
• Strong connections
• Politically astute
• Know how to use power
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Approaches to Becoming a
Hotel Leader
• Be decisive
• Follow through
• Select the best
• Empower employees
• Enhance career development
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Hospitality Management
• Managers plan, organize, make decisions,
communicate, motivate, control the efforts
of a group to accomplish predetermined
goals, and establish direction
• Managers focus most of their time on
strategic planning and the organization’s
mission
– Most top managers do not get involved in the
day-to-day aspects of the operation
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher …
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