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Letter of AdviceFor this assignment, you will write a letter of advice to either a newly engaged couple or a group of coworkers. Imagine that either the engaged couple or coworkers hear that you are taking a course in interpersonal communication and want advice regarding how to communicate in their personal or professional relationships. Based on what you have learned in this course, your personal experience, and the five learning objectives we have covered, what advice would you give them regarding how to communicate effectively? How can you use what you have learned in this class to offer a couple or group of co-workers advice to have more positive relationships? Write your paper in the form of a letter. Please review the Sample Final Paper.InstructionsUse the list of learning outcomes to write your letter. The course learning outcomes you will need to cover are listed below:Explain the principles of and barriers to effective interpersonal communications.Analyze the role of communication in developing and maintaining one’s self-concept, self-image, and self-esteem.Differentiate appropriate levels of self-disclosure and emotional intelligence in various relationships.Describe strategies for using communication techniques to resolve interpersonal conflicts.Analyze the impact of gender and culture on interpersonal communications.For each of the five learning outcomes, create a separate heading that states the learning outcome that you are addressing. Then, address the following for each segment:Explain the principles of and barriers to effective, competent interpersonal communications. Why do the principles matter? How can your couple or group of co-workers overcome the barriers you have listed?Analyze the role of communication in developing and maintaining one’s self-concept, self-image, and self-esteem. Begin by defining each term and then explain how these three notions of the self potentially impact the relationships of your couple or group of co-workers. What advice can you offer to help them develop a positive self-concept or build each other’s self-esteem?Illustrate the importance of self-disclosure and emotional intelligence in various relationships. What role does self-disclosure play in the relationships of your couple or co-workers? How can their relationships be improved by them becoming more emotionally intelligent? What connections can be made between emotional intelligence and self-disclosure?Evaluate strategies for using communication techniques to resolve interpersonal conflicts. Explain one or two potential conflicts and then present at least two strategies for addressing the dispute(s).Analyze the impact of gender and culture on interpersonal communications. First, define these two key terms. Then, explain the importance of gender and culture in relationships generally and for your couple or group of co-workers specifically. What advice can you give to become a better communicator based on the information you have presented?Content RequirementsYou must address all five of the learning outcomes and the questions listed with those objectives. For each objective, be sure to define key terms and relate those ideas directly to advice for your couple or co-workers. The point here is for you to demonstrate how these ideas can be utilized to help people in their relationships. Try to offer specific advice they can integrate into their lives.Begin your paper with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement and that previews what you plan to cover in your paper. End with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis and restates your key points.You must use at least five scholarly sources to help you make your points. At least three of these should be course readings and two should be academic articles you have found yourself by doing research in the Ashford University Library. If you need help doing research, visit the Ashford University Library, which can be accessed through the Library tab in the left-navigation menu, in your online course.You must also draw on personal experience to offer advice or to illustrate points. It is acceptable to use hypothetical examples and/or your personal experiences for either your couple or group of co-workers. We simply want to see that you can apply what you have learned to some potential “real world” experience.The Final PaperMust be 8 to 10 double-spaced pages in length (not including title and references pages) and formatted according to APA style. For assistance, visit the Ashford Writing Center’s Introduction to APA (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..Must include a title page with the following (for further assistance with the formatting and the title page, please refer to Ashford Writing Cetner’s APA Formatting for Word 2013 (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.):Title of paperStudent’s nameCourse name and numberInstructor’s nameDate submittedMust include an introduction and conclusion paragraph. Your introduction paragraph needs to end with a clear thesis statement that indicates the purpose of your paper. For assistance on writing introductions, conclusions, and thesis statements, please refer to the following web pages, housed within the Ashford Writing Center & Library resources tab:Introductions & Conclusions (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Writing a Thesis Statement (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.Must use each learning objectives as a header dividing each section of the paper.Must use the textbook as a source. The Integrating Research (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. tutorial will offer further assistance on including supporting information and reasoning.Must use two additional course articles/videos and two academic articles the student has found independently. A total of five sources must be used in the paper and be on the reference list.Must document any information from a source in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center’s Citing Within Your Paper (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..Must include a separate references page that is formatted according to APA style. See the Formatting Your References List (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. guide created by the Ashford Writing Center.Before you submit your written assignment, you are encouraged to review The Grammarly Guide: How to Set Up & Use Grammarly (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. tutorial, set up a Grammarly account (if you have not already done so), and use Grammarly to review a rough draft of your assignment. Then carefully review all issues identified by Grammarly and revise your work as needed.Final NotesThis is a formal paper and should utilize proper grammar, complete sentences, and paragraph transitions. However, you will write this paper in the format of a letter to the newly-engaged couple or group of co-workers. Feel free to address the people you select directly throughout the paper.After you have written the paper, please review the grading rubric to ensure you have met all of the requirements.


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Communication Barriers
Communication and Its Barriers
Star Student
Com 200: Interpersonal Communication
Instructor Who?
Enter Date
Communication Barriers
Communication is one of the most basic and essential parts of being a living creature.
Every living thing must communicate is some way to survive. For humans, it is essential to feel
Commented [KC1]: For this letter, you are addressing a
specific audience, so be sure to include a “Dear John and
Jane,” and direct your comments and advice specifically to
connected to the world around us. Both internal communication and communication with others
can affect how we view ourselves and the world. Understanding the basic principles and barriers
to communication is one of the best ways to communicate effectively. It is also important to
know that there are many things that can change the way we communicate with each other such
as culture and gender. As we begin to understand these differences, we can then be more
affective in the way we approach and react to them. The are many things that go into good
communication and understanding them will help you overcome obstacles and barriers.
Understanding communication is very important for being effective while
Commented [KC2]: There is good sentiment here. But as
an introduction, you also need a clear thesis that is the
heart of your paper and a preview of what you plan to do in
the paper. I struggled a bit finding those.
communicating. According to Bevan and Sole (2014) communication is “a process where two or
more individuals strive to create shared meaning using verbal or nonverbal messages in a variety
of contexts.” This is a large definition, but that is because communication requires a lot to be
Commented [KC3]: Don’t forget to include a page or
section number with all quotes.
effective. There is a lot that goes into relaying meaning. An important part of relaying a message
is to ensure shared meaning. It is important that both people involved in communication
understand what is being said. If speaking to someone who does not understand the language of
the speaker, the message will not be relayed effectively. All parties involved in communication
need to be on the same page about what is being shared. It also important to understand that the
speaker’s view of a situation is only one view. Every person involved has their own unique idea
about the ideas and thoughts being presented (Bevan and Sole 2014). It is important to recognize
that the ideas being shared are not the only ones that matter. When one can consider the ideas
and opinions of those being communicated with then the message will be able to be delivered
more effectively.
Commented [KC4]: Nice detail on how shared meaning
might not happen.
Communication Barriers
There are many examples of barriers to communication. Miscommunication can happen
for many reasons, including the two discussed here. A good example of a time that
miscommunication occurred was an incident that I had recently with my son. My son and I were
visiting his care team to decide on a health plan for treating his chronic illness. My son’s doctor
was going over the options that were available to us. The doctor began to explain the different
medications available and discussed corticosteroids. My son was upset at the mention of these
medications and began to refuse their use. The doctor asked my son why he would refuse these
medications but my son refused to list his reasons. Without understanding why my son would
refuse the medications, the doctor prescribed them and sent us home with the medications. When
we were home, my son was distressed to find out that we had been sent home with the very
medications that he did not want.
There were a couple of things happening in the example. The first issue is misperception.
Commented [KC5]: You can use this for the final, but
remember that you will have a specific audience in mind either a group of co-workers or a couple. You want to relate
this to them so it is meaningful.
Misperception is “the most frequent and broadest challenge of interpersonal communication
(Bevan & Sole, 2014).” There are many reasons for misperception. Emotional conflicts,
personal distress, and even noise can cause misperception. In the example given here, my son
was in emotional distress over the idea of having more medications and this caused him to not be
clear with doctor about his reasons for not wanting the suggested medication. There was also
destructive communication occurring. Bevans and Sole (2014) describe destructive
communication as “negative and harmful messages that include hostility, insults, and shouting or
yelling”. This kind of communication can occur during conflict as was the case with my son.
Rather than yell or scream, he engaged in destructive communication by not expressing his needs
to his doctor to be understood. Instead, he allowed his distress to lead his communication and
refused to participate in a dialogue with the doctor to find a solution. Another concern about the
Commented [KC6]: Nice detail. I think more than
destructive, he was “avoiding.” We’ll cover that idea in week
Communication Barriers
interaction in the example is that the doctor and my son did not have shared meaning. They were
not able to be on the same page due to misperceptions. Because my son was not able to explain
his thoughts, the conversation did not allow the doctor to see the other point of view in this
communication. Bevan and Sole (2014) explain that it is important to “try to take the perspective
of other people and consider how their point of view makes sense to them.” The doctor was not
Commented [KC7]: Great direction connection between
your experience and the text!
able to understand my sons point of view which created an ineffective communication about the
medications offered. AS you try to communicate effectively with one another, it is important to
slow down and reflect not only on your emotions, but also the emotions of those around you. By
doing this, you will be better able to achieve shared meaning and avoid misperception.
Another very important thing to remember when communicating is that self-image, selfconcept, and self-esteem can greatly affect not only the way you communicate, but the way
others communicate with you. Self- concept is how you see yourself based on information that
you have received from the world around you and how you process that information. Bevan and
Sole (2104) say that “Though self-concept is an internal process, it is learned, maintained, and
can change through interpersonal communication.” I believe the authors used this statement to
reflect the importance of how our self-concept can change based on how we process the input we
receive as well as how society changes over time. Self-image “is a more general, broad view of
yourself (Bevan & Sole, 2014, 2.1).” Your self-image includes both how you see yourself and
how others see you. It can be affected by your environment and is more permanent that your selfconcept. Self-esteem is a larger sense of how you see yourself overall and how happy you are
with yourself. Self-esteem can be directly affected by your self-image. All three of these
components contribute to how you communicate.
Commented [KC8]: You only need the year the first time
you cite a source. 🙂
Communication Barriers
It is widely accepted that psychology has a big impact on the way you communicate.
Your self-image, self-concept, and self-esteem are directly affected by the psychology of your
life. In the article “The 4 Primary Principles of Communication” by Dan Mager (2017), discusses
this issue by saying “The message sent may not be the message received because it must pass
through a filtering system of thoughts and feelings – for both the sender and the receiver.” This is
a great illustration of how our messages can be received but also how they can be delivered. If
you are used to your significant other disregarding what you say, you may deliver your message
with some hostility. If your significant other hears your message as an attack on them, they may
respond with hostility toward you. Before you know it, you are having an argument where a
discussion could have been had. The way that people view themselves can have a huge impact
Commented [KC9]: Great example as this really shows
how important our mindsets are in how we send and
receive messages.
on the way they communicate. It may be something that a person id not even aware they are
doing. This can be a hard thing for a couple to overcome. It is always a good idea to step back
and reflect rather than communicate in anger. It can also be helpful to take a personal inventory
of the things that may affect your communication and be aware of them when interacting with
your significant other. Sharing this personal inventory with your significant other can be helpful
as well.
Commented [KC10]: Nice advice!
Self-disclosure and emotional intelligence are important things to master to have
affective communication in a relationship of any kind. Self-disclosure is defined as “the
intentional act of sharing private and personal aspects of you with other people (Bevan &Sole,
2014, 7.4).” When you share pieces of yourself with others, you expose yourself to being viewed
and treated differently based on what you have shared. When someone else self-discloses pieces
of themselves to you, it will require you to use your emotional intelligence. According to Bevan
and Sole (2014), emotional intelligence is “the ability to monitor, regulate, and discriminate
Commented [KC11]: For the final paper, be sure to
explain why this is so beneficial.
Communication Barriers
among your own and your partners feelings to guide your thoughts and actions.” In an ideal
situation, both parties involved can self-disclose and be met with good emotional intelligence. As
you receive good emotional intelligence form others, you can begin to develop your own
emotional intelligence. As you begin to self-disclose to others, it is important to understand and
differentiate between what is acceptable to disclose. It is also important to understand that there
are certain times and places to disclose information. How much you disclose and where can be
measured by how appropriate the information is. For example, it may not be a good idea to
discuss intimate details about your spouse on social media. When you are in a relationship, selfdisclosure is a very important process. It is acceptable and crucial to share intimate details of
yourself with your significant other. By developing good emotional intelligence, you will create
a safe space for your significant other to self-disclose and create a foundation of trust.
It is important to recognize that gender and culture can have a great impact on the way
Commented [KC12]: For the final, explain this just a bit
more and connect with the value of self-disclosure. But I
love that you recognize that we have to think through our
reactions and remain calm and respectful. Think through
what we will do in the future if we don’t get that reaction.
we communicate. By understanding both factors, we can recognize the differences that can act as
communication barriers. Culture is “a relatively specialized set of traditions, beliefs, values, and
norms, or standards of behavior that have been passed down from generation to generation by
way of communication (Bevan & Sole, 2014, 3.1).” This is another broad definition because it
encompasses so much of our lives. Our culture can also affect how we communicate based on
Commented [KC13]: List and explain a few here and then
transition into gender.
our gender. There is a distinction between sex and gender that is important to be aware of. Sex is
the biological component of whether we are male or female. Gender is the all the social and
cultural distinctions that separate the sexes. An example of this would be a look at the Chinese
culture. Boys are valued more highly than girls. As a girl in this culture, you may be expected to
do more around the home whereas a boy would be encouraged to go to school and eventually
work outside the home. This cultural norm defines your gender based on your biological sex.
Commented [KC14]: Great example and I love that you
connected to communication later. Excellent work!
Communication Barriers
Let’s continue with this example and illustrate how this might affect the way that genders
communicate in this culture. A female in this culture may not speak up for herself as much
because she is used to being quiet. This can affect how she communicates her needs to her
husband, coworkers, and friends. A male in this culture may be much more driven as more is
expected of him. He may be outspoken about his needs and verbalize those needs above those of
others. It may create an environment within his relationships where emotional intelligence is not
found and self-disclosure does not occur which can lead to discontent within these relationships.
When trying to communicate with others, you may not be aware of these cultural and gender
differences right away. However, by being aware that the differences exist, we can allow
communication to be filtered in a way that is less harsh because it takes the possible differences
into account. This is especially important in a relationship. When you have self-disclosed, it is
easier to be aware of these gender and cultural differences. Taking these differences into account
makes communication with your significant other much smoother and more effective.
When we understand the basic principles and barriers to communication, we can
communicate with one another effectively. There are so many things that can become barriers to
good communication. Once we are aware of them, we can overcome them. Considering gender
and cultural differences, our own self-image, self-esteem and self-concept, and creating on our
own emotional intelligence we can create clear bonds and be effective when speaking to others.
Commented [KC15]: I love that you are illustrating how
all of these themes are connected. Not everyone does this.
Communication Barriers
Bevan, J. L., & Sole, K. (2014). Making connections: Understanding interpersonal
communication (2nd ed.) [Electronic version]. Retrieved from
Communication Barriers
Mager, D. (2017). The 4 Primary Principles of Communication [Web log post]. Retrieved from
Commented [KC16]: You will need five total for the final
paper and two you must find on your own. You needed two
here as well but it was only a small deduction.
Title: Letter of Advice
Student’s Name
Com 200: Interpersonal Communication
Instructor Name: Cheri Ketchum
Date: September 17, 2018
Commented [KC1]:
Fellow Employees,
Some of you may be wondering what I could have possibly gained from taking an
interpersonal communication course. After all, interpersonal communication is just talking
amongst each other, right? Wrong, interpersonal communication is so much more than just
talking with each other. It is being able to understand that we communicate even when we are
not talking. To understand how communication works we must understand these five concepts to
effective communication. Today I want to help you better understand the basic principles and
barriers of effective communication, the role communication plays in developing our sense of
“self”, and differentiating appropriate levels of self-disclosure and emotional intelligence in our
relationships. I also want to introduce strategies for resolving interpersonal conflict and the
impact gender and culture has on communication.
Basic Principles and Barriers to Effective Communication
The first step in improving your communication skills is understanding the basic
principles and barriers to effective communication. It is vital that you understand these
principles because they will help you maintain healthy relationships. According to Bevan and
Sole, there are six basic principles to effective communication: you must take responsibility for
your own communication, remember that every interaction must have a shared meaning,
acknowledge there are multiple views to every situation, respect each other, listen carefully to
what the other person has to say, and practice being a good communicator (2014)! Of these six
principles I would like to take the time to explain the importance of taking responsibility for your
own communication, acknowledging there are multiple views, and the barriers that prevent us
from communicating effectively.
Commented [KC2]: This is a nice preview, Meagan.
Work on your thesis, as I still couldn’t find an
overarching single claim that ties everything together. If
you haven’t, review this video for some help:

According to Bevan and Sole, taking responsibility for your own communication means
to “strive to be truthful, accurate, and clear in your communication with others” (2014, Sec. 1.4,
Par. 2). Having honest communication is one of the most important aspects of any relationship.
Being able to trust someone is all about dependability. If you tell the company that you are
proficient in Microsoft office and Excel but you have never used the software, then you are
lying. If you lie about that, what else could you be lying about? If you lie one time you take
away all the trust and dependability we have in you. It is so easy to lose someone’s trust, and so
Commented [KC3]: Excellent point! Little lies can have
big implications for how our character is interpreted.
hard to gain it back. Lying can lead to suspension or termination, depending on the extent of the
lie. There will be times when you may state something that is not true, but you believe it is true.
According to Levine and Cohen, this is not considered dishonest behavior because honesty is
communicating what “you” believe is true (2018).
Sometimes it is okay to tell little lies, like when you are trying to avoid hurting
someone’s feelings. People who do this are considered more trustworthy than those who say
things to be hurtful (Levine & Cohen, 2018). If Amy were to come into work with puffy eyes
and wrinkled clothes we should not tell her she looks like crap; she most likely has something
going on outside of work. The condition her clothes are in is showing us how she may be feeling
by communicating through nonverbal communication. We see that she is having a bad day or
that something personal is going on. This is also most likely causing a psychological barrier,
preventing her from being her best at work. A psychological barrier occurs when one or both
communicator’s mental states interfere with them communicating effectively (Bevan & Sole,
2014). Psychological barriers come in many forms, such as personal biases, prejudices,
stereotypes, or in Amy’s case extreme emotion (Bevan & Sole, 2014). We encourage you to talk
Commented [KC4]: Nice connection. And I appreciate
that this is open enough to account for a variety of
mental distractions.
to someone when you have a personal crisis going on. Communication is key here and we can
be very understanding if we know what is going on.
Commented [KC5]: Good job blending the explanation
with an example.
Having clear and accurate communication will help us to avoid miscommunications
(Bevan & Sole, 2014). For example, if your husband sends you a text message asking if he
could go to the bar after work to watch the game and you say fine, he does not know that what
you really meant was “ why should you get to go have fun while I go home an …
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