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Part 1Revisit Dr. Ted Lewis’ lectures on network analysis.Using the model you chose, complete the network analysis of your selected network, and include the following:
Determine if your network is scale-free or small-world, and make judgments on why this matters.
Remember, the main purpose for using network analysis is to identify critical nodes and links. Focus your risk analysis on at least 1 of these critical hubs, and include it in your Key Assignment.
Your network analysis will also provide you with better information upon which you might base your choice or design of a resource allocation model. Discuss how the network analysis will inform your resource allocation decisions. Present your output in a well-delivered and clearly understandable format of your choosing, using any media that you desire. Remember to analyze the information that employing your software or model reveals. Such analysis will constitute your findings and should be presented as such. Part 2Key Assignment: Final DraftBelow are the instructions for the Key Assignment (KA), the outline of which was due during Week 4, and the final version, due in Week 5. All of the elements are required for the final KA.ContentFor your Key Assignment, be sure to include the following content:
Cover the sector, network, and assets that you selected earlier and referenced throughout the term. Both your draft KA, and later your final, refined version should address the following:

Discuss the placement of the selected sector in context nationally, regionally, or as otherwise applies. This context should also include discussion of related or overlapping critical infrastructure (CI) sectors that are also relevant to your selected network. Consider any issues or factors pertaining to networks, integration with, or dependence upon other sectors, sector-centric challenges, and so forth. What you choose to include is indicative of your thorough and intelligent approach to covering this requirement.
Include your research and presentation of legal, regulatory, policy-related, and political considerations regarding your selected network, that if not precisely real-world are realistic and reasonable as influences on CI prioritization and resource allocation. This portion will expressly employ applied research methodologies.
Utilize the full application of a vulnerability analysis tool, methodology, or fault tree to analyze your selected network and to identify critical nodes, capabilities, and assets.
Include a complete risk assessment (RA) of at least 1 critical node, identified through your conduct of a vulnerability analysis. This RA model may use an existing tool, be designed by you, or reflect a hybrid of models. The RA will consider threats, vulnerabilities, costs, and risks and identify the most significant among these.
Provide comprehensive recommendations for mitigation, prevention activities, and devices to strengthen protection and resiliency of the network and its assets.
Apply an existing, self-designed, or hybrid model of a resource allocation model to make recommendations on how resources should be applied toward the protection and resiliency of nodes and assets.
Your Key Assignment must include the addition of the following:

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Give recommendations for future public- and private-sector initiatives in effecting protected and resilient CI, drawing on lessons gathered from completing this network analysis and extending these lessons to a larger CI context.
Identify and explain potential solutions to mitigate the risks and vulnerabilities you assessed for your asset.
Draw conclusions about the remaining challenges for your network or asset.
Refine your entire product so that it would be suitable for a homeland security (HLS) manager’s use. ReferencesBe sure to adhere to the following standards:
Include 8 or more academic, technical, or governmental references that may or may not include course materials.
Using more references reflects more research into the topic and better mastery of employing multiple sources.
You may not use wikis or any other shortcut-type sources. Mechanics and RequirementsFor your Key Assignment, be sure to meet the following requirements:
6–8 pages, not including title page, reference page, or externally produced annexes. Annexes or appendices that you produce may be included, and the length should be appropriate to capture material that you introduce.
Include a title page and table of contents (these do not count in the 6–8 pages you must produce).
Double-space your work in 11- or 12-point font of any style with 1-inch margins all around.
Your citations must appear in proper APA style.
Consider your topic early in the term, continue to practice high-quality, scholarly writing, and begin reviewing the possible sources you may employ. If you have trouble locating material to draw from, let your instructor know early in the term. StyleInclude the following elements of style in your Key Assignment:
You may deliver the required components in whatever order or format you see fit. You can employ a case study model, a traditional research project, add quantitative or qualitative elements, produce a unique construct to accommodate your topic, and so forth.
This is not a thought piece for you to simply share personal perspectives and philosophies. Do not include your personal opinions. The tone must be scholarly, and if there is a perspective to advance, use evidence, not opinion, to do so. If analysis is required for your product, support your arguments by referring to the facts or evidence you provided in your product, formal documents, or expert perspectives you included. You can still assess these, but be scholarly and assertive in your tone. Do not use “I” statements anywhere in the paper.
The majority of the paper should consist of original work. Use plenty of sources, but weave them into the fabric of the paper’s presentation, analysis, and content. Do not use huge portions of someone else’s material. Also, do not use huge portions of someone else’s material verbatim and without proper annotation, as this constitutes plagiarism.

You should be familiar with the university’s plagiarism policy. A student does not need to intend to cheat to have cheated. Contact your instructor if you are worried about your use of material. When in doubt, cite any outside material, and when using it verbatim, properly annotate the same.
Subtopic headers are recommended because they are useful to both the writer and reader.
Write primarily in narrative style, not in bullets. Do not use enumerated or bulleted lists unless they are used and noted as someone else’s original words. This is scholarly writing, not a military or business style memorandum.
Speak in an affirmative voice, and then support what you state. Rather than saying “I think the FBI made several mistakes when liaising with the CIA prior to 9/11,” you might try 1 of the following examples:

“The FBI made several mistakes when liaising with the CIA prior to 9/11. Evidence such as__________ suggests…”
“Per John Smith, former Lead Agent for the New York Joint Terrorism Task Force, the FBI made several mistakes when liaising with the CIA prior to 9/11 (Smith, 2004). He points to evidence…”
“Arguably, the FBI made several mistakes when liaising with the CIA prior to 9/11. There are two sides of this assertion, however, that should each be explored in depth.”


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Risk Assessment
Theodore Proia
Colorado Technical University
March 13, 2019
Theodore Proia
The systematic or procedural process that is carried out with the intention of identifying
and evaluating any threats in a project and their effects in case of occurrence is known as risk
assessment. The process also involves the determination of any appropriate measures of
eliminating the hazard or taking control of the risk if the threat is difficult to eradicate. A risk
assessment tool is essential in the operability and general stability of the communication sector.
The tool promotes the preemptive action of risk identification and management within the
communication sector which ensures the smooth and consistent running of operations. Risk
assessment in the communication sector follows a set of five steps which include, identification
of the risk, determination of who and what might be harmed by the threat and how it may happen,
evaluation of the identified risks and decisions on the necessary precaution, recording of findings
and the proposed actions and finally carrying out reviews of the assessment while making
necessary updates (Harrald et al., 2004)
First step: identification of potential risks
In this step, a proper evaluation of all the processes and assets in the sector occurs while
taking into account anything or anyone that may interfere with the communication sector’s
operations. Another critical process in this step is the evaluation of past errors or disasters that
may have occurred in the sector; what caused them, what and who was affected and how they
were mitigated. Vulnerabilities may also aid in the attempts of risk identification.
The communication sector has assets such as communication base centers in most states. These
bases are exposed to several risks and are equally vulnerable to several factors. A
communication base center may be susceptible to power outages and surges and face threats such
as intrusions and software hacks (Richards, 2015).
Theodore Proia
Second step: evaluation of who and what may be exposed to hazards
This second step can be handled by evaluating the function of the base center, processes
involved in the operation, the materials and materials included in the functionality of the base.
The number of people who are served by the communication base center should also be
considered. The base center’s personnel may be injured during power surges while the equipment
used may be damaged. The staff may also be hurt, killed or held hostage should there be any
intrusions. Power outages could result in the loss of the stored data. The center’s software may be
destroyed or sabotaged in case of a hacking incident. People and businesses served by the
communication base are also likely to be affected in case of any hazard. People may not be able
to effect in their day to day activities while businesses may have their operations or transactions
impaired should there be a fail in the base’s operations (Homeland Security, 2015).
Third step: evaluation of the identified risks and decisions on the necessary precautions
An in-depth assessment of the intensity and consequences of the identified risks is done
here. The step also involves gauging the level and type of action needed to prevent the
occurrence of the hazards or mitigation where elimination is impossible.
The risks identified in a state communication base center include power outages, base intrusion,
power surges, and software hacking. The threats and vulnerabilities identified have different
consequences that require appropriate precautionary measures. For instance, power outages
could lead to loss of data and the general break down of the base’s operations. Severe power
surges could result in damage of equipment and injury of personnel while intrusions could result
in losses, insecurity of staff, base sabotage and theft of data. On the other hand, software hacking
could result in general sabotage or damage to the communication center’s systems (Sun, Zhang,
Xiong, & Zhu, 2014). There are measures to prevent or take control of the risks if they occur.
Theodore Proia
Installation of automatic backup power generators solves the risk of power outages. There should
also be back up storage of the center’s data in case of power outages or surge. Secondly,
buildings in the center ought to be equipped with proper emergency exits and functional alarm
systems in case of a severe power surge to prevent casualties. Thirdly, the communication base
center should be adequately fenced and have up to date security systems to prevent intrusions
into the base. Another risk is hacking. To handle it, software’s used in the state communication
base ought to be protected by installing up to date security programs in all the computers
(Roopak, Bhardwaj, Soni, & Batra, 2014). Any sensitive data should be stored off the cloud to
prevent unauthorized access and theft. Besides, the software’s access should be role-based as a
security measure and restrict unauthorized access too. Lastly, the state communication base
ought to also practice smart emailing as a preventive measure against phishing attacks.
Fourth step: recording of findings
This is a significant step in risk assessment. The level allows for reviewing and making
any necessary adjustments and improvements in the precautionary measures. A record of the
findings is an essential indication that all the potential hazards are addressed and the precautions
allocated to every risk are sustainable, reasonable, very useful and practical.
Fifth step: the review of the assessment and making necessary updates
This is the last step in this risk assessment tool. In this step, the functionality of the assessment is
evaluated. Any loopholes in the report are addressed while improvements or adjustments in the
precautions can be made. The general update of the evaluation occurs in this phase
Theodore Proia
Harrald, J. R., Renda-Tanali, I., Shaw, G., Rubin, C., & Yeletaysi, S. (2004). Review of riskbased prioritization/decision-making methodologies for dams. Washington, DC: The
George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management.
Homeland Security. (2015). Communications Sector-Specific Plan An Annex to the NIPP 2013.
Washington D.C: Homeland Security.
Richards, C. (2015, November 12). When Communications Infrastructure Fails During a
Disaster. Retrieved from Disaster Recovery Journal:
Roopak, M., Bhardwaj, T., Soni, S., & Batra, G. (2014). Review of Threats in Wireless Sensor
Networks. International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies,
5(1), 25-31.
Sun, Y., Zhang, J., Xiong, Y., & Zhu, G. (2014). Data Security and Privacy in Cloud Computing.
International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks, 1(1), 1-9.
Resource Allocation Plan
Theodore Proia
Colorado Technical University
March 13, 2019
Theodore Proia
Resources that are most important to society will always face a scarcity. This is because
such resources are often needed for allocation in more than one place. As such, an allocation plan
that considers such a shortage of resources, while at the same time ensuring that a critical
infrastructure’s protection and resilience is maximized. The allocation plan used herein involves
paying essential attention to those network components that must remain running at all times as
well as maintain the cost at optimum without overstretching the available funds and resources
(Harrald et al., 2004).
Strategic Planning
Firstly, the model strategically plans for the allocation of resources to the most strategic
areas, which ensure the functionality of the network component. For instance, a power blackout
in a primary base station is a risky situation; hence a backup generator must be installed in base
stations to ensure broadcasting of emergencies (Homeland Security, 2015). Similarly, training
personnel is a strategic action which will affect how fast an emergency is dealt with, reducing the
impact of such.
Secondly, the budgeting process follows as a response to the strategic plan, focusing on
the most important aspects while at the same time sticking to the required expenses. However, it
is necessary to note that while focusing on the critical components, the budget must follow the
minimum costs approach given the scarcity of all available resources.
Logistical Management
Network components that require allocation are often dispersed and far removed from the
point of allocation; hence they must be moved or transported to the areas of need. As such, it is
necessary to plan for logistics before the actual rolling out of the allocation which ensures that
Theodore Proia
the implementers stick within the budget, while these costs seem negligible, they are incurred
continuously which most likely will result into an overdrawn budget.
The allocation therefore allocates funds for a backup generator, its installation, fuel and
maintenance, which will ensure resilience in case of a power blackout, while at the same time,
allocates funds for fence management, and maintaining a security card system to prevent
intrusions, while finally, it allocates for firewalls and antiviruses to prevent cybercrime activity
(Setola, Luiijf, & Theocharidou, 2016).
Impact on Other Infrastructure
The impact of this allocation will ensure the smooth running of other critical
infrastructures such as transport who depend on the communications sector for regular updates
on road and weather conditions. For instance, an up and running communication base station will
receive and disseminate information about fog in a road section, which will ensure that road
users will be careful while negotiating such parts of the roads improving the safety of both
passengers and motorists. However, while such an allocation will enhance the functionality of
other critical infrastructure, it will reduce the amounts allocated to them given that these are not
for profit investments. For instance, increasing the budget for the communication sector in a
community will reduce the costs required for the dams sector and vice versa. Similarly,
increasing the allocation for the most critical components of the network reduces allocation for
other protection and resilience measures that are lower in the hierarchy.
Source of Funding
Budgets are often a fixed issue, especially where a community requires something that is
reassumed to be off the budgetary allocation from the government. As such, community leaders
must outline methods through which such a budget may be financed. Firstly, donations, grants,
Theodore Proia
and fundraiser from organizations and individuals within the area of allocation may be helpful.
However, the government may equally step in to cost share the budget with the community.
Theodore Proia
Harrald, J. R., Renda-Tanali, I., Shaw, G., Rubin, C., & Yeletaysi, S. (2004). Review of riskbased prioritization/decision-making methodologies for dams. Washington, DC: The
George Washington University Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management.
Homeland Security. (2015). Communications Sector-Specific Plan An Annex to the NIPP 2013.
Washington D.C: Homeland Security.
Setola, R., Luiijf, E., & Theocharidou, M. (2016). Critical Infrastructures, Protection and
Resilience. In R. Setola, V. Rosato, E. Kyriakides, & E. Rome, Managing the Complexity
of Critical Infrastructures (pp. 1-18). New York: Springer.

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