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IntroductionAlignmentFor this assignment, you will complete a major revision of the Gilman essay you wrote for workshop 3.Upon successful completion of this assignment you will be able to:
Identify various literary devices (such as characterization, setting, and/or symbolism)Explain how literary devices are used to communicate truths about humankind (and perhaps about God) in a work of fiction.Construct an organized, coherent, specifically supported literary analysis.Analyze the message of a literary text using specific biblical principles.Resources
Textbook: Pearson Custom Introduction to LiteratureFile: Literary Analysis: Structural Outline Website: Digital Version of “The Yellow Wall-Paper”Bible: https://www.biblegateway.comInstructions
Start early in the week. Your instructor has been encouraged to grade and return feedback on last week’s draft of this paper as early as day two of the workshop, but no later than day four.First, review any feedback your instructor has given you on your thesis, topic sentences, and/or general statement of evaluation. Revise those sentences accordingly. Then, if your instructor has suggested that any of your Gilman or biblical support quotations are missing or not effective, find appropriate replacements using the digital websites provided in the Resources above.Let your paper rest.Next, make revisions in response to all other suggestions given by your instructor (on last week’s draft) except for those related to editing (i.e., do not make spelling, punctuation, grammar, or APA formatting/documentation changes yet). Pay special attention to your applications, making sure every one contains key quotation words and key thesis theme.Let your paper rest.Use the Literary Analysis Structural Outline to perform one more content check on your paper, trying to make sure your paper is fulfilling the principles of that outline as fully as possible.Proofread your paper: ideally, you should print it out and read it out loud to a friend or family member.

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1. Introductory Paragraph:
a. Opener: Start with a quotation that has at least one thesis theme in it and which has
the same or similar attitude towards that theme as appears in your thesis. Use one of
these two websites to search by theme/keyword to find quotation
options: or Transitions: Make sure that
immediately after your opening quotation you include a transition sentence which
uses key words from the quotation to make a clear connection between the
opening quote and one or more main thesis themes. (Remember to also grab the kind
of APA info that you will need in order to include appropriate parenthetical and
references-page documentation in your paper.)
b. Plot Summary: Give a very brief (3-5 sentence) version of a plot summary which only
focuses on conveying the major actions or events of the story which are directly
related to your key thesis themes. This should not sound like an extended character
summary, but should focus on actions of the characters which illustrate the main
themes of your thesis.
c. Thesis: Title (of story) + Author + Method (characterization/symbolism/setting) +
Message (Themes + Attitudes towards themes, including final results).
2. First Body Paragraph:
a. Topic Sentence: Piece of the topic + attitude you plan to prove in this paragraph +
author + method you will use in this paragraph. (Often this will be a good template
for starting your topic sentence for the paragraph that focuses on the narrator:
Through the characterization of Sykes, Hurston suggests that…[plug in the part of
the message from your thesis that you can prove with narrator characterization
b. First Support Example:
1. Introduce Quotation: 1-sentence or less; no need for plot summary; helpful
strategies: identify speaker or writer of passage quoted or locate the quote within
the timing of the story (e.g., “Later in the story, ….”). (Do not forget to include
transition words so that your reader knows when you are transitioning from
your topic sentence into your first example and when you transition from one
example to the next. For example or for instance work well when transitioning
from a topic sentence into your first example. Words like the following usually
work well when transitioning between support examples: moreover,
additionally, furthermore, also, later.)
2. Quote: Quote word for word; 1-2 sentences from the “Sweat” which explicitly
prove one or more themes from your topic sentence; document properly using
parenthetical APA documentation which would require (name of author,
original date of publication, p. [page number]) the first time you quote from
Hurston. Thereafter, you can just use page numbers. (Use the book chapter
model in the IWU APA Guide for your reference page entry, starting with
Hurston’s name, followed by the original date of publication which you can find
on the final page of the story, followed by information on the textbook in which
the story is anthologized.)
3. Application: This is an extremely important step. Include it for every
quotation! Explain in a single sentence (or two at most) how you see the
quotation proving one or more thesis themes. (It is almost impossible to do this
effectively unless you find a way to creatively include both the key thesis
theme(s) being proven and the words or phrases from the quotation that
most directly proves that theme(s).)
c. Second Support Example: (same template as first)
d. Third Support Example: (same template as first)
e. Fourth Support Example (same template as first; you may not need four or more
quotations if you successfully can prove all main thesis ideas in your topic sentence
with just three).
f. Concluding Summary Sentence: This should essentially be a restatement of your
topic sentence adding in very brief AND specific reminders of HOW you proved
your topic sentence in each support example from that paragraph. (These
reminders are often best accomplished by using a key word from each quotation.)
3. Second Body Paragraph: (same template as first body paragraph; however, you will
focus exclusively either on a second character or on some literary device other than
characterization in this paragraph)
4. Concluding Paragraph:
a. Thesis Restatement: Exact same content as original thesis, but expressed in
different words and syntax (or phrasing), making sure you do not change the causeeffect relationships in your original thesis in the process of restating). This should
only take one sentence.
b. General Statement of Evaluation: In a single sentence, explain which part of the
thesis topic and attitude you will evaluate and whether or not you think the bible
basically agrees or disagrees with that part of Hurston’s message. This sentence
essentially serves as a topic sentence for the rest of this paragraph, taking a position
on what you intend to prove with the quotations that will follow. (For example, if
your thesis suggests that Delia’s prayers are one of the causes of the positive things
that happen to her at the end of the story, you could use a General Statement of
Evaluation like this: Scripture would seem to agree with Hurston that prayer should
be practiced because it can be beneficial.)
c. Support for General Statement:
a. Support Example One:
1. Introduce Quotation: Use a single sentence to introduce your first
biblical support quotation, identifying the speaker or writer of the
scripture you are about to quote. (Do not forget to include transition words
so that your reader knows when you are transitioning from your general
statement into your first example and when you transition from one
example to the next.)
2. Quote: Quote word for word one or two sentences from the Bible which
contain the same topic and attitude you promised to prove in your general
statement of evaluation.

Finding Scriptures: use a website like this to search for appropriate
support scriptures:
• Example: If you were using the sample general statement given
above, you could look for any combination of three biblical verses
which 1) explicitly encourage the reader to pray or even better 2)
explicitly state that prayer has some kind of positive results.
• Documentation: APA asks for book, chapter, and verse as well as the
translation you are using in parenthetical documentation, like this
(Proverbs 12:1, New International Version). When using APA, the
bible is one of the very few sources which you do NOT have to include
on your References page.
3. Application: This is an extremely important step. Include it for every
quotation! Explain in a single sentence (or two at most) how you see the
quotation supporting your general statement of evaluation. To be
convincing, this application must include all of the following:
• Key words from the biblical quotation.
• The theme you are trying to prove from your general statement.
• A direct comparison to something that you proved in your body
about Hurston’s story that parallels what the scripture is saying (in
order to prove, in the example we have been using, that Hurston’s
message actually agrees with this scripture).
b. Support Example Two: (use same three-part template)
c. Support Example Three: (use same three-part template)
d. Clincher: A creative restatement of your General Statement of Evaluation. (If you
can make it work, try returning to your opening quotation from the beginning of the
essay or one of your biblical quotations from your concluding paragraph and
creatively revising it, weaving in key thesis terms as you can.)*
*Example of Clincher: Suppose the following had been key pieces of the “Yellow Wall-paper”
essay you wrote in Workshop 3.
Thesis: In the “Yellow Wall-paper,” Gilman use characterization to suggest that when a
faithless husband isolates and imprisons his depressed wife, her only hope of escape is a
shockingly insane form of freedom.
General Statement of Evaluation: Scripture would seem to agree with Gilman that
the absence of faith is destructive, implying that the presence of faith could be beneficial.
Support Quotation for General Statement of Evaluation: “But when [Peter] saw
the wind boisterous, he was afraid; and beginning to sink, he cried, saying, Lord, save
me. And immediately Jesus stretched forth his hand, and caught him, and said unto him,
O thou of little faith, wherefore didst thou doubt?” (Matthew 14:30-31).
One option for your clincher would be a creative revision of this scripture in a manner
something like this:
Clincher: Had Gilman been using the biblical language of Matthew, she might have
summarized her story in this manner: “When John, he of little faith, saw his wife
depressed, he was isolating and confining; and she began to sink into insanity, crying out,
‘I have saved myself from the wallpaper at last, and you can’t put me back in.’ And
immediately he stretched forth on the floor and fainted.”
Notice how the green font and yellow highlighting illustrate the weaving together of the phrasing
of the quotation and the key thesis themes. Note also that “you can’t put me back in” is in green
because it illustrates the “freedom” aspect of the thesis. Also, “he…fainted” is in green font
because it illustrates the “shocking” part of the thesis.

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