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UNIT 4:Art Gallery: Principles of DesignFor Unit IV of your art gallery presentation, you will be adding descriptions of the principles of design you observe in the artworks you placed in your art gallery. The purpose of this unit assignment is to demonstrate that you can apply what you learned about design principles to your gallery artworks.Begin by reviewing your Unit III feedback and making any necessary revisions to the descriptions of the visual elements.Next, research the design elements in Chapter 4 of your textbook.Place the Design Principles slide directly after the Visual Elements slide describing each artwork.Provide a detailed description of the design principles in each artwork, using full and complete sentences. For design principles, make sure you describe how the artist used most or all of the ones in Chapter 4: unity and variety, balance, emphasis, directional forces, contrast, repetition and rhythm, and scale and proportion. Questions to consider are included below: Unity: what elements work together to make a harmonious whole?Variety: What creates diversity?Balance: Is it symmetrical or asymmetrical?Emphasis: What is the focal point?Directional forces: What are the paths for the eye to follow?Contrast: Where do you see contrasting elements in the artwork?Repetition and rhythm: Is an element repeated?Scale and proportion: Are the objects in proportion to each other?You do not need to cite a source if it is your observation. Only cite a source if you are using information that someone published. Be sure to use APA formatting for all outside sources.Please submit your full presentation thus far, which should include the previous updated segments and the segment for this unit.This segment must include a minimum of five PowerPoint slides.To access the art gallery template, an example presentation, and other PowerPoint resources, click on the “Course Resources” link in the course menu bar of Blackboard.UNIT 6:Art Gallery: BackgroundFor Unit VI of your art gallery presentation, you will be adding a written description of the background information on your artworks to your PowerPoint presentation.Be sure to review your Unit V feedback and make any necessary revisions. Next, research the background and details of your artworks using your textbook, the course content, and the CSU Online Library.For this segment, use the slides in the art gallery template labeled “Background.” You will need one for each artwork. You may include more than one idea on each slide, but please do not overload the slides with information. Be sure to address the following:Describe the time period of the artwork.Include information on the artist of the artworks.Include facts that relate to your selected art pieces. For example, if your artwork depicts a war, it may be helpful to give information about that war.Be sure to use APA format during this assignment. It is important to give credit to the source that provided your information. At the end of a sentence where you have information from a source, add a citation. The citation should consist of the author or authors’ last name(s) and the year of publication. For our textbook, it would be (Frank, 2014). If it is a quotation, add a page or paragraph number. For example, a quote from your textbook would look like this: (Frank, 2014, p. 119). Place the full reference for the source on the References slide at the end.Please submit your full presentation thus far, which should include the five artworks and the description of their visual elements, design principles, the art criticism theories, and the segment for


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Art beyond the West
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VI
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
1. Justify visual arts in relation to history and culture.
1.1 Define art’s integral role in the daily activities of native cultures.
1.2 Identify art’s influence on the historical development of Central and South America.
1.3 Interpret the historical background of chosen works of art.
3. Interpret artworks using the elements of design.
3.1 Recognize visual characteristics found in Chinese and Japanese art.
3.2 Identify the influence of Buddhism and Hinduism on local traditions of Chinese and Japanese
art and architecture.
Reading Assignment
Chapter 18: Traditional Arts of Asia
Chapter 20: Africa, Oceania, and the Americas
The below link contains interactive audio that will explain Chinese landscape paintings using Fan Kuan as an
Pearson (n.d.). Fan Kuan, Travelers among mountains and streams [Audiovisual webpage]. Retrieved from
Click here to access the Closer Look video on Fan Kuan’s Travelers Among Mountains and Streams.
Click here to access the video transcript.
The below link contains an interactive audio presentation titled “Hip Pendant Representing an Iyoba (Queen
Pearson (n.d.). Hip pendant representing an Iyoba (Queen Mother) [Audiovisual webpage]. Retrieved from
Click here to access the Closer Look video titled “Hip Pendant Representing an Iyoba (Queen Mother).”
Click here to access the video transcript.
The below link contains an interactive audio that will explain Lintel 24, Yaxchilán:
Pearson (n.d.). Yaxchilan lintel. [Audiovisual webpage]. Retrieved from
Click here to access the Closer Look video titled “Yaxchilan Lintel.”
Click here to access the video transcript.
ART 1301, Art Appreciation I
Unit Lesson
Chapter 18: Traditional Arts of Asia
Each region has its own local culture; however, ideas do transfer and morph to local regional tastes.
India: We start out in India: the core of the continent both culturally and geographically. In the advanced city
of Harappa, there are artifacts that tell of a high level of art and advanced city planning. This area was the
focal point for civilization for 1,000 miles along the fertile Indus Valley. Male Torso (page 303 of your textbook)
shows a sharp contrast to what we were seeing in Mesopotamia around the same time with Head of an
Akkadian Ruler (page 249 of your textbook). The Male Torso is much fleshier, meaning the bone structure is
not easily seen. Little art from this time period survived (Frank, 2014b).
Buddhist art: Early Buddhism did not allow the production of images, but the practice began to need visual
icons to inspire devotion. The Great Stupa (on page 304 of your textbook) is an early Indian Buddhist dome
structure, which evolved from the burial mound. It is oriented to the four cardinal directions and marks a
sacred location since relics are buried at the core (Frank, 2014b). The layers of relief structure tell the story of
Buddha’s life.
After Alexander the Great’s conquest of large parts of West Asia, we see an artist fusion take place.
Bodhisattva (located on page 305 of your textbook) is an excellent example of this fusion; the artist shows a
knowledge of Roman portraiture, a classical Greek method of showing the body beneath the drapery, and the
subject is Buddhist. A bodhisattva is a person who has reached enlightenment but stays on earth to teach
Hindu art: The Hindu Temple is a significant architectural distinction of India. The Kandarya Mahadeva
Temple (located on page 307 of your textbook) is one of the best preserved temples complete with a porch for
preparation of worship and an inner chamber called the Womb Chamber where the image of God is kept
(Frank, 2014b). The sacred chamber is marked with a tall tower, which is often done to show the most
important part of a temple.
Southeast Asia: One of the major works of world art is Borobudur in Indonesia, which is an Indian stupa, or
sacred mountain, with a lot of elaborate details. Ten miles of relief sculpture describe the struggle of
existence: the cycle of death and rebirth. A high wall prevents seeing out, and curves limit the view ahead; the
whole path imitates life. You cannot see what is coming next nor can you see where you are in your journey
until you reach the end. When you finally reach the upper level, it is as if you have reached the ideal world;
now you can look out over the landscape, and this broad view is now enlightenment.
China: Most people were buried with most of their belongings to improve their afterlife, but one emperor took
it to the extreme. Emperor Qin Shihuangdi, who unified China, wanted to guard his afterlife and had an army
of life-size clay soldiers created for his protection. The Terra Cotta Warriors (located on page 313 of your
textbook) are not made from a mold! These 6,000 sculptures are archers, foot soldiers, and cavalrymen, and
each one is unique and different. Can you imagine creating that many sculptures?
Traditional Chinese painting involves both calligraphy and landscape. Leaders were expected to show their
character and strength through elegant writing, so painters decided to introduce calligraphic brush techniques
to elevate painting to the status of calligraphy and poetry. A great example of this is Travelers Among
Mountains and Streams (located on page 315 of your textbook). Fan Kuan uses intricate brushwork to show
the spirit of the rock and trees. This place does not exist; it is from his imagination and is aimed at creating
and capturing the energy of nature.
ART 1301, Art Appreciation I
Chapter 20: Africa, Oceania, and the Americas
(Frank, 2014a, slide 18)
Africa: Traditional arts from Africa are made from perishable materials that are extremely varied and few. Arts
from sub-Saharan Africa are not for visual pleasure but are for religious rituals, civic life, and community
functions. A great example of art that was used for civil and community functions is the Mangaaka Power
Figure (located above and on page 341 of your textbook). Mangaaka, or justice, is personified in this figure
and is used to finalize civil cases, ratify a treaty, or change a law. Tribal members would hammer a metal
piece into the statue’s surface to show that they were affected by the change and agreed with it.
Oceania and Australia: It is very hard to generalize such large areas, but overall, when discussing Oceanic
art, there are a few common beliefs. Much of the art has to do with a world created by an Earth Mother and
Sky Father. Also, most art shows how the ancestors influence events on earth and that there is a spiritual
power active on earth. A great example of the latter two beliefs is Protective Prow Figure (located on page
346 of your textbook) from New Georgia Island. This woodcarving serves a purpose of protecting the boat.
The figure and bird act as a protective spirit that guides the voyagers through safe waters. Birds are seen as
messengers from the spirit world, and while the figure is only six and a half inches tall, the forward thrust and
boldness of form make it appear larger than it really is.
Frank, P. (2014a). Chapter 20: Africa, Oceania, and the Americas [PowerPoint slides]. Boston, MA: Pearson
Frank, P. (2014b). Prebles’ artforms: An introduction to the visual arts (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
ART 1301, Art Appreciation I
Suggested Reading
If you would like to study the content from the required reading further, consider reviewing the below
PowerPoint presentations. The presentations include images of the artwork discussed in the chapter and
Click here to access the Chapter 18 PowerPoint Presentation. Click here for a PDF version of the
Click here to access the Chapter 20 PowerPoint Presentation. Click here for a PDF version of the
ART 1301, Art Appreciation I
The Principles of Design
and Evaluating Art
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit IV
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
2. Examine the characteristics of works of art, including the purpose and structure of the work.
2.1 Identify formal, contextual, and expressive approaches used in art criticism.
2.2 Explain censorship as a type of evaluation based on political, moral, or religious values.
3. Interpret artworks using the elements of design.
3.1 Identify methods used to create symmetrical, asymmetrical, and radial balance in a
3.2 Examine the ability of certain design principles to direct the viewer’s attention to details in a
work of art.
Reading Assignment
Chapter 4: The Principles of Design
Chapter 5: Evaluating Art
In Units III and IV, you will watch a video on visual elements.
Click here to access the segment for Unit IV.
Mouton, M. (2013). Visual literacy elements and principles [Video file]. Retrieved from

Click here to access the video transcript.
Unit Lesson
Chapter 4: The Principles of Design
Artists employ a number of design elements or design principles to their works of art. You already see the
principles of design when you view a certain artwork, but we will break the design principles down into
categories and investigate them in depth. In art, there are no rules—only principles. When we look at these
different areas of design, they are not exclusive. Most of the principles of design go hand in hand with one
Unity and variety: Unity and variety are complementary terms. Unity is the appearance or condition of
oneness in a work of art (Frank, 2014b). When all of the design elements work together to produce a
harmonious whole in a work of art, we experience unity (Frank, 2014b). Variety, however, provides diversity
because too much unity could be a bit boring. On the other hand, too much variety is chaotic and can be
unsettling. Using a pattern, or a repetitive ordering of design elements, artists can create variety that is also
unified. As humans, we like to look at things that are interesting yet easy to view. If an artist can strike a
balance between the two, the produced artwork will have interesting results. For example, if you wanted to
decorate your living room, you might start by painting the walls. If you wanted a room with a relaxed feel, you
would pick a neutral color or wallpaper without a bold pattern. Then, you can add pictures or shelves with
objects to create variety. However, if you want a bold and energetic room, you might choose a bright color or
wallpaper with a loud pattern.
ART 1301, Art Appreciation I
Balance: Have you ever hung a group of framed pictures on a wall, stood back
to look
at yourGUIDE
work, and then
noticed that some or all are unbalanced? It might look like the pictures are leaning
Titleor crooked; balance is the
same in art. Balance is achieved when acting influences are held in check (Frank, 2014b). For example, if
your picture is crooked, you tilt it the opposite direction until it is level again. As in life and in art, if we lack
balance we may lack peace. Symmetrical balance is the near or exact matching of left and right sides of a 3-D
form or 2-D composition (Frank, 2014b). It is much easier to comprehend at a distance than asymmetrical
balance, which is when the sides are not exactly the same. Architects like to employ symmetrical balance
when designing large buildings because they are nice to view from a distance and do not seem too busy.
Although asymmetrical balance is not the same on both sides, it does not mean that the artwork will look like
it is tilting. Artists employ a few principles to help achieve balance—even if they do not want the artwork to be
the exact same on both sides. Forms or objects in a composition hold weight because they take up space in
the picture plane. Some objects in a picture will appear heavier than other objects or forms. Artists can use
the placements of these forms or objects to balance a composition (Frank, 2014b). If you are ever wondering
if a certain object is being used to balance another in a composition, cover the particular object up with your
finger or hand. Is the composition still balanced, or does it look like it may tilt if you hung it on a wall? Artists
also use color to balance a composition.
In the previous unit, we talked about color being used in atmospheric perspective; colors can also be used to
hold weight in a painting. We do not usually recognize it, but blue appears lighter to us than most colors—
probably because we associate the color with the sky. The same goes for most other cool colors. The
opposite is true of warm colors; we tend to think that warm colors are heavier than cool colors. The intensity
or brightness of a color plays an important role in weight, as well. Just as in atmospheric perspective, when
we view brighter colors, we assume they are close to use, so those bright colors would hold more weight than
the colors that are dull, which we assume are farther away.
Emphasis and subordination: Artists use emphasis and subordination to draw your attention to or from a
particular area. Most artists have something in the composition that they feel is most important; this is what
they want you to look at the most. How can this be achieved? By making the focal point very interesting. For
example, when children draw a picture of their family, usually the members of the family are the focal point.
The family members’ clothes will often be patterned or bright, and the family will be very detailed. The
background might show the yard and house, which might also be a little detailed but less so than the family.
They are emphasizing the family through detailing and probably do not realize they are doing so. If we were to
look at the rest of this hypothetical picture, we might see a sky, some grass, and a sun, but these items will
not be as detailed as the house or family because the child is not focused on that. The child’s focal point, or
most important part of the composition, will always be in the strongest location in any visual field. The child is
using subordination to make the areas that are not the focal point less important to keep us from being
distracted from the areas of emphasis.
Directional forces: Directional forces are another way that the artist guides our eye to the most important
part of the work, or the objects they feel are extremely important to the work. Directional forces are paths for
our eye to follow, which may be provided by actual or implied lines (Frank, 2014b). Previously, we discussed
lines and how they are a basic element in art, but a line will also be used to direct a path of action for our
eyes. Have you ever noticed when looking at an artwork that your eye may make the same loop a number of
times? The artist is using lines to guide your eye around the artwork. As with balance, our feelings come into
play when we notice actual or implied lines. In the prior unit, we discussed how vertical lines seem still,
horizontal lines imply rest, and slanted lines show movement. Artists use these feelings about lines to create
a feeling or mood in us when we view the artwork. Francisco Goya’s Bullfight: The Agility and Daring of
Juanito Apinani (as seen below and on page 77 of your textbook) is a perfect example of how we view lines in
art. Our eyes tend to stay where the action is: on the bull and bullfighter. It seems that Goya has captured a
still moment in what is a very action-packed scene. We know the bullfighter is poised and still from the vertical
line, but we also see the angle of the bullfighter’s and bull’s bodies, so we know that the action is not over.
The background is subordinated, so our eyes keep looking from the bull to the bullfighter.
ART 1301, Art Appreciation I
(Frank, 2014a, slide 38)
Contrast: Contrast goes hand in hand with variety and is the juxtaposition of strongly dissimilar elements
(Frank, 2014b). This can have a dramatic effect visually. However, if we did not have some contrast, visual
experience would be monotonous. Contrast is employed in a variety of places—not just art. Sports teams,
brand logos, and billboards all use contrasting colors to catch your attention. In art, contrasting colors can
make an artwork look like it is pulsating with energy.
Repetition and rhythm: Just as in music, repetition and rhythm can be used in art. Artists use both terms to
create a beat or speed in the artwork. Your eye can follow patterns and cues in the composition; normally
repetition and rhythm of any kind will have a start and stop that keeps going. Think of a metronome’s tick; it
can be fast or slow, and this ticking gives you a feeling of calm or speed and excitement. Rhythm and
repetition in an artwork are created through the regular recurrence of elements with related variations (Frank,
2014b). For example, Ogata Korin’s Cranes (as shown below and on page 80 of your textbook) has repeating
(Frank, 2014a, slide 49)
ART 1301, Art Appreciation I
The cranes look very similar and are repeated, but there are variations amongUNIT
the cranes.
created from the cranes makes it seem like one or all of the cranes are walking
across the folding screens.
The cranes seem to be going somewhere or moving. Interestingly, if we were to cover up the first screen that
is blank, the cranes stop; there is nowhere for the cranes to go, so we assume that they are standing still.
A great example of rhythm is Lyubov Popova’s The Pianist (shown below and on page 80 of your textbook).
In The Pianist, a man is playing the piano, but the artist has created many stops and starts as obstacles for
our eyes. While our eyes move around the canvas, we get a sense of rhythm and ticking: Could this be the
speed and rhythm of the piano player’s music? In a sense, we can almost hear the beat of the music because
of the rhythm of shapes.
Scale and proportion: Scale is the size relation of one object to another and is one of the first decisions that
an artist makes (Frank, 2014b). The first detail we notice about an artwork is its scale or size. Depending on
the scale, or how big the object is, you will want to move in closer to see details or move further away to see
the whole artwork. Most art in the textbook is smaller than actual size, so the impact is not the same as
seeing it in person. Be sure to look underneath the artwork in the book at the dimensions and the supplies
used to make the artwork. Use the size stated in the textbook to compare the artwork to your surroundings.
Would the painting or sculpture fit in the room, or could it fit in your hand?
Proportion is the size relationship of an object’s parts to its whole (Frank, 2014b). We see jokes about a
tyrannosaurus rex’s arms because the arms do not seem appropriate to the rest of the body. They seem out
of proportion. If scale is the overall size of the artwork, then proportion is how the objects within the artwork
relate in size to one another. Michelangelo’s Pieta (located on page 82 of your textbook) is five feet, eight and
one half inches in scale, and that does not include the pedestal under the artwork. The piece is massive!
Upon further viewing the artwork, Mary looks extremely large in proportion to Jesus. If she were to stand up,
she would dwarf him, but the impact of this odd proportion is very emotional. Mary is almost cradling Jesus in
her lap, wanting to take care of him. He is her child, and she wants to make him feel better, but she cannot.
The feeling of deep care and sorrow would ha …
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