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My friend, this Assignment is part of Research Finding & analysis. This is a group assignment. In the document “Research and Finding” , What I need to accomplish is the Demographics of all the areas in Asia, which is the red word. The blue word is the title of paper. The second page of the document is part of the paper’s methodology & method, which contains case study. You can use it as a reference. And you need to complete the Demographics of all the areas in Asia according to the case study.You need to read the parts of the methodology & method and complete the demographics of all the areas in Asia based on the specific analysis of the companies and countries mentioned in the case study. At the same time, I uploaded the part of the introduction and literature review that the group has completed, which is the document “Asian Group”. You can use it as a reference.
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Research Finding and Analysis
Understanding business ethics within companies and the effects it has towards the people in the
southern, eastern, and middle east parts of Asia.
Core Argument
Proposition (each framework characteristic)
1. Demographics of all the areas in Asia
2. Country level: importance of business ethics in the society
3. Firm level: importance of business ethics to the firm and its practice
4. Conceptual Framework
5. Case Studies
Case Study
1. Tata & Classic Tech. (South Asia)
2. China company (East Asia)
3. Aramco & CapitaLand (Middle east)
Methodology
In order to provide information in a research paper; data must be gathered in order to present
educated information about the research topic and implement decisions. There are two types of
data that can be gathered, which are; primary data and secondary data. Wolf (2016) defined
primary data as new information that is gathered for the purpose of the research or study directly
from people. Primary data can be gathered via; interviews where the researcher conducts a
one-on-one interview, ask the interviewees questions regarding the research topic and gathering
answers in order to implement the data given into the research paper. Surveys are also another
example of primary data where the researcher sends questionnaires to people in order to receive
information regarding the research topic. Surveys are mostly used to cover a large amount of
people that can provide small yet useful data Wolf (2016). Wolf (2016) defined secondary data
as data that has already been collected by other researchers or existing information that have
been collected by other people. Government statistics, trade publications, company websites and
market research reports can be considered as secondary data Wolf (2016). Nevertheless; there are
two types of data, which are; qualitative data and quantitative data. Surbhi (2016) defined
qualitative data as a data that is focused on providing understandings, details, descriptions and
explanations of a problem or a topic that can not be calculated such as interviews, focus groups
and newspaper. Where quantitative data is data that focuses on numbers, calculations that can be
calculated, measured and expressed in numbers such as surveys, experiments and interviews
Surbhi (2016).
Surbhi (2016) stated the differences between qualitative and quantitative where qualitative data
is used for exploratory methodology to provide more information and understanding about a
topic, where quantitative data is used in conclusive methodology to present tests and hypothesis.
Nevertheless; qualitative data provides in-depth understanding of a certain topic where
quantitative assures the level of occurrence of a specific topic. Finally; qualitative data sample
size is very narrow whereas the sample size of quantitative data is massive.
For this research; the team will be gathering and providing qualitative in order to present
in-depth understanding of the research topic by reading and analysing case studies regarding
ethics in certain companies in Asia, linking these case studies to the research topic and then
create unique case studies that relates to the research topic. Furthermore; the team will be
gathering qualitative data in order to gain further understanding and to be able to compare
companies by using statistical websites and companies’ websites. Finally, the team will not be
able to gather or provide primary data such as interviews or surveys since they are extremely
challenging to obtain. Also, the time restraints of the research are tight and there is no budget in
order to conduct one-on-one interviews with people outside the United States. Primary data will
also not be gathered since the research topic is not opinion based and requires more secondary
research in order to understand such specific phenomenon.
Framework:
To understand what how one can determine if a company is genuinely ethical in its
society, a framework of key terms need to be examined. Starting with responsibility. To
employees and the general public, knowing facts about how a company demonstrates the ability
to be responsible will greatly affect it’s ethical outlook. This could include making sure
employees are acting upon their contracts, not lying to the public, and even taking ownership and
acknowledging when the firm messes up. Also, this incorporates being responsible
environmentally. “For example, Elon Musk, CEO of Tesla Inc. has bridged the gap between the
corporate world and his socially responsible vision by offering electric-powered cars and
environmentally friendly automotive products”.(Murphy 2018) This helped Tesla greatly by
showing that they are a company that is taking a different route to help out the environment.
Generally, being responsible is a universal term and even culture to culture can
understand when someone is acting responsible or not. The strict definition of the term from the
Merriam Webster dictionary states, “liable to be called upon” or “liable to be called to account as
the primary cause, motive, or agent”(2011 Merriam-Webster). Once a company is seen as
irresponsible, an upset feeling can follow for the public. This is one great start for a company to
understand if and why their company is in the position they are currently in.
Another way that a company can understand it’s social ethical stance is if the company is
honest. As simple as it sounds, telling the truth is beneficial to a company. “Honesty is a key
characteristic of a business because it sets the tone for the kind of work culture that you want to
create, provides consistency in workplace behavior, and builds loyalty and trust in customers and
prospects.(Quain 2019). Without these outcomes of being honest and truthful, a working
business will lose its profits. Workplace behavior is crucial because they are what makes the
product or service that the customers are buying. This can also be another universal feeling seen
throughout the world’s businesses that is beneficial the a company profits.
Also, a company should be reliable. This entails going by their word and not giving
false hopes to other companies that do business with them or their customers. Reliability is a
building block for companies to keep business. Once a company does not have hope that their
partnered company will not fulfill the promises they make, that business will be gone. “As a
result, organizations are able to realize increased performance, efficiency and profitability.
As the term suggests, reliable operations are the keystone to achieving optimum safety
and productivity.” (Grant 2017). This quote agrees that there is great importance of a
company and the employees within the company stay reliable. Profits are the main driver
for a company. Not being reliable will have direct impact on that and that is why it is very
important.
Ethical Behavior: (Nora)
Ethical Behavior has an important role and tend to be good for any business as it shows respect for key
moral principles that contains honesty, dignity, diversity, fairness and equality. (ethical behavior, 2019).
Also, in the modern business studies show that companies that work with ethics principles and maintain
ethical cultures within the workplace are able to make more profits, more financially successful and have
productive, motivated employees. In addition to, ensuring to take the necessary actions to correct or
prevent inappropriate/unethical actions by their employees or managers. Meanwhile, unethical practice
can damage the company’s culture, low the retention rate, increase the odds of penalties and allow actions
for litigation. (Barnes, 2016).
On the other hand, Companies are facing pressure to maintain both profitability and behave ethically
especially towards the environment where, environmental ethics is one of the company’s responsibility in
order to protect the environment in which it operates. The acceptance of responsibility for environmental
ethics is established through the development of organization environmental strategy.( Kenneth,
2018).Some organizations want to gain their publicity through the right reasons not for their ethical
behaviors. For instance, Volkswagen was caught lying to their consumers about their car’s performance
of its diesel engines and giving misleading emissions information and this was a huge unethical behavior
for any business to follow. Any organization need to adopt an ethics strategy and make ethics a priority
and promote it for every individual within the organization.
Leadership
On the other hand, according to (entre-ed.org, 2019), leaders/managers are the role model for their
employees. If a manager’s behavior includes lying to customers, taking money out of the cash register, or
taking home some of the inventory or supplies, then it is impossible to blame the employees because they
follow the managers lead. Employees may see this as being dishonest, or as a conflict with their needs for
a raise in pay. (entre-ed.org, 2019). On the other hand, unnecessary pressure and fear of losing their job
make it difficult to take the risk of admitting mistakes or weakness and to be more ethical. In order to
avoid that, employees must feel they have a personal relationship with their leaders to the point where
they would feel comfortable having a conversation that involves some risk.(Gebler, 2011).According to
Josephson website, leaders/managers usually seek to be positive ethical role models by their own conduct
and by helping to create an environment in which principled reasoning and ethical decision making are
highly prized.(Josephson, 2010).
Transparency:
Transparency is not just about information. It is about the ability of the receiver to have full access to the
information he wants, not just the information that the sender is willing to provide. Transparency have
two important factors that any company should follow which are honesty and open communication where
the company is willing to share information when it is uncomfortable to do so. Also, when the company is
being upfront and visible about its own actions and whether those actions are reliable with its values. A
value of honesty is reliable with the ability to ask questions. where, employees and managers can safely
admit mistakes and can openly deal with problems and challenges as it considered as a true open
communication. Transparency could be seen as a business priority as companies with ethical cultures that
apply transparency with an internal imperative, and not an external disclosure requirement.For instance,
Johnson & Johnson handled the 1982 Tylenol crisis has with transparency, J&J acted in a manner reliable
with its values. J&J immediately pulled the product from the shelves without regard to the cost or public
embarrassment, and certainly with no regrets over lost profits. (Gebler, 2011).
Case Study
TATA & Classic Tech.
The ethical and moral values of TATA and Classic Tech tend to differ (Barnes, 2016).
TATA can be said to be a good company because it upholds high ethical standards that enable it
to preserve the company’s image and attract the trust of all stakeholders. TATA adheres to moral
principles such as honesty. For instance, in the year 2010, TATA demonstrated its integrity as a
company when Ratan Tata who has headed the company at the time refused to pay a 15-crore
bride demanded by a minister in order to launch a domestic airline (Ndtv, 2010). In his
discussion with an industrialist, Ratan supports his stand in the incidence by saying that it was
better for him to go to bed knowing he did not get the airline by refusing to bribe the minister
than getting it through bribing. TATA seems to maintain principles that are critical to its
workplace culture. These principles affect the internal culture of the firm. Given that TATA has
reinforced its ethical culture by developing a management structure, it can be said to be a good
company. The leadership of a company also determines whether it is good or not. The leadership
of TATA seems to adhere to the ethical management structure. The standards that TATA holds
are significant to its success and longevity.
Classic Tech can be said to be a bad company because of its ethics and moral values. The
company does not have an ethical structure that focuses on employee productivity, reputation,
and profitability (Barnes, 2016). The workplace culture is affected by ethical principles and
moral values. Classic Tech has a moral code that emphasizes customer service, communication,
and teamwork. It fails to meet the framework for ethics namely responsibility, reliability,
leadership,and transparency. For instance, this company was among the alleged companies
which were scamming internet users. However, instead of taking actions, the support team came
up with all kinds of alibis in order to counter the complaints (Keizer, 2014). The lack of clear
information on moral and ethical values of the company makes it a bad company. A good firm
should have a clear structure in the management of ethics and morals. The conduct of the
employees is often based on the cultural values of the company. The latter is a product of ethical
values, but the company seems to lack this important structure. Classic Tech should thus create a
management structure that upholds ethical values.
China’s Companies
Responsibility is the most important element in every company, it includes both financial and
environmental responsibility. While the company is developing, environmental protection and
investment in education will help the company to build a positive image in front of the public.
Ping An Insurance company which is one of the biggest insurance companies in the world. In
addition to the high revenue, the company’s performance in CSR is also outstanding. For
example, Ping An had provided 40,432 volunteer service hours and had donated 1.863million
RMB in 2017. Meanwhile, the company also indirectly reduced 51,871.4t CO (“30th Know you
2
better”,2018). Besides, honesty and reliability are key successful factors of Ping An. As an
insurance company, consumer loyalty is significant; how to improve customer satisfaction is the
first consideration of the company. The company continues to develop technology and increase
the variety of product to meet customer needs. If customers don’t trust the insurance company,
they won’t buy any financial services from the company. Moreover, corporate reliability is also a
key factor in determining whether investors are willing to invest. The large number of users and
high international reputation prove the reliability of Ping An Insurance. Being related to the
framework of our case, if the company is responsible for the society and environment and
creating the image of honesty and reliability among their customers, the value of the company
will rise simultaneously.
However, unethical behaviors will lead to the damage of companies’ reputation. For example,
China’s mobile phone giant Huawei asks their employees to steal technology from other
companies (Ferry,2019). Such behavior not only loses the trust of customers and investors in
Huawei, but also drives the company to the risk of bankruptcy. Clearly, the leaders of the
company are responsible for these actions. Employees are unlikely to engage in unethical
behavior unless they received the permission from leaders. Connecting with our framework, the
leadership is an important factor that leads to unethical behaviors of employees. Meanwhile, the
premise of any transaction is based on mutual trust between the two parties, and it is difficult to
rebuild trust when dishonest behaviors occur. Thus, ethical behavior is the key element of
corporate ethics; moreover, appropriate training program and outstanding performance are also
essential to the company.
Aramco and Capitaland
Saudi Arabian Oil Company is the national oil company of Saudi Arabia. The company’s
abbreviation is ARAMCO. It is currently the world’s largest proven oil company (Johnson,
2018). CapitaLand is a Singapore-listed company and one of the largest real estate groups in
Asia. The Group’s real estate and real estate fund management operations are concentrated in the
core markets of Singapore and China. At the same time, CapitaLand is also one of the largest
real estate fund managers in Asia (CapitaLand Limited SWOT Analysis, 2019). The two
companies have occupied a place in the markets of West Asia and Southeast Asia. However, in
terms of ethics, the two companies have different practices. For example, ARAMCO was
involved in the corruption event. In contrast, capital is outstanding in business ethics, in line with
the responsibility, transparency, reliability and other elements in the framework. This case study
will compare the unethical behavior of Saudi Arabian Oil Company with the ethical standards of
CapitaLand, and discuss the business ethics with actual cases.
The article “Aramco in corruption clamp down following Tyco case” points out that after a
U.S Department of Justice Investigation in to Tyco Valves & Controls Middle East Inc., Saudi
ARAMCO has moved to clamp down on corruption among its employees and suppliers, and
found that the company had paid employees of four different owned companies, a total of
$488,48 9. ARAMCO admitted that business with Tyco over the last 12 years had amounted up
to $42 million and that a former employee who had served as a technical specialist had accepted
the bribe (Oil & Gas Staff, 2012).
Corruption is a serious problem, it will change the career of leaders and professionals, while
seriously damaging the reputation of the company. In addition, research shows corruption may
affect everyone because it threatens sustainable economic development, moral values and justice;
it destroys society, harms the rule of law and so on (What is corruption, N, D). ARAMCO is a
national company belonging to Saudi Arabia. Corruption may affect global cooperation.
Corruption behavior with other companies can also affect normal operation of each company.
Technical negligence due to corruption may cause damage to the environment and impact on the
normal life of the local people.
By comparison, under the premise of sustainable development strategy, CapitaLand has
performed well in business ethics. The company points out that their sustainability strategy is
based on their credo “Building People, and Building Communities”. They are committed to
improving the economic, environmental and social well-being of our stakeholders through their
projects and operations management. They embrace innovation to ensure commercial viability
without compromising the environment for future generations. Also, they uphold high standards
of corporate governance and transparency to safeguard shareholders’ interests, and have in place
an integrated human capital strategy to recruit, develop and motivate employees to drive growth.
Their community development efforts focus on supporting underprivileged children through
corporate philanthropy and employee volunteerism. Since end 2017, they progressively rolled
out CapitaLand Supply Chain Code of Conduct to influence their supply chain to operate
responsibly in the areas of anti-corruption, human rights, health and safety, as well as
environmental management. Finally, the company is listed in The Sustainability Yearbook 2017
with a Silver Class Sustainability Award, placing it in the top three among real estate companies
worldwide and making it the only Singapore company with such a distinction (Our Sustainability
Strategy, N,D).
CapitaLand’s high ethical standards have brought it a good reputation and contributed to the
company’s financial performance, sustainability and so on. …
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