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Hello I need someone to write me my ecology research paper about the invasive species ” Didymosphenia gaminate” . This research paper has to be an ecology research paper, and follow the ecology citation rules. I have attached 4 documentations. ” Literature Searching and Citations Guidelines (1).doc” shows you how to search for the articles and how to do an ecology citation. “Paper Outline Guidelines.doc” is the paper guidelines, and” research Paper and Presentation Guidelines (1).docx” has more information about the paper, however, please ignore the information about the presentation. finally i have also attached “articles. Rusul Rasheed.pdf” where i paraphrazed 3 articles and I have their cititation done too, you can use it for the paper too. overall, the paper has to be 8-10 pages about invasive species “Didymosphenia gaminate”, such as the ecosystem they live in and their side effect, how they become invasive, and whats its origin, and other stuff mentioned in the guidelines. please please make sure to follow the guidline, I am failing in this class and this paper is my last hope. If you have any questions let me know


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Paper Outline Guidelines
Paper Outline (10 points) – Due 3/15
– Include your group topic in the header
– Include the title of your paper (an informative title regarding your topic)
– 2-4 pages (double-spaced)
– Present an overview of your entire paper from intro to conclusion
– Paper outline format:
o Introduction/Background – include 1-3 supporting background details as
well as the overall thesis of your paper
▪ Background Info (with supporting citations)
▪ Background Info (with supporting citations)
▪ Thesis statement:
o Subtopic 1 (i.e., the focus of an area of research)
▪ Evidence (with supporting citations)
▪ Evidence (with supporting citations)
▪ Must have at least 2 pieces of evidence
o Subtopic 2
▪ Evidence (with supporting citations)
▪ Evidence (with supporting citations)
▪ Must have at least 2 pieces of evidence
o Subtopic 3 (you should have at least 3 subtopics, but can include more)
▪ Evidence (with supporting citations)
▪ Evidence (with supporting citations)
▪ Must have at least 2 pieces of evidence
o Discussion/Conclusions/Future Directions
▪ Include main ideas here and discuss why your topic is important

An outline format with bullet points for each section is strongly recommended,
however if you prefer, you may write out paragraphs for each section

As a general rule: under each topic in your outline you will need at least two
pieces of evidence with in-text citations (Author(s) year).

Please include your list of full references at the end of the assignment (this may
change as you continue to write). You do not need to provide a blurb for each
reference like you did in the “5 References” assignment.
Review paper & group project assignment
In BIOL 354, two of your assignments for your discussion section include participating in a group
presentation on 1 of 6 pre-selected ecological issues and, individually, writing a review paper that
discusses how your group issue is relevant in an ecosystem of your choice. This project will involve
working with several of your classmates to research an ecological issue, and to then construct a written
report and an oral presentation on the issue. Each person in the class is responsible for producing and
turning in an original written research paper. The presentation, however, is given jointly with the
members of your group.
The Assignment
Ecologists today recognize that humans are altering the world’s habitats and affecting biodiversity in
many ways. Human activity has been linked to rapid declines in the earth’s biodiversity; there is
evidence that we are currently in another mass extinction event. Consequently, many ecologists apply
their research results, and tailor their research programs, to the conservation of species, communities,
populations, or ecosystems. This research is critical in at least three ways: (1) we need to understand
how “natural” communities function if we are to understand how our actions disrupt them; (2) we need
to understand how heavily altered communities have been affected; and (3) we need to develop
priorities and strategies for conserving and restoring communities and ecosystems that have been
damaged through our actions.
One of the most important steps that we can take to help reverse the loss of biodiversity is to raise
awareness of the problem and the solutions that can help reverse the damage. Therefore, in this class
you will be responsible for writing a report and giving an oral presentation on the ways in which humans
threaten the world’s biodiversity, and potential solutions to these problems.
For this assignment, you will collaborate with your group members to select a threat to biodiversity that
interests you. Each individual will pick a different ecosystem to write his/her paper about. The paper
will discuss how that threat is currently affecting the organisms, trophic interactions, nutrient cycles,
and subsequent biodiversity in the selected ecosystem. The focus of the paper is not how humans
cause or influence on the threat to biodiversity.
Some example ecosystems (there are many more you could choose) that are threatened by one or more
of these factors are:
• coral reefs
• temperate forests
* arctic tundra
• rivers, streams, and lakes
• estuaries like San Francisco Bay or Chesapeake Bay
• tropical rain forests and jungles
• marshes, and wetlands like the Everglades
• islands throughout the world, particularly in the tropics
• pelagic and benthic areas of the oceans
For example, you could choose to research the effects of CO2 increases on the arctic tundra or how
introduced species affect island habitats.
For this assignment you will do the following:
1. You will be placed in a group of about 4-5 people in your discussion section that will be assigned to a
major anthropogenic threat. The pre-selected threats include: Habitat Loss, Overharvesting, Climate
Change, Invasive Species, Introduced Disease, and Pollution.
2. Within the subject of that threat, you (individually) will select a topic for your review paper. Your TA
must approve your choice, and can help you select a topic that is not too broad or too narrow (for
example, choosing to review how pollution threatens the entire world would be too broad; choosing
how nitrogen runoff affects different types of water sources would be better).
3. Research your topic. Your references will be research articles published in scientific journals and
books. Many applicable journals and books are available in the SDSU library, and many articles from
journals can even be downloaded from a campus computer for free.
4. After researching your topic, you will write an 8-10 page review paper. Remember that each person
in the group must turn in their own review paper, written in their own words. It is important that
overlap between people within a group is minimal, though some of the general information may be
similar. This is usually accomplished by people within a group selecting different ecosystems, and
writing about how the ecological threat affects their ecosystem in particular (e.g., how climate change
affects the arctic tundra is quite different compared to how it affects the coral reef). You will want to
stay in communication with your fellow group members to make sure there is not too much overlap in
the topics selected for your review papers.
Due Dates for Review Paper and Presentation:
Five References (in Ecology formatting) & Summaries Due
Paper Outline Due
Presentation Outline Due
Final Papers Due
Group Presentations
Group Presentations
All assignments should be typed and saved as a .doc or .docx and uploaded to the appropriate link in
Blackboard before class on the due date. The one exception is the group presentation, which should be
in Powerpoint or similar format and emailed to your TA by the beginning of your class period on 4/26
and 5/3.
Other helpful information
Here is a list of journals that will be helpful to you (note that there are many more journals that may
help you that are not on this list):
Ecological Applications
Ecological Monographs
Conservation Biology
Biological Conservation
Conservation Ecology (an online journal)
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology
Ecology Letters
In each of these journals you can find examples of review papers. Note that good review papers are
organized, thorough, and offer suggestions for future research or solutions to problems at the end.
Paper Grading Criteria and Guidelines
Content: 50%. This is the most important part of your paper. As the author of a review paper, you job
is to synthesize the current literature on a topic of interest. Make sure that you build a strong argument
and that you convey important information to the reader. Be certain to focus on the environmental
issue and its relevance to ecology. Your paper should not be about how humans are impacted by your
topic! Support your topic sentences with main points/conclusions drawn from articles found during
your literature search. Avoid filling your paper with “fluff”, unimportant information that takes up space
but is not relevant to your main points. You should not summarize one article for more than one
paragraph and you should not go into too much detail describing the methods used in the papers unless
absolutely necessary. You should have a minimum of 10 sources cited in your paper.
Style and Organization: 20%. Part of writing an effective paper is learning how to write clearly and
concisely. Avoid using flowery language, as it can be awkward and often times misused. Colloquial
language is inappropriate for a scientific review article. Avoid repetition of the same word/phrases. You
want to write your paper in a similar style and tone as the research papers you are referencing.
Do not use quotes in your paper. You should paraphrase and give proper credit by citing the author(s);
direct quotes are not commonly used in science writing. Also, copying sentences (word for word, in part
or whole) from a scientific article and citing the source is still considered plagiarism and will result in
point deductions at the very least. You need to write the ideas in your own words!
Each paragraph should convey a singular message that should not be detailed anywhere else in the
paper. Jumping back and forth between points confuses the reader and obscures the valuable
information contained in your paper, so make sure that your writing in a logical progression. The use of
section headings and subheadings can be extremely helpful in structuring a paper, and will make it
easier for people to read. Use transitions between paragraphs so that you writing does not appear
Within paragraphs, sentences should be properly constructed (e.g. subject-verb agreement). Watch out
for run-on sentences and fragments. The sentences that are easiest to read are the simplest — don’t try
to use overly complex wording. Each sentence within your paragraph should support the thesis and
flow in a logical order.
Grammar: 10%. Make sure you know when and where to use commas, apostrophes, semicolons,
colons, quotation marks, etc. If you are not sure, look it up. Students in this class frequently have
points deducted in this section because of subject-verb agreement errors, misspellings, and incorrect
word usage. Be sure to perform a sentence-by-sentence edit before submitting your final draft (and
before submitting the optional draft). Having someone else read your paper for grammar errors can be
extremely useful.
Literature Cited: 15%. As a college student and budding scientist, it is critical that you learn how to
properly cite the sources from which you obtain information. A complete citation includes the reference
to the source in the text of your paper (in text reference) and the full reference given in the “Literature
Cited” section at the end of the paper. In general, having more sources is better because it shows you’ve
done extensive research, but avoid including little bits of unimportant information from a variety of
sources just to drive up your numbers. You must have at least 10 citations for your final paper with at
least 8 citations from the primary literature. Additional sources from secondary and tertiary literature
(e.g. books, government documents) may be used, but these do not count toward the eight minimum
primary sources. Do not cite web-based resources using links. This will result in point deductions. If
you find something relevant on the web or your textbook, you must follow its source to the original
work and cite the original reference. Cite references correctly in the Literature Cited section and in text
(See below).
In this class, we will use the format for the journal Ecology. This may be different than other formats
you have learned, so follow it carefully. Refer to the Literature Searching and Citations document on
blackboard for proper citation format.
Format: 5%.
Page length: 8-10 pages, double-spaced. This length does not include figures and tables (optional) and
the Literature Cited section.
Page format: 1-inch margins and 12-point Times or Times New Roman font
Organism names: scientific names (genus and species) go in italics and common names are lowercase;
family names do not go in italics, but start with a capital letter.
Section order: (1) Paper title with your name, your group topic, and section number; (2) the
Introduction; (3) the Body of the paper (organized with section headings); (3) Conclusions and Directions
for Future Research; (4) Literature Cited section; and (5) an Appendix of figures and tables (optional)
Need Help With Your Paper?
Sue Hollander, our Science Reference Librarian, can help with literature searching
· Email: [email protected]
· Phone: 619-594-0097
SDSU Library Tutoring Services offers Drop-in Tutoring for Writing (Rhetoric & Writing Department).
· Website:
· Phone: RWS Department at 619-594-6515
Here is the rubric by which final papers will be graded. Note that this provides a general
guideline for grading which may be adjusted by your TA.
Style and Organization
points possible
Clear introduction with overview of the topic
Statement of purpose/goals
Content matches introduction
Provides background information on topic
Detailed ecology of problem described and supported
with research (at least 8 citations)
Addresses effects to biodiversity
Possible solutions addressed and supported
Summarizes main points (briefly)
Discusses broader implications and importance of the
Provides at least 2 specific recommendations for
future research (supported by citations)
Correctly formatted in text and in Literature Cited
Proper use of citations
At least 10 sources from primary literature
Sentence construction and flow
Wording choice (neither too informal nor too flowery)
Overall organization of topic (separation of ideas into
sections and paragraphs)
Spelling, Grammar, and Punctuation
Format (pages, spacing, font, etc)
Important tip for doing well on this assignment:
Ecological papers do not get published unless they contain detailed and useful information about the
ecology of the system being studied. You should be able to find this in any published paper, including
review papers. If you want to receive a good grade on your research review paper, your paper must
also contain detailed and useful information on your study system (the study system consists of your
threat and how it affects the ecosystem you have researched). Additionally, it must be demonstrated
that you have a firm understanding of this information, as you should be very knowledgeable about your
topic by the time you have completed this paper. You will demonstrate your understanding by
explaining the relevant research for your topic in your own words.
Group Presentation
Work with your group to create a PowerPoint presentation on your topic. Each group member should
plan on speaking for about 3 minutes, depending on the number of people in the group. Presentations
will be 12 minutes plus 3 minutes for questions. Presentations that do not meet the time requirement
will receive significant deductions, so please practice your presentation as a group before the due date.
A good rule of thumb is 1 slide per minute of your presentation. You will also be given class time on 4/15
to firm up your presentation as a group.
Group Presentation Rubric
Well-organized and summarized
Ecological Relevance
Engaging audience
Meets time requirements
Response to questions
Visual presentation
Total Points:
articles. Rusul Rasheed
by Rusul Rasheed
Submission date: 12-Feb-2019 06:56PM (UT C-0800)
Submission ID: 1077366685
File name: ecology_research_articls.docx (19.71K)
Word count: 738
Character count: 4220
period after article name
good, but make sure to highlight some more specific consequences as well
missing ‘and’
remove issue numbers
dont write ‘vol’
articles. Rusul Rasheed
Text Comment.
period af ter article name
Text Comment.
good, but make sure to highlight some more specif ic consequences as
Text Comment.
missing ‘and’
Text Comment.
Text Comment.
dont write ‘vol’
Text Comment.
remove issue numbers
Literature Searching and Citations
Your review paper must include at least 10 total references, of which at least 8 must be primary literature (see Types of
Sources below for details). On September 21st, you will need to submit 5 of these references with a brief summary to
verify you are on the right track.
Here are a few tips to help your search.
Use a database for your search: Web of Science (BIOSIS Previews) and Google Scholar are two good choices for this
class. These allow direct access to electronic articles.
SDSU Library Databases
Click on the “Databases a-z” link in the left menu
Articles and Research Guides will let you search by subject area:
Ecology Databases:
Web of Science
Click on the “Databases a-z” link in the left menu of the SDSU library databases, and find Web of Science OR Biosis
Google scholar
Scholar preferences (set to link to SDSU library access)
Subject Searching
Use keywords/topic related to the topic of interest and hit “search”. Putting search terms within quotation marks (e.g.
“invasive species”) will search for the phrase, rather than the individual words.
Narrowing your search
If your topic is too broad (searching “biodiversity” will result in nearly 50,000 results!), add more keywords using
operators (AND, OR, NOT). Example: “invasive species” AND “biodiversity”. This will return hundreds of results.
Try “climate change AND arctic tundra”. You will get <700 results. Still a lot. You can keep narrowing the keywords, or look for a specific author, publication title, or year an article was published. Use the drop-down menus in Web of Science to do this. Try adding “Oechel” with “author” selected from the drop-down menu to the above search. You will get about 40 articles. If you are trying to find recent articles on a subject, you can enter publication dates. Try “invasive species AND California” in “topic” and “2005-2010” in “year published” to get recently written articles. From the search menu, you can keep narrowing the keywords, or look for a specific author, publication title, or year an article was published. Sorting through search results Once Web of Science has returned the search results, 1. Use the options in the left sidebar to refine your results. Under Web of Science Categories, you can select for articles in relevant categories (ecology), or at least exclude articles in irrelevant categories (in this case, medical/chemistry/engineering etc). Click on the link for more options/values to see the entire list. Under Document Types, you can select for articles and review papers, or at least exclude conference proceedings, editorial letters, and book chapters. 2. Use the “Sort by” drop-down box at the top right of the search results. The most useful searches are for “Times Cited- highest to lowest” and “Publication Date- newest to oldest” Broadening your search If you enter too many variables, you may not get enough information. You can expand a search as well. Try “salmon (redd OR embryo OR egg)” if “salmon redd” doesn’t provide enough results. ** Remember: You will still have to go through many artic ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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