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This is lab 6 and it is the final lab. This is the labs informations to help you on how to write it right. There is more upload that can help you to do the final report. You will be writing Abstract, Intro, Method, Results, and Discussion. Each one will be a paragraph. Last thing is to put reference.


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Lab 2: Introduction
Welcome Back! – Game Plan:

Lab 1 Review

Lab 2 Overview

Formatting / Tips

Pass back papers / Check Pre-labs
Handout Overview

Handout Questions

Handout Answers

How do you refer to other

Last name and year only!
(Carter, 2017).***

What can you put in the
references section?

Only primary sources, articles
you yourself have read!

What is the current or present

Your study, the one you are

When should we use we?

Data is the plural form of datum!
Review for Paraphrasing Exercise

Common Notes on your Papers

Use your own words
Paraphrase, do not summarize

Include all relevant pieces of information
Only discuss what is in the original paragraph
Handing Papers In

Your FULL name and my name (do not write other TA’s name)
Make sure to turn your paper in to our locker
 I can only grade papers that are turned in hard copy to
the locker.
LAB 2:
Lab 2: Introduction

This is the first section of your paper – catch the reader’s eye!

Three Important Parts:
Literature Review: Introduce the subject of your paper and the
previous research that is associated with it
The Current Study: Introduce and explain the current study (your study)
Hypothesis: State your hypothesis – your expectations for your study
based on your literature review

Rationale- connecting why you came up with your hypothesis

Usually from previous research
Remember that all of this is in PAST TENSE.
Where to Start

Start off with a general sentence to set the scene

Talk about why studying this phenomenon is interesting and

Transition into your lit review

Ex: Researchers evaluated ….

Ex. Schwebel et al. (2012) explored…

Page 115-117 in WWS, also on the back cover for more info.
Follow along with your pre-lab outline. Take those ideas and make
them into 2-3 correctly cited paragraphs.
Part 1 of Intro:
Lit Review

Literature Review (Review of previous research – Schwebel et al., 2012 article)

Methodology: How did the researchers investigate their variables?

Findings: What did they find?
Conclusions: What does that mean in general?

Discuss the parts of the article that relate to your study

EX: people who use cell phones while walking did not notice unusual behavior– why is that
Unlike the paraphrasing activity, you do not have to explain every detail!
Make it interesting!

Engage the reader
Explain why your research is necessary, how it fits into field or how it is filling a gap
You are only responsible for reviewing the Schwebel article for this paper.
Remember that all of this is in PAST TENSE.
Part 2 of Intro:
Your Study

The Current Study (your study)

Methodology: How did (will) YOU collect your data.

You haven’t collected it yet, but you’re writing as if you have already.
Variables: What are your variables of interest? (IV and DV)

Avoid using the terms ”independent”, “dependent” and “variable”.

Ex: Cell phone use and stopping at stop signs
Remember that all of this is in PAST TENSE.
Part 3 of Intro:

Four Requirements for the hypothesis:
“It was hypothesized that…”
Mention both variables (distraction/ & safety)
Mention dependency (since we are running a Chi-square test
of independence)
Past tense.
*You can elaborate if you want to (or not)*

Rationale: Why do you think this, based on your literature

In psychology you can’t jump to conclusions, need to cite why
you think one thing will be related or affect the other based on
previous research

This can be a separate, new sentence OR it can be combined
with the hypothesis (if done correctly)
Citing Primary Sources
For when there are more than two and less than six authors:

The first time you cite the article in your paper, you need to list all the authors’ last names
and the year of publication

Ex: In a study by Schwebel, Stavrinos, Byington, Davis, O’neal, and De Jong (2013)

The next time you refer to an article you just need to provide the first authors’
last name followed by et al., and the year of publication

You can do this in two ways:

Most common way: Research on cell phones and walking behavior… (Schwebel et
al., 2012)

Also correct: In a study by Schwebel et al. (2012)…

Formatting is crucial in APA style.

I will be looking at formatting for every assignment, and
points will be deducted for incorrect formatting.
For each formatting mistake, 0.5 points will be deducted from your final grade.
Data Collection

Question: Is cell phone
use/distraction related to safety
(at a cross-road)?

Traffic intersection

Only need to watch one corner
(not all 4) – but you may

Note time of day & location

Note length of observation (ex:
20 min)

Make chart →
Need at least
5 in each
Final Notes
Follow the grading rubric, make sure you get it stamped.
(That indicates that you did your pre-lab).
Make sure you follow the formatting instructions on pages
1-2 of your lab manual.

No heading, besides your name and my name
The printed copy is due by tomorrow (Tuesday) at 4:00 pm
in my locker. Make sure to attach your grading rubric to
the top.
Final Notes
Next week, we will be covering
The Method Section
read over the lab manual and prelab
outline in advance – this will make it a lot easier to
get everything done
sure you are on time!!
Lab 3
Lab 3 Game Plan:

Lab 2 Review

Lab 3 Overview

Formatting / Tips

Pass back papers / Check Prelabs
General Notes:

Questions on the comments that I made on your papers?
See me!
 APA is tricky and it takes practice!
 I expect that you are able to apply my comments to your next paper

Hang onto your papers!
You’re going to have to combine them into a complete paper, so don’t
lose them.
 The comments will help you write your second set of papers.
 You’ll notice each mark isn’t a deduction, many are just tips
 Check Blackboard to make sure that grades are inputted correctly. If not,
please send me your grading rubric or talk to me directly, as soon as

General Notes:

Attach Rubrics to assignments

I will not be able to give you credit for your prelab if you do not attach the
Watch Formatting rules—They’re extremely important!

We will deduct .5 points for every formatting error listed on the bottom of
the grading rubric.

Always use Schwebel et al. (2012)

If citing at the end of a sentence:

….(Schwebel et al., 2012)
Lab 2 Notes:

Past Tense

Writing Handout Reminders

Spells authors names correctly
6+ author rule clarification

Absolutely no use of we, you, our, I, etc.!!
Also no contractions
No Quotations – all in your own words
Do not use the word “variable”
Citation Reminders

You are writing this one step a time, but need to write it like you have
already fully completed the research (minus your results)
Comparing groups
Direction of relationship vs dependency
Findings versus Conclusions
Lab 3: Method

This is the second section of your paper:

Most people finish this one in class

The purpose is to describe what you did in your study so
that others can replicate

Three sections


Apparatus (NA)/Materials

Lab 3: Method

Participants – Who were they? How many did you observe?
This can be one or two sentences.

The researcher observed…

No one sentence paragraphs! If Participants section is only one
sentence, then combine Participants & Procedure sections.

You do not know anything about the people you study

Do not include age, gender, or say that they are students!
Keep it generalizable (don’t say SDSU students)
Apparatus – Not needed since our collection is so simple
Lab 3: Method

Procedure – What you did?

Define your variables (you can use the definition in the lab manual).
(Do not use the word variable)

How did you collect your data? When? For how long?

This doesn’t need to be extremely detailed, just the basics is fine.

Do not give building names or exact time of day here → keep it
general (AM/PM, urban/rural, campus)
Lab 3: Tips


Method is bold & centered
Participants and Procedure sections are bold aligned left
If you combine the two sections, write Participants/Procedure and use
subheading rules (WWS)

Keep everything in the right section, follow your lab manual and
grading criteria

Make sure you attach your grading rubric sheet on top

Your name and my name (Chandler)

Watch Formatting Rules and remember guidelines on Writing Handout.

Lab 3: Tips


You are writing up the method of the current study (the one you did!), NOT the
Schwebel et al. (2012) study

Triple check formatting and tense requirements → -.25 for each tense error

Times New Roman, Size 12, double space 0pt before + after, no extra space
between text (including header)

Read along with the PowerPoint slides and follow what they say

Ask a classmate to proof read your paper

Not too specific = generalizable + replicable

APA Rules for writing numbers

Be clear and concise in your writing

Use your resources
Quick Activity
Write down on a piece of paper:
What do you want to learn or take from this class?
Why are you taking this class?
How can I help you succeed in this lab (within reason)?
Your feedback is appreciated! (constructive or positive) →
Lab 4: Results
Lab 4 Game Plan:

Lab 3 Methods Review

Lab 4 Results Overview

How to input and analyze data in SPSS

How to write up findings

Tips and Formatting

Check Pre-labs/Hand back papers
Lab 3 Review:

Heading: Method not Methods (we just had 1)

Researchers vs researcher

Do not assume anything about your participants

Use your resources → pre-lab outlines, slides, grading rubric, lab manual

APA format – using numbers in text

Use text if the number is between 0-9 and/or if it is the first word in a sentence

Use digits if the number is 10 or above and NOT the first word in sentence
Check your grammar and proofread!
Lab 3 Review:

You need to operationally define your variables.
 2 variables with two levels each:
 Texting/Cell Phone Use: What is texting, what is not texting?
 Safe Behavior: What is safe behavior and what is risky
Describe type of intersection

Bikes and pedestrians only? Automobiles? Four-way?
Do not define unsafe behavior as looking at phones/texting →
They are separate measures

Ps can be demonstrate unsafe walking Bx and not be on a
cell phone
Your Responses
What do you want to learn or take from this class?
How to write an APA style paper and collect/analyze data
How to be a good producer and consumer of research
Why are you taking this class?
To be a better writer and researcher
Build skills for graduate school and/or a future career
How can I help you succeed in this lab?
Detailed and constructive feedback on papers
Answering questions (in person and through email) and proof reading
Provide clear grading guidelines and expectations
Provide clear pre-lab expectations
LAB 4:
Lab 4: Results


Input your data into SPSS
Run a Chi-Square test
Report your results in your paper
To start this lab off you’re going to be inputting data.
There are
detailed instructions in your lab manual, and I’m going to
go over everything you need to do right now.

If you miss something, don’t worry, the power point will be available on
blackboard as always (in addition to your lab manual)

Going to go through this somewhat quickly so you can get started

Ask specific questions, will not have time to read over your papers today
SPSS Entering Variables

Make sure you’re in variable view.

Create two new variables (Cell, Cross)

Assign values to each cell variable

Value = 0, Label = no

Value = 1, Label = yes
Assign values to cross variable

Value = 0, Label = safe

Value = 1, Label = unsafe
Note: You need to input labels for BOTH
“Cell” and “Cross”
SPSS Data Entry

Make sure you’re in data view.

Each row represents data about one pedestrian

So if you have 20 observations, you’ll have 20 rows.
Input the correct sequence of 0’s and 1’s for each
No cell/text (0), Unsafe Crossing (1)
No cell/text (0), Safe Crossing (0)
Cell phone (1), Unsafe Crossing (1)
Cell phone (1), Safe Crossing (0)
SPSS Data Entry Ex.

This is an example of what your
data might look like:
No Cell (0), Unsafe Cross (1)
No Cell (0), Safe Cross (0)
Cell (1), Unsafe Cross (1)
Cell (1), Safe Cross (0)
This tells us if
there are any
missing data
Of those who
stopped safely
(16), 6 drivers
(28.6%) had a
cell phone.
Chi-Square value and
significance value
This tells us if
there are any
missing data
EXAMPLE: Of those who
crossed safely (10), 5
pedestrians (50%) had
used a cell phone
Chi-Square value
Significance value
Results: Writing it Up

First, restate your hypothesis

Report your statistics:

If I did not make any comments on your hypothesis from your introduction then just
use that. If I did, please make the necessary changes.
Format: χ2(degrees of freedom) = chi square, p-value

χ2(1)_=_ .03, p_=_.032.

Little details matter (-.25 for each statistics errors!)

Insert chi symbol (not an X)

Insert a ‘2’ and then superscript it (to make it squared)

p needs to be lower case and italicized

Round to two decimals for χ2 , and three decimals for p-value

Note the spacing
This needs to be in the body of a sentence (aka not in parenthesis 19
Writing it Up cont’d

Sample write up including your statistics:

χ2 is a test of dependency, NOT correlation
Finally, explicitly state whether your hypothesis was supported or
not. This seems redundant, but you do need a separate sentence
explicitly stating this.

Ex: “Results suggested that teaching evaluations were dependent on
the teaching assistant, χ2(1) = 3.03, p = .032”.
Just because you found significant results does not mean they
supported your hypothesis! (It could be the case that texting was
related to safer crossing!!!) → need to look at % or bar graph to
determine this
So now let’s talk about significant vs. non-significant results!
If Findings are Significant…

If p < .05 (SIGNIFICANT), you’re going to need to give some descriptive information about your sample (#,%).  Of the 40 students in Shelley’s class, 36 (90%) provided good teaching evaluations while 4 (10%) provided bad teaching evaluations.  Of the 40 students in Zach’s class, 25 (62.5%) provided good teaching evaluations while 15 (37.5%) provided bad teaching evaluations.  The % you use is the valid percent! Check your bath  Yes – you need both the number and the valid percent  If significant....Copy/paste your graph onto a separate page and add a figure caption. You’ll also need to reference this in your paper. 21 If Findings are Significant…  Separate page!  Needs to be referenced in the text.   Figure 1. Frequency of crossing behavior and texting behavior.  Pedestrians were more likely to cross safely if they were texting than if they were not texting (Figure 1). Caption is italicized justified left below. The description is NOT italicized. Do not do this if your p > .05
Wrap Up: Significant Findings
Restate hypothesis
It was hypothesized that teaching evaluations would be dependent on TA.
State findings of chi square written up correctly
Results suggested that teaching evaluations were dependent on TA, χ2(1) = 3.03,
p = .032
State whether it supports or does not support hypothesis
The hypothesis was supported.
Include descriptive information
 Of the 40 students in Shelley’s class, 36 (90%) provided good teaching
evaluations while 4 (10%) provided bad teaching evaluations.
 Of the 40 students in Zach’s class, 25 (62.5%) provided good teaching
evaluations while 15 (37.5%) provided bad teaching evaluations.
your graph/figure in the body of the paragraph
seen in Figure 1, …
Figure on a separate page with caption (watch
If Findings aren’t Significant…

p > .05 – findings are not statistically significant
square tests analyze whether one variable depends on (or is
independent from) another variable. If the test is not significant,
than knowing about cell phones tells you nothing about stopping

You don’t need to describe %’s and #’s.
You don’t need to attach a figure, make a figure caption, or
reference it in text.

Your paper is going to be pretty short (~3-5 sentences)
Wrap Up: Non-significant Findings
was hypothesized that teaching evaluations would be dependent on TA.
findings of chi square written up correctly
Results suggested that teaching evaluations were independent from TA, χ2(1) = .026, p
= .833.

it does not support hypothesis
hypothesis was not supported.
**Do not include descriptive info, turn in a bar graph, or reference any figures**
Formatting and Grading

Your heading (Results) should be bold and centered

Make sure to indent, double space all the way through,
Times New Roman, size 12.

-.5 for each formatting error

-.25 for each past tense error

Half credit if late (due 24 hours from the end of lab)

Chi square (χ2):

Insert → Symbol → Greek Small Letter Chi small curvy
(χ) or insert 03c7 in the character code.

Squared symbol → Type the number “2” →
it → Format Font → Superscript
Non-significant ≠ insignificant → Do not mix these up, the proper
term is non-significant

You need to turn in:

Grading Rubric

Results Lab

Figure (if applicable)

SPSS output (will not be able to grade paper without it)

If p = .343, you can either state p > .05 OR the exact p value

If p < .05, state the exact p value  If p = .000 (on your SPSS output), state p < .001 27 28 Final Comments Feedback? ☺ Lecture too fast or too slow? Confusions? Comments? → Lab 5: Discussion 1 Lab 5 Game Plan:  Lab 4 Review  Lab 5 Overview  Tips / Final Comments  Pass back papers / Check Prelabs 2 Lab 4 Review  p should be in Italics; χ2 as a Greek letter; spacing      Yes: χ2 (1) = 4.04, p = .044 No: x2 (1)=4.043,P=.04 Check your hypotheses! (again ☺) Significant: Include descriptive information & figure Non-significant: Variables we ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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