Assignment 100%An important aspect of formulating a strategic plan for an organisation is to evaluate the external factors that may impact the strategy or strategies the company wishes to pursue For this assignment you are on the senior management team of a transport company (DHL).Through conducting independent research (on an individual basis) you are tasked with the following: 1. Review, discuss and analyse current strategies which have been implemented by the organisation. (30 marks)2. Determine, analyse and discuss potential changes to the company’s strategies that may be needed in the year ahead considering external factors including Brexit and risks and impacts which may affect the organisation and the transport industry. (50 marks)There will be an additional 10 marks for the structure of the assignment and 10 marks for citing and referencing.The external factors: factors outside the company that you don’t have any power on it, example as Brexit.Structure of the assignment:1-Table of contents2-Introduction3-Current Strategies of the organisation4-Potential changes to company’s strategy5-Conclusion6-Recommendation7-Reference/BibliographyAs the assignment needs to be in Irish context, Im thinking to go with DHL as its oprating between ireland and the UK and how its going to be effected by Brexit (UK to Ireland) and how Brexit will effect the who operation.things need to be in mine: Im a transport student, studying in Ireland. The assignment should make reference to their logistics operation and how they will be effected form such an external force (Brexit and other forces) in an Irish context.Important: Referencing must be in Harvard style, In tex citation is a must. English: UK or Irish
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Task at Hand
1. Review, discuss and analyse current strategies which have been implemented by the
2. Determine, analyse and discuss potential changes to the company’s strategies that may be
needed in the year ahead considering external factors including Brexit and risks and impacts
which may affect the organisation and the transport industry.
The introductory part explains two main aspects that is:
2. Current Strategies of the organisation
3. Potential changes to company’s strategy
External factors affecting the changes to the strategies as :
✓ Customs and Tariffs
✓ Political Factors
✓ You can add
The changes that have to be made in strategic plan include:
Three at least
Not a lot of effort put in.
The result lacks clarity
and focus. Some
Poor overall. Not
Professional report, high
standards paper/ presentation
and good outcome of critical &
strategic thinking. Support
Semi Professional, generally
high standards and outcome.
Acceptable; could have
used more evidence to
Professional outlook, clear
headings and subheadings,
Cover page, Introduction, Main
Semi Professional, good layout,
some errors in headings and
font consistency (introduction,
Main body and conclusion).
Reasonable structure and
delivery, missing headlines
and font inconsistency
(some missing parts of
Some structure is
available but not
apparent (no bold font
usage, no page
understanding of major
concepts and analyze
them critically; develops
attempts to evaluate
understanding of major
concepts but describes
rather than analyzing
them critically; little
arguments; little or no
attempt to evaluate
and lacks any
ability to analyze
response to question.
Answering with some
relevance. Inability to
link to more theories.
Little or no
answers or links.
Limited extra research
and very little amount
of extra information,
which added some extra
value to the case or
Outstanding understanding of
major concepts, analyses
concepts and issues critically,
develops own arguments
persuasively, shows originality.
Shows a sound understanding
of major concepts and the
ability to describe and analyze
them critically; develops
arguments logically and
critically; evaluates arguments.
Question handled in an
outstanding manner. Included
examples and theory.
Question handled very well.
Average. Limited response
to question in some
respects; difficulty linking
to theory or examples.
Further research and
information obtained from
different sources. Further
material provided to support a
case or argument. Utilized
information to enhance the
Obvious further research;
provided few sources and
information outside school
materials to support a case or
further research that had
some impact on
supporting a case or
Department of Social Sciences
Guidelines for essay writing
This document is on line at:
Assignments in the form of essays, reports, reflective journals, observations and
theses are central to the evaluation of students’ performance at college. Unlike exams,
continuous assessment gives you the opportunity to research a topic extensively,
organise your material, plan carefully and write up the essay in a less stressful
situation. A much higher quality of work is therefore expected. While the proverbial
“person in the street” could write an intelligent and well-argued essay, your essay
must go a stage further and show familiarity with theoretical concepts, frames of
references and research.
These guidelines are designed to help you produce high quality written assignments
and they focus particularly on essay writing.
Define the problem The first task is to define the problem. Underline the key words in
the title and if necessary clarify with the Lecturer and/or consult a dictionary or key
textbook. Clear definition of terms is a hallmark of academic writing.
Consider the instructions carefully. Clearly, an essay requiring ‘comparison’ would be
very different to one involving ‘discussion’. An assignment that does not meet the
requirements of the title cannot hope to achieve a good mark and may even result in a
failed assignment. Consider the following frequently used instructions:
examine in detail, showing pros and cons
weigh up the value of and give a judgement
show the similarities between two given items
point out all the differences between items
show both the good and bad points
give the exact meaning
give a detailed account of
make really clear, possibly giving and reason
examine from various standpoints, showing the implications
give the main points of
Summarise: give a brief account of
(Rose, 2001, pp. 90-91).
Define the limits. Time spent at the start in limiting the problem is important. A
problem is limited by reducing the scope of the investigation (for example, “the essay
will focus on services for under twos in Dublin” rather than “all preschool age
children”) not by omitting relevant information. Unrelated information is likely to
lose you marks.
Plan the Assignment. Before you begin to write you should have a clear framework
that provides a structure for both the writer and the reader. Remember assignments are
marked on structure and content. All assignments have (a) an introduction, (b) a
body and (c) a conclusion.
(a) The introduction should indicate the problem and the main issues to be
addressed in the assignment. The introduction should not include details but
should serve as a map of what is to follow.
(b) The body of the assignment should present the evidence. Theories and
issues should be presented (with examples and comment where relevant) as
per instructions, for example, discuss/compare/ summarise.
A new paragraph or heading should be used for each new point.
(c) The conclusion should sum up the main points discussed with reference to
the problem set but should not be a repetition of material already covered.
Conclusions should be drawn based on the evidence/comment presented.
This standard format can be shortened to:
Say what you are going to do
Say what you have done
Write in a simple, clear, precise style taking particular note of the following points:
Write impersonally, without using the word “I” or “he/she”. Instead use the
word ‘one’. It is, of course, incorrect to refer to oneself as ‘one’, as in ‘One
chose to research this topic because …’. One would imagine that this goes
without saying, but not so!
Be consistent by using the same tense throughout.
Clichés, jargon, colloquial speech and slang are not acceptable as academic
writing must be factual and precise. Keep your language specific. Precise,
scientific language allows clearer communication with your reader. Take for
example the two sentences below:
“B.F. Skinner experimentally investigated the effects of punishment and
concluded that, while effective as a means of controlling behaviour,
punishment may bring about negative consequences such as a generalised state
of fear in the organism.”
“A guy called B.F. Skinner got down to the business of looking into
punishment and figured out that it can work but also went on about the
down side being that it may make the person afraid.”
Accuracy is essential…
“recent research…” is better stated as “research since 2008…”
“some researchers have shown…” is better stated as “McNaughton and
Hughes (2011) have shown…”
Abbreviations such as e.g. and etc. are generally not acceptable. The word
should be written in full…. for example, not e.g.
Ensure the subject of a sentence is either singular or plural. It cannot be both,
as in ‘A person [singular] can choose themselves [plural] whether or not they
[plural] send her [singular] children to fee-paying schools.’ Such poor written
expression grates and will irritate your examiners. The sentence above should
be rewritten as either ‘‘People can choose themselves whether or not they
send their children to fee-paying schools’ or ‘A person can choose him/herself
whether or he/she sends his/ her children to fee-paying schools.’ The former
is more elegant.
Acronyms are acceptable if one has previously indicated the full meaning of
Thus, to use “DIT”, one must have initially used Dublin
Institute of Technology (DIT)
Spelling and grammatical errors are not acceptable and spelling/grammar
checkers and proof-reading should ensure a high level of accuracy.
Good punctuation enhances the clarity and readability of your assignment.
Accuracy is assumed and not taught on our programmes. If you need a fun but
rigorous revision, see Lynne Truss ‘Eats, shoots & Leaves’
Paragraphing sorts a piece of writing into sections and helps the reader
understand your meaning. Generally a new point requires a new paragraph
Paragraphs should be neither too long (check to see if you have more than one
point) or too short (one or two sentences).
Drafting and re-drafting is a vital part of academic writing and helps to tighten
the structure and content of your writing. You may need to add or delete
material as well as re-order material. It is best to leave some time between
reading drafts to ensure you will look at the work with a fresh eye. Much of
the incomprehensible writing one encounters can be prevented simply by rereading and re-drafting what has already been written. Always re-write your
essays. Hemingway claimed to have re-written the ending to A Farewell to
Arms 39 times before he was satisfied with it! (Paris Review, 1958).
Assignments should have a title page (a template for the title page is provided in
Appendix 1) and should include the following information:
Title of Assignment
Declaration of ownership
Assignments should be typed on A4 paper according to the following guidelines:
Style and Font: Times New Roman, Font size 12.
Spacing: The body of text should use 1.5 line spacing. Quotations, footnotes, tables
and figures and appendices require different spacing.
Punctuation: No space before a full stop. Text resumes two spaces after a full stop.
No space before commas, colons or semi-colons. Text resumes one space after
commas, colons and semi-colons.
Justification: The text should be fully justified (straight edges on both left and right
sides of the text)
Margins: The usual margins recommended are 2.5 cm at the top, bottom and right side
of the page and 4cm at the left of the page
Pagination: Pages should be numbered starting with the first page of text. Title page is
Examiner’s Comments: A single clean page should be included at the back of the
assignment for the examiner’s feedback
Submission of Assignments: Pages should be stapled with a single staple or paper
clip. Assignments should not be submitted in plastic pockets unless necessary for
large pieces of work.
Keep a copy or back-up file as all your assignments are retained by DIT for one year
Plagiarism is the deliberate use in a paper of material drawn from the work of another
person without acknowledgement and can lead to an assignment being failed outright.
To avoid plagiarising, either use your own words or acknowledge your source.
Every assignment requires a declaration to state that the work is the student’s own and
has not been copied from another person, either a student or published author and that
all materials (paper and electronic) have been referenced according to guidelines of
the Department of Social Sciences at DIT. The declaration of ownership should
accompany every assignment.
Academic writing requires that you read and cite the work of others. Any material that
is not your own must be sourced to the original author. Every book, article, thesis and
all electronic material that has been consulted and cited should be included in the
bibliography. Only material which is publicly available should be cited so lecture
notes, for example, should not be referenced. The use of quotations and references in
the text is followed up by a list of references, alphabetically presented at the end of
the work, which is known as the References. There are specific guidelines that you
must follow for referencing in the text and in the References section. The referencing
system adopted by the Department of Social Sciences is the American Psychological
Association Style, or APA Style.
What follows is a summary outline of the
Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th Edition. An
outline tutorial can be found at:
Referencing format to be used in Text
a) After a summary of an author’s work, or a reference to his/her work you must
insert the author’s surname and the date of publication.
In the case of two authors, both are listed: (Wilson & Thomas, 2009).
In the case of three to five authors, all authors should be listed the first time
the work is cited:
(O’Brien, Smith, Horgan, White & Dunphy, 2009).
As listing five authors would become quite cumbersome, after the first citation
you need only name the first author, followed by et al. (from the Latin,
meaning ‘and others’): (O’Brien et al., 2009).
When citing an author who has published two or more works in the same year, use
lower case letters (a, b, c) with the year to distinguish them:
The Department of Education and Science (2012a) has reported that …
b) If you are including the author’s name as part of your sentence you can put the date
in brackets after it as follows:
Murphy (2010) has argued that …
c) A straight forward quotation:
However, it has been noted that “this is a phenomenon which is not unique to
Ireland” (Murphy, 2010, p. 12).
d) When you are summarising someone else’s ideas:
Murphy (2010) has argued that it is not just Ireland that has experienced such
difficulties; other countries including Finland have also faced similar
If you are citing a number of works to support an argument or position, they should be
listed alphabetically, separated by a semi-colon:
A considerable number of researchers have reported similar findings (Barry,
2006; Doyle, 2008; Zacchus, 2004).
e) Let’s say you are reading a book by Smith, and in Smith’s book there is a quote
from another book by Jones. You decide that you would like to include the quote by
Jones in your essay, but you haven’t read Jones’ original source. You present this kind
of material as follows:
More evidence to support this assertion has been presented by research in
North America, which concluded that 23% of women are likely to choose not
to have children for a variety of reasons (Jones, as cited in Smith, 2012, pp.
The page number given is the page number from the book by Smith from where you
got the quotation from Jones. Your bibliography will contain the book by Smith.
f) If referencing from a newspaper, follow the same format as above. If there is no
identifiable author, use the name of the newspaper, the date and page number if
(The Irish Times, 19th January, 2010, p. 6)
A short quotation of less than a line may be included in the body of the text in
quotation marks but if it is longer (typically, 40 words) start a new line and indent it.
All direct quotes must be single spaced and indented. This makes it easier for the
reader to establish what is sourced work and what is your own work. Include the page
number if using a direct quote:
Russell’s (1997) work on incest in South Africa confines itself to white incest
survivors. She notes:
a few women have made valiant efforts to bring this problem to public
attention over the past decade, but the handling of this crime [incest] is
still in the dark ages in South Africa compared with most Western
nations … [and] no adequate studies of the prevalence of incestuous
abuse have been conducted in South Africa (1997, p. 9).
h) Referencing Internet sites or online journals.
The suggested format for WWW page entries in the text is Constructor (person or
organisation), year, page no. [if given]:
Department of Health and Children (2006, p. 8).
Many webpages do not contain page numbers. Try to include a marker to help your
reader find the relevant passage, for example a paragraph number:
Department of Justice, Equality and Law Reform (2009, para 121).
Referencing format to be used in the ‘References’ section
‘References’ is a list of all the sources you quoted or paraphrased to prepare your
paper. You should arrange entries in alphabetical order by the author’s last name or, if
there is no author, by the first main word of the title. It should start on a separate page
at the end of your essay; label the page ‘References’ centred at the top of the page.
Use hanging indent paragraph style (align the first line with the left margin, and
indent all subsequent lines one tab space from the left margin). Type all authors’
names with the surname first, separated by a comma. Use only initials for the first and
middle names, and an ‘and’ before the last author’s name.
The title of the publication should be italicised. Capitalise only the first word, the
first word after a colon and proper nouns.
Charleton, M. (2007). Ethics for social care in Ireland: Philosophy and practice.
Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
Kessler, S. & Bayliss, F. (1985). Contemporary British industrial relations. London:
Where an organization is the author,
Department of Education and Science. (2009). Etc.
(b) Edited books
Where a book has been edited you must insert (ed.) (if there is only one editor) or
(eds.) (for two or more editors) after their names:
O’Connor, T. & Murphy, M. (Eds.). (2006). Social care in Ireland: Theory, policy
and practice. Cork: CIT Press.
(c) Contributions in edited books
When quoting the work of a contributor to an edited book the following format should
Kitchen, R. & Bartley, B. (2007). Ireland now and in the future. In B. Bartley & R.
Kitchen (Eds.), Understanding contemporary Ireland (pp. 301-07). London:
(d) Journal articles
Labbé, J. (2005). Ambroise Tardieu: The man and his work on child maltreatment a
century before Kempe. Child Abuse and Neglect, 29(4), 311-324.
Bloggs, J. (2008, September 1). Government at crossroads. Irish Times, p. 1.
(f) Websites and Online Journals
Irish Council for Civil Liberties (2009). ICCL Submission on the (Retention of Data)
Bill Nov 2009. Dublin: Irish Council for Civil Liberties
As with any published reference, the goals of electronic references are to credit th …
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