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Review Ennis’s EMP model. How would you improve it? Is there any crossover with other hospital department responsibilities?Provide a table of contents for your hypothetical emergency management plan.600 words, use the attachment and this link as your major references…

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B. Wayne Blanchard
October 7, 2005
The purpose of this document is to provide assistance to academicians who have the
responsibility of designing or maintaining a collegiate emergency management program (such as
a degree, certificate, or concentration). The design of individual college courses and an
emergency management curriculum should be informed by an appreciation of the functions of
emergency management and skill sets needed to perform those functions.
A previous and different version of this document was developed in the Spring of 2003, in
preparation for a presentation at the 28th Annual Workshop on Hazards Research and
Applications in Boulder Colorado.2 Since that time there have been two FEMA Emergency
Management Higher Education Project Conferences which included breakout sessions to discuss
emergency management competencies and curriculum as well as a workshop in Denver Colorado
in the Fall of 2004 on The Hazards Manager of the 21st Century.3 In addition, the recent failure
of governments to quickly and adequately respond to Hurricane Katrina in the Gulf and
subsequent levee breaks in New Orleans, has caused me to re-evaluate and re-write the earlier
The format will first be a simple listing, to be followed by amplifying notes.
1. Comprehensive Emergency Management Framework or Philosophy
2. Leadership and Team-Building
3. Management
4. Networking and Coordination
5. Integrated Emergency Management
6. Emergency Management Functions
7. Political, Bureaucratic, Social Contexts
8. Technical Systems and Standards
9. Social Vulnerability Reduction Approach
10. Experience
One would think it apparent by now that emergency managers at all levels of government need to have emergency
management competencies when obtaining their positions. It should no longer be accepted that anyone, at any level
of government, be put into a lead emergency management position without having such competencies as those
described herein.
Accessible at:
Findings from these events are accessible at:
1. Adopts “Comprehensive Emergency Management” framework or philosophy.
Comprehensive emergency management can best be summarized as “all hazards, all phases,4
all actors.”
This is in contrast with a homeland security (terrorism) response primary orientation. It
should be obvious by now that an imbalanced focus on uniformed first responders and their
response to a terrorism event has harmed the development and maintenance of broader
capabilities for a broader audience and broader range of hazards. The best response
capability in the world does little or northing to address future disaster losses. Only
mitigation, reduction, prevention and readiness activities address the ever increasing
vulnerability of the United States to disasters and ever increasing disaster losses.5
2. Leadership and Team-Building
The necessity of good leadership is another obvious lesson to be tragically relearned yet once
again in the wake of Hurricane Katrina. Especially, but not just, in the immediate pre-impact
and early response phases, leadership is needed – not just an ability to provide a command
presence, but the demonstration of vision, compassion, flexibility, imagination, resolve and
courage.6 Without leadership, bureaucratic organizations and their personnel will tend to
stay within more or less business as usual bureaucratic systems and methods of operation. It
takes a leader to break down theses barriers to expeditiously move people and resources to
where they are needed. Leadership is also needed in the hard-to-sell mitigation, reduction,
prevention arena of emergency management – to seek to create an culture of disaster
prevention and preparedness. Leadership means fighting for resources so that not only good
risk assessments can be made, plans developed, people trained and systems exercised, but
equipment, facilities, supplies can be procured which allow plans to be implemented.
Without resources, even the best laid plans are but fairy dust.
3. Management
Leaders need also to be able to manage, or have managers under them – people who have the
ability to implement, to make happen. This was singularly lacking in pre-impact and initial
Hurricane Katrina response wherein very detailed plans existed at local, state, federal levels
and in the private sector, many hundreds of people had been trained and exercised against
those plans, and yet the plans were not adequately implemented. This disconnect between
Refers to all phases of the “disaster life cycle” – mitigation, preparedness, response, recovery.
See the Emergency Management Higher Education slide presentation at:,1,Slide 1
The Hurricane Katrina response at the federal level demonstrates how good systems can fail without good
leadership, and how operations improve with good leadership. We reiterate here the 9/11 Commission Report on the
importance of imagination and how things can go terribly wrong without it when working out of bureaucratic
systems. As an example, picking, this time the local and state levels of government, local and state officials have
said that hundreds of buses were not used to move citizens without transportation out of New Orleans prior to
hurricane impact (as both local and state plans called for) due to lack of drivers. Yet gathering in such staging areas
for evacuation as the Superdome, were thousands of people, many hundreds of whom could have been called upon
to drive municipal and school buses filled with evacuees out of New Orleans along with those other citizens who
had cars.
good planning, training and exercising on the one hand and implementation on the other
demonstrates, among other things, the criticality of managerial implementation abilities.
4. Networking and Coordination
Emergency management offices are typically short staffed or no staff at all – just someone
with the responsibility but insufficient resources. This situation requires that emergency
managers network and coordinate with a broad range of other organizations — up, down and
laterally in government levels, private sector, voluntary associations and community based
organizations. Particularly in large scale disasters, the failure of emergency management
officials and their supervisors to adequately network beforehand with other levels of
government, will prescribe a second governmental failure disaster. Within a jurisdiction or
an organization, stakeholder organizations need to plan, train and exercise together. Indeed,
one disaster researcher has suggested that successful and unsuccessful disaster response
operations can be predicted beforehand based on knowledge of two variables alone – (1) the
extent and variety of an emergency managers network (how many different stakeholders are
communicated with and involved), and (2) the frequency of contact – once a year, twice,
monthly, weekly, daily.7
5. Integrated Emergency Management
Beyond the importance of networking and coordinating with a broad range of stakeholders, is
the need to integrate hazard, disaster and emergency management concerns into broad range
of organizational entities. In the local government context, for example, this means
integrating emergency management planning into not just all the emergency services, but
such other organizations as public works, public health, human services, transportation,
planning, etc.). Emergency managers are seldom thought of until a threat looms, are too few,
and typically have too little in the way of resources. This requires that emergency
management organizations work to get other governmental organizations within their
jurisdiction to “integrate” emergency management concerns (such as risk assessment,
planning, training, exercise participation) into their thinking, systems and operations. The
more heads the better.
6. Key Emergency Management Functions
Emergency management functions are variously described and enumerated – as in lists of 10
or a dozen or 16, etc. These should be consulted. Herein will be stressed several key
◼ Risk Assessment – what are the hazards facing ones jurisdiction/organization, their
scope and probability, and the demographics, capabilities and resources of ones
jurisdiction or organization
◼ Planning – emergency operations, mitigation, tie in to comprehensive plan
◼ Training
Drabek, Thomas E. 2003. Strategies for Coordinating Disaster Responses. Boulder, CO: Program on
Environment and Behavior, Monograph 61, Institute of Behavioral Science, University of Colorado.

Emergency Operations Center Operations – setting up, equipping and managing
Establishing interoperable communications within jurisdiction/organization
Applying lessons learned and research findings to emergency management functions
on an on-going basis
7. Political, Bureaucratic, and Social Contexts
Emergency management is situated and must operate within various constraining and
enabling circumstances. Key among them are the political, bureaucratic (or organizational),
and social contexts of a jurisdiction/organization and those of lower and higher jurisdictions.
Thus there is a great need to instruct on forms of government and bureaucratic politics, but
also a need to understand the social dimensions of a jurisdiction/organizations and the social
dimensions of disaster (how people and organizations react to disaster).
8. Technical Systems and Standards
Students need to learn the tools of the trade, which today include such subjects as:
◼ National Incident Management System (NIMS)
◼ National Response Plan (NRP)
◼ NFPA 1600 (National Fire Protection Association “Standard for Disaster/Emergency
Management and Business Continuity Programs”
◼ Certified Emergency Manager credential administered by the International
Association of Emergency Managers
◼ Geospatial and geographical information systems (GPS and GIS)
◼ Communications systems
◼ Warning systems
◼ Computers and hazard and emergency management related software packages
9. Social Vulnerability Reduction Approach
The Hurricane Katrina experience provides yet again the lesson that there are groupings of
people in most, if not all jurisdictions, who are more vulnerable than others and are
differentially impacted when a disaster crosses a community. The make-up of highly
vulnerable groups varies across communities, so there is no simple listing of poverty, race or
gender, for example, that allows one to simply “fill in the blanks.” The prevailing emergency
management approach in the U.S. has been variously label, but a label that can be found in
the academic community is “technocratic” – getting at reliance on traditional governmental
managerial approaches, technology, and engineering to solve the problems of hazards. In
looking at how many emergency management organizations spend their too-limited
resources, there is frequently to be found a utilitarian, or biggest-bang-for-the-buck approach.
This often translates into what can be done for the largest numbers of people in a community
– for the most people. Frequently, though, “the most” does not translate into “the most
vulnerable” and in need of assistance – “the most” often translates into white middle class.
The social vulnerability perspective teaches practitioners to focus first and foremost on those
most vulnerable to disasters in their communities, instead of the largest number of people, in
recognition of the fact of life that most emergency management organizations have
traditionally not had, and probably will not have in the future, the resources to do both things
well – to do their job adequately. There is an upper division college course on the FEMA
Emergency Management Higher Education website precisely on this topic – entitled “A
Social Vulnerability Approach to Disaster” – and accessible at:
In my opinion, no upper division or graduate degree program in emergency management
should be viewed as complete without the inclusion of this or a similar course.
10. Experience
It has been stated since the beginning of the FEMA Emergency Management Higher
Education Project in late 1994, that the three keys to emergency management are education,
training, and experience (preferably disaster experience). Successful disaster operations, for
example, work best when standard bureaucratic methods of operating can be modified to act
more expeditiously or outside of normal business as usual constraints. This is easier learned
through experience than taught. There are many ways administrators of collegiate
emergency management programs can assist their traditional (non-emergency management
practitioner) students with the gaining of experience – such as through internships, service
learning,8 exercise participation, CERT9 Team training and membership, and registration
with disaster response organizations (such as the American Red Cross or as a FEMA’s
disaster reservist. The gaining of even modest experience will be of assistance to traditional
college students who will need to find jobs upon graduation – and will be competing against
those without the educational foundation, but with experiential credentials.
See, for example the Emergency Management Service Learning section of the FEMA Emergency Management
Higher Education Project website —
Community Emergency Response Teams – see:
B. Wayne Blanchard, Ph.D., CEM
Higher Education Project Manager
Readiness Branch
Emergency Management Institute
National Emergency Training Center
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Department of Homeland Security
16825 S. Seton Avenue
Emmitsburg, MD 21727
(301) 447-1262
[email protected]
2003 Draft
The development of the emergency management competences outlines below began with an invitation to
participate on a panel on “Hazard Managers in the 21st Century: Needs in Higher Education,” July 15, 2003
at the 28th Annual Workshop on Hazards Research and Applications, in Boulder Colorado, sponsored by the
Hazards Research and Applications Center at the University of Colorado at Boulder.
The description of the panel in the Workshop Program document read:
“To meet the challenges of disaster reduction in the 21st century, today’s hazard managers must
possess some distinctly different characteristics from more traditional emergency managers.
Hazard managers must develop a body of knowledge that goes beyond incident response to
include expertise in social science and technology. Fostering interdisciplinary opportunities at
colleges and universities is one way to build these capabilities. Unfortunately, there is no agreedupon framework that currently exists to guide these programs. This session addresses the
fundamentals of an educational framework for refining a hazard management core curriculum.”
In that I believe that a hazard or emergency management curriculum should be informed by the expected
competencies of a hazard or emergency manager, my approach to preparing for the panel was to put on
paper thoughts, in an outline format, on hazard/emergency management core competencies. This is a
subject that I have some familiarity with, having collected several attempts to address occupational
competencies from a range of perspectives – emergency management, public entity risk management,
industrial safety management, and the training and education field – having participated in one of those
exercises, and having observed and participated in discussions of this topic at every Emergency
Management Higher Education Conference held at the Emergency Management Institute.
My own exercise started with the requirement of the Hazards Center for every panelists to submit an
abstract of their remarks in no more than one-page (outline acceptable) prior to the workshop – for
insertion in participant packages. To accomplish this, I sought to put on the hat of an academic who had
the task of developing a curriculum to support a degree in emergency management. Having developed
the required one-page document I began to solicit comments from academics, practitioners and other
interested parties. The responses, acknowledged at the end of this document, tended to fall into three
(1) A one-page treatment is just about right – neither too hot or too cold, as Papa Bear would say – and all
that was needed was tinkering here and there, and a variety of recommendations were forthcoming on that
(2) While essentially on-the-mark, the one-pager struck several reviewers as potentially off-putting to
emergency management students or others interested in attempting to join the profession – could be
viewed as too daunting, intimidating, or even impossible of accomplishment. Or, it was just too busy or
too long. Thus, could I come up with a shorter, simpler treatment. This I did by changing hats from one
of a hazard or emergency management academic to that of someone responsible for hiring a future
emergency manager for a political jurisdiction, and drafting the second document of ten “things” I would
look for in a candidate.
(3) The third type of response was that there were many subjects on the one-pager that just cried out for
expansion, description, explanation, detail. Thus, would it be possible to expand on the one-pager. In
that I was in agreement with such commentaries, I sought to begin the process of expansion – though with
absolutely no attempt to aim at comprehensiveness. As comments came across the desk and as additional
thoughts came into my own head based on whatever I happened to be reading at the moment, I have
attempted to expand – in an illustrative manner. The following is the on-going result.
Document One:
Outline of Core Competencies to Develop Successful 21st Century Hazard/Emergency Managers
1. Personal, Interpersonal and Political Skills, Traits and Values
a. Listening, Communicating (oral and written – superior level) and Presentation Skills
b. Networking, Facilitating, Partnering, Coalition-Building, Community Consultation
c. Negotiating, Mediation, and Conflict Resolution Skills
d. Representational, Marketing, Salesmanship Skills – Visible, Engaged, Effective
e. Bureaucratic, Organizational, Public Policy and Political skills
f. Committed, Dedicated, Enthusiastic, Reliable, Imaginative, Creative
g. Diverse Social/Cultural/Class/Special Needs/Disadvantaged Sensitivity and Activity
h. Leadership and Motivational Skills – walks the talk, compassionate, has integrity
i. Proactive, Progressive, Open to Change and New Ideas, Life-Long Learner
j. Problem Solving, Critical Thinking, Decision Making
k. Flexibility, Adaptability and Improvisational Skills
l. Strategic (long term) thinking and planning, visionary, ability to anticipate
2. Administrative, Management, Public Policy Knowledge, Skills and Principles
a. Personnel Mgmt.–Recruiting, Retaining, Managing People (staff/volunteers), Teams
b. Program Management — Developing and Managing Programs
c. Fiscal Management — Acquiring and Managing Funding (Budgets)
d. Resource Management – technical and physical
e. Information Management – gather, analyze, interpret, sort, act upon
f. Organizational Management (normal and crisis)
g. Creating Public Value Skills – getting others to value and promote disaster reduc …
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