TOPIC : RACE & MEDIAWhy are we doing this project?During this module, we will learn about and begin to apply responsible research practices. We will also explore the social contexts in which research and researched writing exists. Writing and information does not exist in a vacuum, and this module will help you learn to pull back the curtain and look behind the scenes to learn about the context in which sources are published and distributed and how sources “speak” to each other. We will also examine how research and information is presented in different genres. Building on what we learned about the power of writing, rhetoric, and information to create change, you will now have the opportunity to select a topic interesting to you about the power and influence of writing to investigate and explore for the remainder of the semester. Module 2 leads into our final module in which you will take action through writing based on the research and learning that you accomplish in this module. What is this project?Your task for this project is to create a “Source Social Network.” First, you will decide on a topic related to the power of writing, rhetoric, and information and begin to gather strong, credible sources that help you learn more about this topic. As you gather, explore, and finally select each source (for a total of around 5 sources), you will add that source to your “social network” around that topic. You can design your “Source Social Network” however you want (feel free to get visual and creative here!), but you will need to include:1) A detailed description of the rhetorical context of the source (who, what, when, where, why, and how) 2) A description of what you learned from the source3) An explanation of how each source “speaks” to or is related to the other sources included in your “social network”How will you be graded for this project?Successful “Source Social Networks” will include:Around 5 credible and diverse sources that are about a specific topic related to writing, rhetoric, and information 3 sources must come from google scholar databaseA detailed and accurate description of the rhetorical context of each sourceA strong, detailed reflection/description of what the writer learned from the source A meaningful and complex description of how each source relates and connects to the other sources included in the social network, demonstrating an understanding of the “conversation” around this specific topicA logical and creative design to help guide the reader through the “social network” so that the reader can easily see the rhetorical context of each source and the emerging conversation presentedMUST FOLLOW THE FORMAT LIKE THE EXAMPLE ATTACHED
Unformatted Attachment Preview
ENC 1102 U73
8 November 2018
Source Social Network
Kunert, Richard, and Diane Dimitrova. “How Does Manipulation through Language
Work?” Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, www.mpi.nl/q-a/questions-andanswers/how-does-manipulating-through-language-work.
Richard Kunert and Diane Dimitrova published an article titled, “How does manipulating
through language work?” for the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics. The article includes
research dating all the way back to the 1900s. This research was done in the Netherlands as well
as Germany. It explains how people can manipulate others into thinking what they think through
words. This written work explains how people can be forced to believe only positive things since
that is all they are being told. The author raises a point, such as how on foods they sometimes
label it as 95% fat free instead of labeling it 5% fat. When someone focuses on positive aspects
of a topic and includes nothing about the downfalls, the person listening to what is being said
will most likely think that the topic is all positive. Also, how you portray something can lead to
people making different assumptions in regards to it or different means for dealing with it.
Psychologists at Stanford conducted a study on crime and how people chose to deal with it.
When crime was made out to look like a beast through phrases, such as “preying on a town”, the
people mostly reacted by saying that the police should arrest the criminals and lock them up for
good. However, when the crime was portrayed as a virus, such as “plaguing the neighborhood”,
people chose instead to create policies to incite reform. Neuroscientists in Cambridge came to
the conclusion that language can exploit a reader’s brain through the use of metaphors, since
people can’t help but take them literally when they first hear them.
From this article I learned that bullies can get into people’s heads by exploiting them to
think only negative things about themselves. If a person constantly hears that they are nothing,
that they are ugly, or that they aren’t smart, they are going to start believing those things. Bullies
never includes positive remarks about the person that they are targeting. The use of metaphors is
also seen in many bully’s tactics. They compare people to inanimate objects, which rarely make
sense, but on the first impression of hearing them, a bullying victim will always picture it in their
head no matter what, because that is the primary instinct of a human being.
Stanfield, James. “How Bullying Is Intensified through Language.” James Stanfield Company,
30 Nov. 2012, www.stanfield.com/blog/2012/11/sticks-and-stones-how-humansintensify-bullying-through-language/.
The James Stanfield specialists in special education wrote a blog post on how humans
have intensified bullying through language. This article was published by them in 2012 and the
information used is still relevant in today’s society. Throughout this blog post, there is a compare
and contrast situation being presented about the differences between bullying in the animal
kingdom and bullying done by humans. Many species, such as chimpanzees, bully the other
chimps within the hierarchal order. If one of them steps out of line or goes farther than their
boundaries, then the older male chimps will punish them. However, this is much less complex
than bullying by humans. Through language and the means of expressing oneself, humans have
made words into sticks and stones which do hurt.
It was often said in the earlier times that sticks and stones may break my bones, but
words will never hurt me. Today’s society has obliterated that theory through the words which
they chose to use to degrade and belittle others, especially those who stick out of societal norms.
Now, humans have so many ways in which they can use their voices to be heard. However,
instead of using this power to better society, they have begun to use it to cause emotional pain
and distress in other human beings. Before the age of the internet, the only bullying that appeared
was bullying done in person, which has many more consequences than cyber bullying. Cyber
bullying is when one uses the online world in order to attack others in a way which is
anonymous. The anonymity of this causes people to frequently use more hurtful words than if
they were in person. Language online has less restrictions and consequences, compared to how it
would be if you were face to face with a person.
What I have learned from this article is that when someone is given a chance to express
themselves through the power of language, they will be hesitant and not as prepared as if they
were to do it from behind a computer screen. People who chose this method of voicing their
beliefs and opinions often believe that they are powerful since they can say all these things to
someone else and nothing will happen to them. Ego and the feeling of supremacy will often
make people think that they can say anything they wish. A prime example of this is the president
of the United States of America. He tweets whatever comes to his mind and voices his opinions
at debates without hesitation, because he feels as though he is better than others and that
consequences do not apply to him.
III, Sam Fulwood, “The Media’s Stereotypical Portrayals of Race.” Center for American
Progress, 5 Mar. 2013,
The Center for American Progress posted an article in 2013 on how the media’s portrayal
of race is extremely stereotypical. This article, written by Sam Fulwood III, a colored man in his
forties, goes in depth on how the media is often misleading in the way which it portrays black
athletes and wealthy minorities. He explains that the main reason for which this is done is
extremely derogatory. It is done this way to make privileged majority members feel that if the
minorities can attain this level of wealth and prosperity, then anyone can. If you think of the
sports world and how much of it is occupied by colored athletes, you probably believe that they
make up a huge percentage. However, this is not the case. Fulwood made evident how low the
chances are for a colored young man or woman to join national leagues for sports. He went as far
as stating that these chances are often 4,000-to-1. These are extremely contradicting, considering
that in almost every episode SportsCenter, the protagonists are colored talk show hosts and
athletes such as Lebron James, Colin Kaepernick, and Serena Williams.
The same thing can be said for TV shows and even magazine covers. The article talks
about a recent Bloomberg Businessweek cover, which depicted a cartoon-like drawing of many
people with blatant ethnic and racial features swimming in a house filled with cash. This is not
only derogatory, but it is extremely untruthful. Fullwood proclaimed that many groups of people
and organizations such as the NAACP were insulted at this portrayal of minority groups. He
believes that the cover was implying that all groups were benefitting from the recovering of the
house sector even though banks and lenders had exploited the citizens of areas who were
vulnerable at the time and left them abandoned.
From this article, it is evident that what is shown in the media, in regards to race and
ethnicity, is not always the entire truth. Media will never admit that minorities do not have all the
same privileges as majority groups do. Nor will they come to a conclusion that their stereotypes
are offensive and insulting in many given cases. People who overtly portray others in misguiding
ways seem to believe that this might instill some type of tranquility in others. Whether it be to
show that the economy is booming or that they are not against heterogeneity.
Waltman, Michael S., and Ashely A. Mattheis. “Understanding Hate Speech.” Oxford Research
Encyclopedia of Communication, Sept. 2017,
Michael S. Waltman and Ashely A. Mattheis wrote an article in September of 2017 on
how to understand hate speech. In the introduction, they included Aristotle’s comparison
between hatred and anger. He stated that hatred causes a human to plan their way of attack and
that the feeling of hatred is not fleeting. However, anger is something which fades quickly and
will usually cause a spontaneous burst of action. When one has anger towards another, they do
not lose empathy towards that person, yet when there is hatred, all empathy is lost and violence
becomes more likely.
Hate speech often has four aspects to it. The first step has the intended purpose of causing
intimidation in the out-group. Usually it is because of the target’s ethnicity, religion, rate, or
gender/gender identity. Also, a target is often chosen because they have been oppressed
throughout history, making them vulnerable to hate speech and intimidation. The second step
incites violence towards the out-group. This denigration of the out-group includes the
dehumanization of the out-group and the portrayal of them as the source of problems for the in-
group. Keen, a contributor to this article, asserted that, “the out-group must be rhetorically killed
before they may actually be killed.” This backs up the reasoning behind why hate groups feel as
though they must prove that the out-group is worthy of violence.
In the third step, the hate speech is used to create unity between its members. This is done
through sharing and imposing their beliefs upon the other members. Step three is much like how
neo-Nazis educate their members. They teach them that Jews are in control of Hollywood, the
federal government, and most media outlets. Lastly, step four uses hate speech as a way to
recruit members into their group. Normally, the stratagem that they use is constructed with
trickery rather than logic and reasoning.
This article was beneficial in the way which it taught me how hate-groups work and why
they include the elements that they do. They use messages which seem tricky yet altruistic in
order to lure in younger members which do not have the same critical thinking skills as adults,
which would allow them to decode the hidden messages embedded in hate speech. Also, this
source helped me understand the differences between hate speech and other forms of writing
about one’s opinions and beliefs which may seem assertive.
“Communication in the Real World: An Introduction to Communication Studies.” 3.2 Functions
of Language, University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing Edition, 2016. This Edition
Adapted from a Work Originally Produced in 2013 by a Publisher Who Has Requested
That It Not Receive Attribution., 29 Sept. 2016,
This article was published in 2016 by the University of Minnesota Libraries Publishing. It
speaks of how language functions in different aspects of life. The first aspect regards how
language is expressive of emotions. It is our means to inform, entertain, or persuade others with
some sort of focus. Along with emotions, language expresses thoughts, feelings, and needs.
When using language to voice thoughts, people draw conclusions in order to interpret what they
are feeling inside, whether that be a negative feeling or a positive one. When communicating
feelings, many people are hesitant because often times they become too aware of societal norms
and are scared of not fitting in. Expressing needs is instrumental, as it is necessary in order to
survive and thrive.
Aside from the functions of language, this article explains how powerful language can be.
It includes a quote by David Abram, “Only if words are felt, bodily presences, like echoes or
waterfalls, can we understand the power of spoken language to influence, alter, and transform the
perceptual world” (Abram, 1997). Language can also be a means of expressing one’s identity.
More often than not, people are called named or they call themselves a certain name. However,
there is a difference in how you perceive what someone else says about you compared to what
you say about yourself. In the 1960s, a movement of “black is beautiful” began. Many colored
women began using the term black as a positive identity marker, compared to when other people
would call them black out negativity or hate.
From this article I have learned that language can affect all aspects of our lives. It is how
you communicate with others and how you express feelings, thoughts, and needs. Language can
hurt other through the use of derogatory words or hate speech. However, it also has the power to
empower and uplift others, at the same time. Language is a means of control as well. It can be
used politely such as requesting or asking for something, but it can also be forceful as you
command or insist for something. I learned that language which is based on empathy and respect
incites a more collaborative environment with more exchange of information, whereas deceitful
and controlling language will create an environment which is closed off, leading people to be
These are the connection point for my flow chart. See next page.
Often times, manipulation of a person may seem like it can only be done verbally or physically.
However, it is possible to subconsciously manipulate a person, such as how magazine editors
manipulated hundreds of people into thinking that minority groups were thriving once the
housing sector began to improve. This was done by picturing many different people with obvious
ethnic and racial features swimming in a house full of cash. Manipulation is what a bully always
tries to achieve. They want to fool their target into believing that he is giving them all the right
information by bringing them down. Also, stereotypes contribute highly into how bullies assess
their targets. Stereotypes can be misleading. They can cause the bully to pick someone based on
what others perceive their entire ethnicity to be like.
Once a person understands that hate speech is intended to manipulate targets, as well as
bystanders, into thinking that the target is the reason for some problem which in the in-group
(hate group) may be having. Bullies function a lot like hate groups do. They create a
conversation, which makes the victim seem dehumanized in order to make the in-group seem
superior and in control. Hate speech is the way in which language is constructed in order to
demean others and cause emotional pain and isolation in them.
Bullying is intensified through language because language stays with you, whether it be in your
memories or in physical forms. Language is what incites much of the violence in today’s society,
and this is actually the main focus of hate groups and bullies. They want to use as much of their
voice as they can in order to justify their reasoning behind why they decided to turn to violence.
Language is something which is so fragile and difficult to feel, yet hate groups and bullies know
exactly what to say in order to make someone hurt tremendously.
Language is the means that one uses in order to communicate wants, feelings, emotions, and so
forth. There is so much good that one can do with their voice. However, when a person uses their
voice or platform in order to act out negatively, their words can do a lot of damage to others.
Language can instill any message in a person’s brain, and if repeated enough times, much like
bullies do, it can become ingrained forever. Language has the power to either blow a situation up
or cool down. When language is added to bullying, it almost always blows the situation up and
out of proportion.
portrayal of race.
How bullying is
Module 2 Pulling Back the Curtain: The Social Network Behind Research
Due Dates – 10/22 Draft, 10/26 Final
Value – 100 points, 20% of final grade
Why are we doing this project?
During this module, we will learn about and begin to apply responsible research practices. We will
also explore the social contexts in which research and researched writing exists. Writing and
information does not exist in a vacuum, and this module will help you learn to pull back the curtain
and look behind the scenes to learn about the context in which sources are published and
distributed and how sources “speak” to each other. We will also examine how research and
information is presented in different genres. Building on what we learned about the power of
writing, rhetoric, and information to create change, you will now have the opportunity to select a
topic interesting to you about the power and influence of writing to investigate and explore for the
remainder of the semester. Module 2 leads into our final module in which you will take action
through writing based on the research and learning that you accomplish in this module.
What is this project?
Your task for this project is to create a “Source Social Network.” First, you will decide on a topic
related to the power of writing, rhetoric, and information and begin to gather strong, credible
sources that help you learn more about this topic. As you gather, explore, and finally select each
source (for a total of around 5 sources), you will add that source to your “social network” around
that topic. You can design your “Source Social Network” however you want (feel free to get visual
and creative here!), but you will need to include:
1) A detailed description of the rhetorical context of the source (who, what, when, where, why, and
2) A description of what you learned from the source
3) An explanation of how each source “speaks” to or is related to the other sources included in your
How will you be graded for this project?
Successful “Source Social Networks” will include:
• Around 5 credible and diverse sources that are about a specific topic related to writing,
rhetoric, and information
• A detailed and accurate description of the rhetorical context of each source
• A strong, detailed reflection/description of what the writer learned from the source
• A meaningful and complex description of how each source relates and connects to the other
sources included in the social network, demonstrating an understanding of the
“conversation” around this specific topic
• A logical and creative design to help guide the reader through the “social network” so that
the reader can easily see the rhetorical context of each source and the emerging
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