write around 200 words abstract of a research
paper, no more than one page.The research paper is about diabetes type 2 (
it will be included in the attachment )more
details about the abstract is in the attachment as well.Thank
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102 | Milici
THE ABSTRACT: THINGS TO KEEP IN
An abstract is like a movie trailer. It offers a preview, highlights key
points, and helps the audience decide whether to view the entire
work. In the “real world,” abstracts are the pivot of a paper because
many journal editorial boards screen manuscripts only on the basis of
If your abstract doesn’t grab their attention and make a good first
impression, there’s a good chance your paper will be rejected at the
outset. Moreover, even after your paper is published, your abstract
will be the first, and possibly only, thing readers will access through
electronic searches. They will only consider reading the rest of the
manuscript if they find your abstract interesting.
THE ABSTRACT: THINGS TO KEEP IN
For studies in the humanities and social sciences, the abstract is
typically descriptive. That is, it describes the topic of research
and its findings but usually doesn’t give specific information
about methods and results. These abstracts may also be seen in
review articles or conference proceedings. In scientific writing,
on the other hand, abstracts are usually structured to describe
the background, methods, results, and conclusions, with or
(Although I don’t really care what type of abstract you pick.)
TYPES OF ABSTRACTS
Communicate contents of reports
Include purpose, methods, scope, results, conclusions, and
Highlight essential points
Are short—from a paragraph to a page or two, depending upon
the length of the report (10% or less of the report)
Allow readers to decide whether they want to read the report
TYPES OF ABSTRACTS (CONT’D.)
Tell what the report contains
Include purpose, methods, scope, but NOT results, conclusions,
Are always very short— usually under 100 words
Introduce subject to readers, who must then read the report to
learn study results
SOME TIPS FOR WRITING AN
Pick out the major objectives/hypotheses and conclusions from
your Introduction and Conclusion sections.
Select key sentences and phrases from your Methods section.
Identify the major results from your Results section.
Now, arrange the sentences and phrases selected in steps 2, 3, and 4 into a single
paragraph in the following sequence: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Conclusions.
Make sure that this paragraph does not contain
new information that is not present in the paper
undefined abbreviations or group names
a discussion of previous literature or reference citations
unnecessary details about the methods used
SOME TIPS FOR WRITING AN
Remove all extra information (see last step on previous slide) and then link
your sentences to ensure that the information flows well, preferably in the
following order: purpose; basic study design, methodology and techniques
used; major findings; summary of your interpretations, conclusions, and
Confirm that there is consistency between the information presented in the
abstract and in the paper.
Ask a colleague (classmate) to review your abstract and check if the
purpose, aim, methods, and conclusions of the study are clearly stated.
Check to see if the final abstract meets the guidelines of the target journal
(word limit, type of abstract, recommended subheadings, etc.).
The Cause of Diabetes
Nowadays, we have many advanced technologies that contribute to cure most
diseases, which supposedly makes us live a better, longer and more stable life than the
past. However, with the development of a standard of living which causes our lives to be
much easier, we have gained many bad habits that directly affect our health, which
definitely reflects on the way we live.
Mainly, factors that lead to having unhealthy lives are related to modern
products such as fast food and rich-sugar candies that cause obesity. Exercising is also an
important factor to avoid having health problems and being fat. Recently, many diseases
have spread widely around the world basically because of junk foods and being too lazy
to practice some sports; one of these diseases is diabetes.
Diabetes is a lifelong disease which is related to the problem of high levels of
sugar in the blood. The problem starts when the body does not respond and use the
energy properly (Norwood and Inlander 8-9; Semple 7). As we know, the main source of
energy for the body comes from the food principally that is rich in carbohydrates, such as
fruits, vegetables and candies, and from here the problem takes place. When a patient
who has diabetes eats some food, his body does not convert that food to energy that
effectively (Collazo-Clavell 5-8; Norwood and Inlander 8-9). Let’s deepen in this process.
When person eats food rich in carbohydrates, the carbohydrates convert to glucose
through the digestive system. After that, glucose moves into blood vessels to be
transported. The glucose has the energy that is needed by all parties of the body
(Norwood and Inlander 8-9). Here, the function of a hormone which is called insulin
starts by regulating the sugar rate in blood during the blood circulation. The patient of
diabetes has lack of insulin which causes problems are associated with sugar level in the
blood such as glucose remains in the bloodstream (Collazo-Clavell 5-8; Norwood and
Inlander 9-11; Weisenberger 5-6). A Hormone insulin is produced from type of cells are
called beta, which exist in pancreas (Collazo-Clavell 5-8; Norwood and Inlander 9-11).
Patients need to take extra amount of insulin because the body of patient does not settle
for produced insulin inside the body without the extra it may risk their lives (Semple 1113). The supplement of insulin can be only by injection. Formerly, the insulin comes
from animals, such as cows and pigs, but later on researchers could make artificial insulin
that substantially similar to human insulin (Dinsmoor 8-11). Although patients need
insulin to control their sugar rates in the blood, it has been noticed that those who take
insulin gain extra weight. When someone takes insulin, insulin works in such way to
regulate the sugar rate by absorbing glucose. That leads to the formation of fats because
when the body absorbs more sugar, it stores the excess amount of sugar as fat. This is one
of reasons behind increasing weight of patients of diabetes (Collazo-Clavell 5-8). This
some information describes the disease, now let’s discuss the factors that make people
affected by this disease and explore examination methods that help to figure the disease
and the symptoms, which usually show up when someone has diabetes. First of all, there
are three main factors cause diabetes: the genetics that comes from family may causes the
disease, especially if there is a close member of the family who has diabetes, the second
factor is weight. Obviously, as the weight increases the risk of having diabetes increases.
The third factor is being inactive which leads to being overweight and have an unhealthy
body that does not have a functional system of controlling sugar in body and does not
respond to insulin well. The previous two reasons are what we are interested in since they
are controllable and can be prevented by eating healthy food and doing useful exercises.
One more factor is age, in general as human grows up and become older, the risk of
getting sick increases because the body gets weaker. In addition, when people become
older, they tend to be less active.
There are three indicators to the disease. First one is via finger-prick; there is a
specified device for testing blood to determine whether there is diabetes or not by taking
some drops of blood. This way is characterized by speed, ease and popularity so you can
see it being everywhere such as shopping centers, sport facilities and for sure medical
centers. The second method is random blood sugar test, it is an ordinary one just like
what it is done regularly in hospitals and going through normal procedures of extracting
of blood from the veins and screening it in the laboratory. The last and most reliable
method is fasting blood sugar test, the procedure of this method is obvious from its name
that it is done by fasting (stopping eating) for between 8 to 12 hours because the sugar
rate in the blood become the least which allows the physician to diagnose the case in a
better way (Collazo-Clavell 16-18). After we know the tools that make us able to detect
diabetes, it is time to mention the indications of diabetes. The problem is that the signs of
the disease are not that clear. In other words, it is hard to identify the symptoms because
they usually do not show up or may appear too late, which makes it more dangerous
especially when people get careless about their health and do not pay enough attention to
what kind of food they are eating. Anyway, the common symptoms that may indicate to
diabetes and they are as follows, polyuria which is status disorder of urine because
problems related to function of kidney and this is main symptom. The second symptom is
feeling thirsty because of deficiency of water. Also because the lack of water, the body
may lose some weight (Collazo-Clavell 11-13).
Norwood and Inlander have argued that There are many kinds of diabetes, but
only two types are common and critical which are type 1 and type 2. All kinds of diabetes
share the same major problem that is related to insulin manufacture or its function
(Norwood and Inlander 17-19). Firstly, when the body becomes incapable of making
hormone insulin or produces a small amount that is not enough for the body, this
indicates that the body gets type 1. Although type 1 can affect at all ages, it is more
common among children so it is usually called juvenile-onset diabetes. Due to lack of
insulin, patients with type 1 have to take additional insulin always by injection so it is
called insulin-dependent diabetes. This type causes the most pain. In addition, the reason
behind getting it is unknown and unclear (Semple 17). some scientists say that the
immune system in somehow attacks the beta cells which are producing the insulin, that
why the body does not produce enough insulin (Lunau 75-76). on other hand, people who
have type 2 do not have problem with producing insulin but they have problem with the
way their bodies deal with it. The problem here is that the body becomes resistant to
insulin which makes it unable to use insulin properly. According to Bowden the insulin
resistant is “the condition whereby muscle cells stop paying attention to insulin”. Unlike
type 1, the patients with type 2 do not have to take additional insulin so it is called
noninsulin-dependent diabetes (Bowden 45-47). Also, causes of type 2 are almost
apparent and it usually takes a long period of time to be affected by (Semple 21).
Obesity is the best friend of type 2 diabetes, there are several factors for type 2
but there is no stronger and common than obesity. According to Norwood and Inlander
“four out of five of people who have type 2 are overweight”. When someone becomes
overweight, his/her body prevents insulin from doing its job, which causes to increase the
produced insulin in order to keep the sugar rate in blood ordinary. Also obesity
contributes to make the body resistant to insulin and weakens the influence of
medications (Lunau 75-76).
Nowadays, most of children have obesity, while type 2 diabetes is increasing
significantly (Martin 78-79). There are many reasons make people obese, but the main
reasons are eating junk food and being lazy (Marcus). This leads us to search for
solutions about obesity by knowing what to eat and become more active by exercising.
The key to get rid of obesity and become healthier is changing of lifestyle. If parents give
their children healthy habits from childhood, that can help preventing type 2 earlier
before it becomes dangerous (Marcus). First of all, parents should avoid processed food.
The processed foods are which have been altered from their natural state, either for safety
reasons or for convenience. Today, people become busier than in the past so they do not
prefer to spend a lot of time in cooking. Instead of that, they are looking for another way
to get food. Processed food is the preferred choice especially as it can be made rapidly
and cost a little of money. There are some characteristics that have been noticed on
processed food. For instance: little amount of nutrients which is not healthy, having
plenty of sodium that causes lots of diseases and the main problem that causes obesity
which is having a huge amount of calorie in the form of sugars and fats. In addition,
processed food causes other negative effects, such as deficiency of energy because of
most of the calories that the body obtains do not remain for long time; also there is
psychological influence of being sad and not enthusiastic. Therefore, health organizations
should focus on warning the people about dangers of the processed foods and what they
can cause such as obesity which leads to the terrifying and chronic diseases like type 2
diabetes through various ways exactly like what they do regarding smoking and its risks.
The message is simply to avoid the problem before it is getting bigger and worse
and reducing the current damage by declaring and focusing on the risks and the
sequences. Despite the advantages that the people might take as reasons to keep eating
the processed food and living in the indolence pattern, they need to wake up and pay
more attention to their lives; and more important, to the health of posterity.
Bownden, Jonny. “Sugar Battles.” Better Nutrition Nov. 2011: 45-47. Print.
Collazo-Clavell, Maria. Mayo clinic on managing diabetes. Rochester: Mayo clinic,
Dinsmoor, Robert. “Diabetes Then and Now.” Countdown July 2007: 8-11. Print.
Lunau, Kate. “Doubling Down on Diabetes.” Maclean’s May 2011: 75-76. Print.
Martin, Carolyn. “Type 2 Diabetes: Not Just for Adults Anymore.” Review of Optometry
15 Sept. 2011: 78-79. Print.
Marcus, Marry. “Most Type 2 Diabetes Can Be Stopped in Childhood.” USA Today 22
June 2009: D04. Print.
Norwood, Janet, and Charles Inlander. Understanding diabetes. New York: Macmillan,
Semple, Carol. Diabetes. Rev. ed. Aldershot: Enslow, 2000. Print.
Weisenberger, Jill. “The Impact of Insulin Overload.” Environmental Nutrition Aug.
2011: 5-6. Print.
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