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TOPICAccording to the article by Margaret Barthel titled “How to Stop Cheating in College” appearing in the Atlantic on April 20, 2016, “about 68 percent of undergraduate students surveyed admit to cheating on tests or on written work. Forty-three percent of graduate students do the same (Barthel). I put the Topic Detail with Article and my 1st draft in here. Please read the Topic and Article 1st and base on my 1st draft put more in my essay for me please. Thank you.


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College Cheating
Engl. 301B
An article appearing in the Atlantic on 4/20/16 by Margaret Barthel titled “How to
Stop Cheating in College,” says that “[t]he International Center for Academic
Integrity (ICIA), which has studied trends in academic dishonesty for more than a
decade, reports that about 68% of undergraduate students surveyed admitted to
cheating on tests or on written work. Forty-three percent of graduate students do
the same” (online).
By utilizing your timed writing, the reading by Barthel and your own experience
and observations, write a focused and well-developed essay in which you:
• First, discuss some possible reasons for students to cheat.
• Then, discuss possible ways to stop cheating in college.
Criteria for Evaluation
• A well-constructed thesis that is clear and purposeful
• Coherent topic sentences in each paragraph that clearly support the thesis
• Focused and organized essay structure (thesis, topic sentences, etc.)
• Unified and well-developed paragraphs throughout
• Specific and detailed support and evidence for your arguments
• Relevant support for your arguments from the Barthel reading:
• 2 quotes or paraphrases from “How to Stop Cheating in College.”
• Thorough and logical analysis of your ideas
• Coherence within paragraphs and between paragraphs
• Sentence variety and appropriate diction (NO contractions)
• Clear sentences edited for grammar and sentence structure problems
Paper Format
All take-home essays must be formatted according to MLA style or another
approved style. Always provide 1” margins at the top, bottom and sides, and use
a 12-point font such as Arial or Times New Roman. Don’t forget to add page
numbers and your last name.
All students must submit a revision of the essay written in class.
Due Date and Specifications: Peer evaluations will be on 3/19. The final
draft is due 3/21. The required length for the revision is a minimum of five
pages (without counting the Works Cited page). All papers must be stapled.
Do NOT include your in-class essay, but please save it.
How to Stop Cheating in College — Can new technologies help counter today’s ever-evolving strategies for cheating—and discourage students from
doing it in the first place?
By MARGARET BARTHEL The Atlantic, 20 April 2016
Cheating is omnipresent in American higher education. In 2015, Dartmouth College suspended 64 students suspected of cheating in—irony of
ironies—an ethics class in the fall term. The previous school year, University of Georgia administrators reported investigating 603 possible cheating
incidents; nearly 70 percent of the cases concluded with a student confession. In 2012, Harvard had its turn, investigating 125 students accused of
improper collaboration on a final exam in a government class. Stanford University, New York State’s Upstate Medical University, Duke University,
Indiana University, the University of Central Florida and even the famously honor code-bound University of Virginia have all faced cheating scandals
in recent memory. And that’s just where I stopped Googling.
The nationwide statistics are bleak, too. The International Center for Academic Integrity (ICAI), which has studied trends in academic dishonesty for
more than a decade, reports that about 68 percent of undergraduate students surveyed admit to cheating on tests or in written work. Forty-three
percent of graduate students do the same.
It’s easy to blame high levels of student dishonesty on new technologies, which can make cheating a matter of a swipe of a finger, rather than a
stolen answer key or elaborate plot to share answers in the testing room. In a 2011 Pew study, 89 percent of college presidents blamed computers
and the Internet for a perceived increase in plagiarism over the previous decade. Meanwhile, colleges are turning technology against the cheaters,
using software products that proctor tests with webcams or check written work for plagiarism.
But Don McCabe, a retired professor at Rutgers University who led the ICAI student surveys for many years, is hesitant to blame today’s student
cheating rates on easy access to the Internet, computers, mobile phones, and more. His survey data shows a more complicated portrait: The
percentages of student cheating did begin to increase once the Internet became ubiquitous, but now are actually trending down again, toward preInternet levels. But he also sees a diminishing level of student participation in his surveys—fewer responses, and fewer thoughtful responses. His
theory is that there’s a growing apathy toward school and cheating at school among today’s students.
What is the best way for universities to catch today’s ever-evolving cheaters—and discourage them from cheating in the first place?
One approach is to take advantage of a number of new technological tools like Turnitin that are designed to make academic dishonesty easier to
sniff out. Turnitin, for its part, is a web service used at institutions around the globe to analyze written schoolwork, giving students who run their
papers through it computer-generated advice on their writing’s organization and sentence structures. And it gives professors a grading platform
that compares every sentence in a student essay to a big database: billions of archived web pages, millions of academic articles and—perhaps most
interestingly—most of the other student papers submitted on Turnitin in the past, more than 337 million, according to the company’s website.
Some new ways of uncovering cheating may feel a little creepy. Proctortrack, a software that monitors online test-takers through a webcam,
identifies slouching, stretching, shifts in lighting and picking up a dropped pencil as potentially dishonest behaviors. The company behind it,
Verificent Technologies, says that Proctortrack is currently installed on 300,000 student computers, with over 1 million online exams proctored
since its release.
Other data experiments happening in higher education could have implications for how schools patrol for cheating in the future: many universities
are starting to use demographic data like the student’s age and family education history alongside information on classroom engagement to
predict a student’s likelihood of passing a course or even of graduating in four years. It doesn’t take much to imagine how quantifying expectations
for how well a student will do in class might sharpen the search for cheaters.
Over-reliance on technological methods in the fight against student cheating risks a technological arms race.
Many professors appreciate tools like Turnitin for saving them the time and effort of Google searches or library trips to catch plagiarism. Others
have found it helpful as a teaching tool, allowing students to see and correct problem areas before they submit their final drafts. And Proctortrack,
for its part, helps assure institutions that students taking tests off campus—particularly in online courses—completed their exams with integrity.
But some worry that over-reliance on technological methods in the fight against student cheating risks a technological arms race, with students
inventing still-more-ingenious ways of beating the system and institutions using more and more invasive means of catching them.
Indeed, Teddi Fishman, the current director of ICAI, sees a link between the technological environment and the popularity of different strains of
cheating. For the past decade, for instance, she’s seen cut-and-paste plagiarism increase steadily. But now, with the advent of plagiarism-checking
technologies like Turnitin, cut-and-paste is falling by the wayside, replaced with what Fishman refers to as “bespoke essays or contract cheating”—
services that write papers on behalf of a cheater, a much more difficult practice to police with the technologies currently available.
And even as existing algorithms get scary good at identifying student behavior that deviates from the expected norm, Turnitin, Proctortrack and
other tech tools can’t pass nuanced ethical judgements on human actions. Particularly in cases where a student’s intentions aren’t clear, deciding
whether a student did their work with integrity is a tricky business.
A quick read of case notes from the Williams College Honor and Discipline Committee’s rulings on cheating accusations bears this out. In one
situation, “[t]he student was a first year student from a high school abroad in which citation was not taught at all,” but still was punished by
flunking a paper that didn’t have appropriate citations. In another, a student who had taken a test early tried to respond in a “vague yet
supportive” way to a classmate who wanted to know if her notes had been useful to him in studying for the exam—and lost a letter grade on his
test for his trouble. In a third, a freshman claimed that he hadn’t cited ideas taken from footnotes in the course’s text because he had thought that
they were his own. The committee failed him on the assignment, but not the course, “because some felt that he genuinely was unaware that the
ideas had their origin outside of his own thinking.”
Fishman points out that while students usually understand the “gross boundaries” of cheating, the specifics are much fuzzier, especially when it
comes to paraphrasing and citation. “Frankly, I’ve been in many, many groups of teachers who are discussing where the borders are of plagiarism,
and most of the time [they] can’t agree on where the exact boundaries are,” she told me. The definition of common knowledge—which determines
what information needs attribution, and what doesn’t—is one such point of contention. “That’s a really complicated idea,” she explained. “There’s
no one box of stuff that we can say, ‘Okay, this is common knowledge,’ because it varies from community to community. What’s common
knowledge amongst a group of medical students, and what’s common knowledge amongst a group of engineering students is going to be
“The only reason I imagine students stop cheating is because they’re being trusted.”
This kind of ambiguity is one of the main reasons Fishman counsels a more human-centric approach to college cheating. “There has to be space to
fail,” she argues. “There has to be an opportunity for [students] to attempt something, screw it up, and then to get feedback and correct it, without
it being a semester-killing matter.”
Elizabeth Kiss, the president of Agnes Scott College, says that one way to achieve this is an honor code. “Fundamentally, it’s about creating a
culture which focuses on membership in the community being connected with academic honesty, and then also having the critical conversations
that reinforce that culture,” she says. The student handbook echoes her: “The cornerstone of the entire structure of Agnes Scott life is the Honor
System,” it states.
At Agnes Scott and around a hundred other schools across the country, students sign an honor code, a promise to act with integrity on campus. In
exchange for their trustworthiness, the students receive privileges that indicate the community’s trust in them—in Agnes Scott’s case, these even
include self-scheduled, non-proctored exams and a leadership role in the judicial process when a student violates the code.
There’s evidence that honor codes do, in fact, deter cheating. Behavioral research shows that people who were reminded of moral expectations—
by writing out or signing an honor code, or copying down the Ten Commandments—before they took a test reduced cheating. McCabe’s surveys
have found that honor code schools have lower rates of cheating than other institutions by around a quarter, provided that honor code was made
a central part of campus culture.
At Agnes Scott, that translates to a number of things: Students under investigation for honor code violations can request a public hearing, open to
the whole community. The student-run Honor Court and the faculty, administrators and students who serve on the Judicial Review Board work to
have guilty students reflect meaningfully on their behavior before dispensing a punishment. Kiss recalls a Judicial Board hearing where a student
had copied an incorrect answer off of a neighboring student—despite the fact that her own calculations were correct. “She compounded it by
trying to come up with more and more ridiculous and outlandish reasons for why she would have gotten that answer. So our job was to get her to
have a breakthrough.”
Fishman argues that these kind of academic community-wide discussions about what constitutes integrity reverberate beyond the classroom.
“What we hear from employers is that when they get students from a Bachelor’s degree, they’re really good at doing what they’re told to do, but
they’re not necessarily good at looking at the situation and figuring out what needs to be done. So that points to the idea that instead of more
structure and more consistency, what we need to do is provide a range of problem-based scenarios and let the students try to figure it out.”
Even McCabe, who thinks that today’s students are apathetic about school, is convinced that honor codes are universities’ last best hope. “The only
reason I imagine students stop cheating is because they’re being trusted,” he says. In other words, chicken or egg?
Possible Reasons Students Might Cheat
Institution Affiliation
According to Barthel, (2016), about 68% of undergraduate students cheat on tests and
written work. This is a worrying trend and if not addressed would compromise the quality of
education in many ways. Many reasons could cause cheating in academics, and everyone
could give their reasons as to why they cheat. Cheating is wrong and unacceptable regardless
of the reasons behind it and should be curtailed by all costs if the quality of education must
be upheld.
Reasons for Cheating
Cheating in academic work is caused by many reasons some which are personal, and
others caused by the set institutional norms and codes of conduct. In most cases, the failure to
have strong codes of conducts and punishment is believed to be the reason towards high
levels of cheating in learning institutions. During an interaction with most students, it is quite
clear that cheating is ethically wrong and unacceptable, but they continue doing it. First, all
students are interested in scooping a good grade in their course work, and this pushes them to
cheat. The fear of failing is usually, and most students would not be able to say to their
parents why they failed in the exams or the course work. Failing to manage their time
properly especially through procrastination or engaging in activities that are not productive
leaves the students with little time to think about their academics. During my studies, I had
friends of mine who were completely or partial disinterested in the assignment, and they did
not put any effort into the work. Towards the deadlines, most of them copied from other
students. It is also not clear to most students on what really constitutes plagiarism and what
the university sets as acceptable and unacceptable.
I have witnessed students saying that they thought that it was right because it was not
deemed unacceptable by the school. The belief that they will walk scot free has in recent
days made the behavior spread at a high rate in the learning institutions. University systems
and guidelines are not effective, and this leaves loopholes for students to cheat in their
academic work and tests. Taming cheating would mean setting it right that students will be
expelled, suspended or made to repeat the whole academic year. All the underlined reason is
not acceptable or right, and students who commit these acts are only discouraging those that
work hard and affecting the quality of education in learning centers. Professors are only
interested in the original work done by students as this is the only way to ascertain the
progress of the students academically. Tests and assignments aim to not for the simple reason
of failing students, it is usually for assessment purposes, and therefore such students are only
doing injustices to themselves and not a good advantage as they might purport.
Academic dishonesty, cheating, and plagiarism are not justifiable regardless of the
reasons that might be put forth by an individual. To institutions of learning and the
professors, it is only a sign of laziness and lack of the initiative to learn. Although students
who choose not to engage in academic cheating and dishonesty are seen as cowards, it is the
way to go as it builds a culture of trust and genuineness. Learning institutions should
consider putting more effort into helping students avoid cheating as it only harms them and
no good and destroys the reputation of the school.
Barthel, M. (Apr 20, 2016). How to Stop Cheating in College. Retrieved from:

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