No plagiarism please answer fully. Thanks :)First part of Information is listed below and the rest are in images, along with the questions.Section 1 Introduction: Air PollutionThe air we breathe plays an important role in maintaining all life on Earth. For example, the atmosphere is a major part of the water cycle. It refills rivers and lakes with fresh water from precipitation. In addition, the atmosphere provides organisms with the gases needed for life. It contains oxygen needed for cellular respiration and carbon dioxide needed for photosynthesis. It also contains nitrogen needed for proteins and nucleic acids.Earth’s atmosphere is vast. However, it has been seriously polluted. Air pollution consists of chemical substances and particles released into the atmosphere, mainly by human actions.Outdoor Air PollutionThe major cause of outdoor air pollution is the burning of fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are burned in power plants, factories, motor vehicles, and home heating systems. Ranching and using chemicals such as fertilizers also cause outdoor air pollution. Erosion of soil in farm fields, mining activities, and construction sites adds dust particles to the air as well. Some specific outdoor air pollutants are described in the table below.Pollutants in outdoor airAir PollutantSourceProblemSulfur oxidescoal burningacid rainNitrogen oxidesmotor vehicle exhaustacid rainCarbon monoxidemotor vehicle exhaustpoisoningCarbon dioxideall fossil fuel burningglobal climate changeParticles (dust, smoke)wood and coal burningrespiratory problemsMercurycoal burningnerve poisoningSmogcoal burningrespiratory problemsGround-level ozonemotor vehicle exhaustrespiratory problemsHealth Effects of Outdoor Air PollutionOutdoor air pollution causes serious human health problems. For example, pollutants in the air are major contributors to respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Air pollution may trigger asthma attacks and heart attacks in people with underlying health problems. In fact, more people die each year from air pollution than automobile accidents.Acid RainAir pollution may also cause acid rain. This is rain that is more acidic (has a lower pH) than normal rain. Acids form in the atmosphere when nitrogen and sulfur oxides mix with water in air. Nitrogen and sulfur oxides come mainly from motor vehicle exhaust and coal burning.If acid rain falls into lakes, it lowers the pH of the water and may kill aquatic organisms. If it falls on the ground, it may damage soil and soil organisms. If it falls on plants, it may make them sick or even kill them. Acid rain also damages stone buildings, bridges, and statues, like the one in the picture below.This stone statue has been dissolved by acid rain.Global Climate ChangeAnother major problem caused by air pollution is global climate change. Gases such as carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels increase the greenhouse effect and raise Earth’s temperature.The greenhouse effect is a natural feature of Earth’s atmosphere. It occurs when certain gases in the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide, radiate the sun’s heat back down to Earth’s surface. The Greenhouse Effect chart below illustrates how this happens. Without greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, the heat would escape into space. The natural greenhouse effect of Earth’s atmosphere keeps the planet’s temperature within a range that can support life.The rise in greenhouse gases due to human actions is too much of a good thing. It increases the greenhouse effect and causes Earth’s average temperature to rise. Rising global temperatures, in turn, are melting polar ice caps and glaciers. The Arctic image below shows how much smaller the Arctic ice cap was in 2012 than it was in 1984. With more liquid water on Earth’s surface, sea levels are rising.Earth’s atmosphere creates a natural greenhouse effect that moderates Earth’s atmosphere. Shrinking of the Arctic ice cap due to global warming contributes to rising sea levels.Adding more heat energy to Earth’s atmosphere also causes more extreme weather and changes in precipitation patterns. Global warming is already causing food and water shortages and species extinctions. These problems will only grow worse unless steps are taken to curb greenhouse gases and global climate change.Indoor Air PollutionYou may be able to avoid some of the health effects of outdoor air pollution by staying indoors on high-pollution days. However, some indoor air is just as polluted as outdoor air.Sources of Indoor Air PollutionOne source of indoor air pollution is radon gas. Radon is a radioactive gas that may seep into buildings from rocks underground. Exposure to radon gas may cause lung cancer. Another potential poison in indoor air is carbon monoxide. It may be released by faulty or poorly vented furnaces or other fuel-burning appliances. Indoor furniture, carpets, and paints may release toxic compounds into the air as well. Other possible sources of indoor air pollution include dust, mold, and pet dander.Controlling Indoor Air PollutionIt’s easier to control the quality of indoor air than outdoor air. Steps home owners can take to improve indoor air quality include:keeping the home clean so it is as free as possible from dust, mold, and pet dander.choosing indoor furniture, flooring, and paints that are low in toxic compounds such as VOCs (volatile organic compounds).making sure that fuel-burning appliances are working correctly and venting properly.installing carbon monoxide alarms like the one shown below at every level of the home.Section 1 SummaryAir pollution consists of chemical substances and particles released into the atmosphere, mainly by human actions. Both outdoor and indoor air may be polluted, but indoor air pollution is easier to controlThe main cause of outdoor air pollution is the burning of fossil fuels. Outdoor air pollution causes human health problems, acid rain, and global climate change.There are many possible sources of indoor air pollution, including radon gas, fuel-burning appliances, and mold. Home owners can take several steps to improve the quality of indoor air.
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