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I have two essays I need to put together and add a couple of extra pages about it. Please talk about the difficulties of birth control and complications that may arise. Please put all the essays together into one whole essay, including these pages that I have uploaded. Must be in APA format. Also add 3 references. Whatever you write, please make sure to combine the papers that I have wrote with this. So it should be a very long essay at the end. Please make sure everything in the essay goes in order and not messy.


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The Effect of Birth control
Annie Zakaryan
West Coast University
Birth control has various scientific and analytical implications whose relevance can be
tested using multiple outlined research question. To evaluate the scientific impacts associated
with birth control, this academic paper has given insights regarding the anatomical,
physiological, pathological or epidemiological issues on the same. In this section, both
psychological and morphological changes in the body have been addressed. To further on the
same, the connection between birth control and infertility has been sufficiently addressed. The
article has deliberated on the mythical narratives which correlate birth control with fertility loss.
Additionally, the effect of birth control on ovum release has been discussed. On the same,
different body systems which are affected using birth control has been outlined and discussed in
detail. One of the systems that have been presented is the hormonal system. Also, the article has
addressed the analytical perspective regarding birth control. Economic issues related to the birth
control especially to the women empowerment are explained in depth. On the same, both
positive and negative impacts of the birth control on the economy have been fully addressed.
Lastly, the article has concluded by describing how often birth control pills should be taken.
Keywords: Birth control, effect, scientific, body systems, fertility
According to Evans, & Sutton, (2015), birth control is an act of controlling unwanted
pregnancy especially through using contraceptives. Birth control is also known as fertility
control. Ideally, birth control involves controlling the fertility level. There are various birth
control methods which can be applied, and they include birth control implant, IUD, birth control
vaginal ring, Birth control shot, condom, birth control pills, birth control patch, internal condom
and many more. Scientifically, birth control prevents pregnancy by shielding the ovulation or
conception. The effectiveness of birth control is based on both scientific and analytical
perspective. To attest the effectiveness of the birth control, the chosen L1 questions will be
addressed. Each L1 question selected will be answered correctly by generating and answering
level two questions. The selected level new questions which will be selected include the
1. What are the anatomical, physiological, pathological, or epidemiological issues?
2. Which body systems are affected?
3. What are the economic issues involved?
The above L1 questions will be analyzed using the following Level two question.
1. Can birth control cause infertility?
2. Does the use of birth control pills increase the chances of weight gain?
3. How birth control pill affects ovum release from the ovary?
4. How birth control pills affect the hormonal system?
5. How does birth control narrow the economic gap between women and men?
6. How does birth control affect the economy?
Some birth control methods have been closely linked with anatomical, physiological,
pathological or epidemiological issues. Using birth control pills as an example, anatomical and
physiological issues associated with it. Use of pills has closely associated with the weight gain
which is not true. Ideally, pills with high levels of estrogen are associated with increased
appreciate and high fluid and water retention. Additionally, some birth control methods have
physiological impacts on the body. The most obvious way is they disrupt the menstrual cycle.
Birth control pills may result to delay or prolong menses.
Birth control is any method used to prevent getting pregnant. The most popular method
of preventing pregnancy is birth control pills. Taking birth control pills may affect the
reproductive system. In the female reproductive system, the ovaries produce two types of
hormones: estrogen and progesterone. When taking the pill, the body receives more of the
hormones which can thicken the cervical mucus, preventing sperm to progress to the uterine
cavity. It may also thin the uterine lining making it harder for the fertilized egg to attach.
Birth control has closely associated with some negative and positive impacts, especially
to women. Some of the negative impacts associated with the use of birth control are the cost of
acquiring birth control pills. For an ordinary and low citizen, use of oral birth control pills may
be costly due to the financial shortage (Deckman, & McTague, 2015). On the other hand, birth
control has been associated with various benefits. First, it said to help people to plan their lives.
A couple may not be in a position to support a child. They may use non-hormonal birth control
techniques like condoms, diaphragms, inner condoms and so on. In this case, birth control will
help a couple to prepare it in advance before having a child. Furthermore, a couple may evaluate
if they can afford for a second child. It gives a couple of opportunities to delay pregnancy until
the right (Deckman, & McTague, 2015).
Contrary to some myths which majority of the people have that birth control has no
negative on fertility. Ideally, birth control influences the fertility of women. A given percentage
of women have experienced a delay in ovulation and menses following a continuous use of birth
control. Schattman, Esteves, & Agarwal, (2015), state that prolonged use of birth control pills
particularly for ten years and above may have resulted in temporary infertility. It means that the
couple may spend a long time trying to get a child without success. Analogously, Evans, &
Sutton, (2015), state that it may take for months after stop taking birth control for periods to
return. Other women gain weight and their body fat increases during the period they are taking
birth control which has a negative impact on the menstrual cycle. Increased fat may also distrupt
conception which results in temporary infertility. According to the report published by obstetrics
and Gynecology, women who use pills combined with estrogen and progesterone birth control
pills for a period of five years and above, they are likely to experience thinning of the
endometrial wall (Schattman, Esteves, & Agarwal, 2015). However, birth control does not cause
permanent infertility it only delays fertility for certain period probably for months, a year or so.
According to Lopez, Edelman, Chen, Otterness, Trussell, & Helmerhorst, (2014), weight
gain is the primary concern of the many women who seek to use hormonal birth control for the
first time. Contrary to others who have gained weight after using hormonal birth control pills; it
deters some women from using it. However, most studies have opposed the assumption of the
weight gain which is brought by usage of birth control pills. Some women report gaining unusual
pounds after using birth control pills after using it for some time. This is often caused by water
retention but not actual weight gain. High level of estrogen increases the appetite and fluid or
water retention in the body. Most pills without estrogen are highly associated with weight gain.
Some researchers have connected weight gain with birth control pills, but they have not outlined
substantive reasons.
The birth control pill is the most popular since the FDA approved it in 1960. Currently, in
the USA more than 27 percent of the women use birth control pills. By 26 percent, 95 percent
of the women are using contraception. According to Evans, & Sutton, (2015), out of all women
used the contraception, 82 percent have used birth control pills at some point. The birth control
pills are synthesized using hormones like Estrogen and progesterone. Naturally, estrogen plays a
role in controlling the growth of the endometrial lining. Estrogen and progesterone work
collaboratively to inhibit ovulation through maintaining a thick endometrial lining. Ideally, birth
control pills increase the level of estrogen and progesterone in the body and enhancing
thickening of the endometrial wall. Through thickening of the cervical wall, it blocks the sperms
from accessing the egg. Lastly, its uterine walls more unreceptive to the attachment or
implantation of the fertilized egg.
Undertaking birth control may or may not affect the onset of the periods. The beginning
of the period is receptive to some of the birth control methods. Receiving a birth control
injection or taking the birth control pill is an effective way of pregnancy prevention. Also,
taking birth control pills treat other health conditions in the body. Since taking birth control pills
involves introducing new hormones in the body system mainly on the reproductive system.
Adding the new hormones in the body system may affect the menstrual cycle. In some women,
they experience irregular periods, while others may entirely skip getting periods. Also, other
women have reported receiving lighter periods. As pointed earlier, birth control pills are
synthetic hormones which are composed of estrogen and progesterone. The estrogen and
progesterone collaboratively work to prevent ovulation. The two hormones maintain thick
endometrial lining thus affecting the onset of the periods. According to Vandenberg, (2014),
birth control pills help in reducing cramps during menstrual cycles.
Birth control has narrowed the economic gap between men and women. Initially, women
were inferior people with no role to play in the economic, public or any other place. Their role
was only restricted at the home where they were supposed to bear children, take care of the
children or perform other minor tasks at home levels. Currently, birth control played a huge role
in promoting economic and financial equality. Women can control the number of children they
wish to get and when. So, this has helped women to participate in the labor market acquiring
money just like other men do. The time that women would have spent in maternity leave is spent
on making money and saving income.
Birth control has various effects on the economy. First, it helps in reducing the poverty
level in the economy as most of the women are entering in the Labor market. As women take
part in the labor market, they generate more income to the government through taxes. Secondly,
birth control relieves the burden to the government. When a woman bears a large number of
children, it means that more will pressure exacted on the Medicaid. Birth control relieves
financial strain Medicaid.
Birth control pills effectiveness depends on how it is taken. If taken every day at the same
time, the pregnancy rates are lower than 1 percent. Progestin pills are the second type of pill
taken for birth control but less popular. If you are late taking the progestin-only birth control pill
by more than three hours, it’s suggested to use the second method of birth control. The
ingredients in progestin-only pill don’t stay in the body’s system for an extended period. It
usually lasts for 24 hours. When taken late, the body had enough time to revert to releasing eggs
naturally. Birth control may give women the opportunity to plan ahead of time and be prepared
to bear a child in their convenience. Although there are positive and negative effects of taking
birth control, taking the birth control will decrease the amount of abortions women will have.
Schattman, G. L., Esteves, S. C., & Agarwal, A. (2015). Unexplained
infertility. Pathophysiology, evaluation and treatment. Springer.
Deckman, M., & McTague, J. (2015). Did the “War on Women” work? Women, men, and the
birth control mandate in the 2012 Presidential election. American Politics
Research, 43(1), 3-26.
Lopez, L. M., Edelman, A., Chen, M., Otterness, C., Trussell, J., & Helmerhorst, F. M. (2014).
Progestin-only contraceptives: effects on weight. The Cochrane database of systematic
reviews, 7, CD008815.
Grimes, D. A., Jones, L. B., Lopez, L. M., & Schulz, K. F. (2014). Oral contraceptives for
functional ovarian cysts. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (4).
Evans, G., & Sutton, E. L. (2015). Oral contraception. Medical Clinics, 99(3), 479-503.
Vandenberg, L. N. (2014). Low-dose effects of hormones and endocrine disruptors. In Vitamins
& Hormones (Vol. 94, pp. 129-165). Academic Press.
Ethical and Cultural Perspectives of Birth Control
Annie Zakaryan
Professor Mirzatoni
West Coast University
27 February 2019
Birth control methods are the different measures that are undertaken to regulate the
number of children a person should have. These methods come with different views and insights
both from an ethical and cultural perspective. This paper is going to formulate and discuss some
research questions and prompts about the topic both from a level 1 and level 2 research questions
perspectives. The paper will begin with the research question of ethical obstacles affect how the
issue is addressed by the medical community. The second research question from the level 1
category will be that of the cultures or societies are most affected by the issue and why. From
level 2section, the research question will be that of the effects of birth control pills and
contraceptives. After the in-depth discussion and analysis of the research questions, the paper
will conclude by looking at the preview the issues, the research questions, the answers, and the
overall insights.
Keywords: birth control, ethical views, cultural views, societies, contraceptives
Having a lot of children who are more than you can manage to take care of is hectic and
not logical. Due to these various governments, institutions and agencies have come up with
different ways through which they regulate birth rates (Peoples, 2018). However, these
approaches of birth control meet with different receptions both ethically and culturally. Several
research questions can be formulated pertaining to the issue of birth control which level 1
research questions and level 2 research questions are. One of the level 1 research questions is:
What ethical obstacles affect how the issue is addressed by the medical community? A second
level 1 research question is: Which cultures or societies are most affected by the issue? Why? On
the level 2 research question one of them is: what are the effects of birth control pills?
One of the approaches to birth control is that of conducting abortions. Abortions have
some implications where some countries have termed it as legal and some term it as illegal
(Grindlay, & Grossman, 2016). This depends on the law but sometimes even if it is legal or
illegal there some ethical issues that follow it. Some medical community members perform the
practices without the consent of the person and that of their family members. The decision of
whether to carry out an abortion is not an individual one, and many parties must be involved. In
those countries that do not allow the conducting of abortion practices, it is ethically wrong for a
doctor or medical practitioner to involve themselves in such actions (Zelop, 2019). This is
because it is against the law and the first people who are expected to obey the law are the civil
servants and the different professionals where the doctors also belong.
In those countries that abortion is not legal a second reason that can lead to it is that by
request by a doctor. There are instances where the ethical perspective can be foregone, and the
medical practitioner decides to perform the abortion (Smith et al., 2017). An example is where
there is a risk of either the mother or the child must die. The medical community member may
decide to save the mother and let the infant die. This is ethically correct because the mother may
have another chance to give birth to another one. However, it is also important to note that other
instances can force the use of birth control measures such as abortion. One of those instances is
those of rape where one gets pregnant against their will and decides not to keep the pregnancy.
The ethical perspective of this is that of the agreement and instructions that the medical
community receives from the family members or from the patients themselves who require the
abortion services. In the early year’s abortion was not legal in some states in America but later it
was decriminalized by the constitution which applied to all the states.
Several cultures, societies, and religions are against the issue of birth control in the
different parts of the world. One culture that is against contraceptives is that of people with
African decency (Smith et al., 2017). Many African cultures are against and do not believe in the
use of birth controls and state that children are blessings. Other use the number of children they
have to be a representation of how much wealth they have where the more the children, the more
wealthily a person is and vice versa. The introduction of the various methods of birth controls
was not welcomed in these cultures and societies, and some termed them as having side effects
especially the contraceptives (Zelop, 2019).
Religion has a powerful impact when it comes to contraceptives. For most people, taking
birth control will be influenced by your religion. Many religions are all for birth control and
contraceptives, while others that are against it. Roman Catholicism is one type of religion that is
very anti-contraceptives. The Catholic Church is opposed to all types of artificial contraception.
They believe that the best way to prevent pregnancy is abstinence. Protestantism is also a
religion which is against birth control. They believe that contraceptives gave people the safety to
act upon sex outside the marriage boundary. Additionally, they believe that some birth control
measures such as abortion are crimes and are an abomination that is punishable and treated as
Cultures, religions, and societies do not agree with these measures although there are
those that are not affected by them. One of them is Hinduism who are not against birth control.
They believe in having large families back then, but also small families who needed family
planning to have it. They believe it is a positive ethical function. Islam is also a religion that does
not oppose birth control. Muslim scholars would research and develop birth control methods
which were then taken to Europe (Austin Cline). Sikhism and Taoism also supported birth
control. Religions like these stated believed that it was essential to adequately plan for a family
for them to be strong and healthy. Buddhism also does not oppose birth control. They believe
that the worst one can do to have an abortion. Also, Christian churches are starting to believe that
contraceptives may have a positive outcome for family planning, making it a moral good.
Up until the 1960s, the rhythm and barrier contraceptives were the only available
methods of birth control (Smith et al., 2017). Oral contraceptives were introduced to help solve
the problem of unwanted pregnancies. Birth control pill plays an imperative role in the
reproductive and overall health of women. Due to the increase and acceptance of the modern
family planning methods, the desired number of children per family within the U.S. is now 2
(Grindlay, & Grossman, 2016). While most women who use the birth control experience no side
effects, oral contraceptives are known to carry some risks. The birth control pill works by
providing hormones that prevent a woman from ovulating …
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