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I have the exam right now. Just take a look 1 articles i link below. Used your own words to answer 1 questions below 50-75 words.Pleaseeeee make sure you can do it on time then please finish it asap (you can just point out the point, no need full sentence but just use information in my source and paraphrase it carefully, it will be turn it in check online). Thank you so much!1. According to the article What Leadership Looks Like in Different Cultures, there are three factors that influence leadership in different cultures: decision making, communication style, and dark-side tendencies. Explain the two sides under each category and which cultures tend to fall into each.

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What Leadership Looks Like in Different Cultures
By Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic and Michael Sanger
What makes a great leader? Although the core ingredients of leadership are universal (good
judgment, integrity, and people skills), the full recipe for successful leadership requires culturespecific condiments. The main reason for this is that cultures differ in their implicit theories of
leadership, the lay beliefs about the qualities that individuals need to display to be considered
leaders. Depending on the cultural context, your typical style and behavioral tendencies may be
an asset or a weakness. In other words, good leadership is largely personality in the right place.
Research has shown that leaders’ decision making, communication style, and dark-side
tendencies are influenced by the geographical region in which they operate. Below we review six
major leadership types that illustrate some of these findings.
Decision Making
The synchronized leader. Follow-through is key to being seen as leadership material in regions
such as Northeast Asia (e.g., Mainland China, South Korea, and Japan), Indonesia, Thailand, the
UAE, and much of Latin America (Mexico, Brazil, Colombia, Chile). In order to ascend the
organizational ranks, such leaders must seek consensus on decisions and drive others through a
keen process orientation. Business cycles can take longer as a result. But once all stakeholders
are onboard, the deal needs to close fast or there is risk of jeopardizing the agreement.
Synchronized leaders tend to be prudent and are more focused on potential threats than rewards.
The opportunistic leader. Leaders who self-initiate and demonstrate flexibility on how to
achieve a goal tend to be more desirable in Germanic and Nordic Europe (Germany, the
Netherlands, Denmark, Norway), the UK, Western countries on which the UK had substantial
cultural influence (the U.S., Australia, and New Zealand), and Asian countries that based their
governing and economic institutions on the British model (India, Singapore, Malaysia, Hong
Kong). More or less individualistic, these leaders thrive in ambiguity. However, checking in
frequently with team members is advised to ensure others keep up with changing plans.
Opportunistic leaders tend to be ambitious risk takers.
Communication Style
The straight-shooting leader. In some regions employees expect their leaders to confront issues
straightforwardly. In Northeast Asia and countries like the Netherlands, excessive
communication is less appealing in the leadership ranks — people just want you to get to the
point. Accordingly, task-oriented leaders are preferred. Impromptu performance review meetings
with direct reports occur more commonly in these locations, and leaders address undesirable
behaviors from team members as soon as they are observed. Straight-shooting leaders tend to be
less interpersonally sensitive.
The diplomatic leader. In certain countries communication finesse and careful messaging are
important not only to getting along but also to getting ahead. In places like New Zealand,
Sweden, Canada, and much of Latin America, employees prefer to work for bosses who are able
to keep business conversations pleasant and friendly. Constructive confrontation needs to be
handled with empathy. Leaders in these locations are expected to continuously gauge audience
reactions during negotiations and meetings. These types of managers adjust their messaging to
keep the discussion affable; direct communication is seen as unnecessarily harsh. Diplomatic
leaders tend to be polite and agreeable.
Dark-side tendencies
The “kiss up/kick down” leader. When organizations emphasize rank, emerging leaders tend to
develop unique coping skills. It is a leader’s job to implement mandates from above with lowerlevel employees. If overused, this strength can lead to a “kiss up/kick down” leadership style,
characterized by excessive deference or sudden attention to detail when reporting up, and issuing
fiery directives or refusing to compromise when commanding subordinates. Though never a
good thing, this derailer is tolerated more in certain countries, such as Western Asia (Turkey,
India, UAE), Serbia, Greece, Kenya, and South Korea. “Kiss up/kick down” leaders tend to be
diligent and dutiful with their bosses but intense and dominating with their reports.
The passive-aggressive leader. Some leaders become cynical, mistrusting, and eventually
covertly resistant, particularly under stress. These reactions usually occur when the individual is
forced to pursue an objective or carry out a task without being won over or in the absence of
sound rationale. Though being overtly cooperative while maintaining a level of skepticism can
be beneficial in group settings, these behaviors can also hinder execution. Leaders with this style
are more widely accepted in Indonesia and Malaysia, where it doesn’t seem to impede their
advancement. Passive-aggressive leaders tend to be critical and resentful. Ironically, their
aversion to conflict often generates a great deal of conflict.
To be sure, it is possible for any individual to adjust their leadership style to fit the relevant
context. However, it requires a great deal of effort to go against one’s natural tendencies and
predispositions, and habits are hard to break. It is also important to take into account the culture
of the organization, which requires a much more granular level of analysis to identify the
qualities that promote and inhibit success. When senior leaders succeed, they often redefine
culture in a way that is a direct reflection of their own personality. Thus culture is mostly the
sum of the values and beliefs of influential past leaders.

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