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Solved by verified expert:Watch the following PBS Frontline documentary, titled “Living Old” (video is 55 minutes in length, so plan ahead for this assignment) http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/frontline/film/livingold/ (NOTE: The link above should work when you click on it, but if not, please copy and paste the link into your web browser.) Write a 2-page reflection on the video. Address all of the following questions in your reflection: What, if anything, surprised you?What did you find most meaningful, and why?How has this changed your view of growing older, and of the elderly people in your life?Explain Erikson’s theory of Ego Integrity vs. Despair, using examples from the video.How did the readings this week deepen your understanding of the video? (make connections between the readings and the video) Your reflection must cite at least two outside sources (from the unit reading and another source). Frontline offers a supplementary website to accompany the video, providing additional information on this topic. Feel free to use this website as one of your sources. Be sure to include APA-formatted in-text citations within your paper, as well as an APA-formatted reference page at the end of your paper.
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LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT:
A Psychological Perspective
By Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French
Lifespan Development: A Psychological Perspective
By Martha Lally and Suzanne Valentine-French (Published 2017)
This Open Education Resource (OER) textbook was funded by a grant from the
College of Lake County Foundation and supported by the Business and Social
Sciences Division.
This textbook can be found at:
http://dept.clcillinois.edu/psy/LifespanDevelopment.pdf
Publication is under the following license:
Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 3.0 unported license to view a copy
of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative
Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.
1
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction to Lifespan Development
Chapter 2: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth
Chapter 3: Infancy and Toddlerhood
Chapter 4: Early Childhood
Chapter 5: Middle and Late Childhood
Chapter 6: Adolescence
Chapter 7: Emerging and Early Adulthood
Chapter 8: Middle Adulthood
Chapter 9: Late Adulthood
Chapter 10: Death and Dying
2
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction to Lifespan Development …………………………………………………………………………… 8
Lifespan Perspective ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 9
Conceptions of Age ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 12
Periods of Development…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13
Issues in Lifespan Development ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 15
Historical Theories on Development …………………………………………………………………………………………. 16
Contemporary Theories on Development …………………………………………………………………………………… 17
Descriptive Research …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 23
Correlational Research ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 25
Experimental Research ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 27
Research Involving Time-Spans ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 28
Conducting Ethical Research …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 31
References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 32
Chapter 2: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth…………………………………………………………………… 34
Heredity …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 34
Genotypes and Phenotypes …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35
Genetic Disorders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 36
Chromosomal Abnormalities …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 38
Behavioral Genetics ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 39
Prenatal Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 42
The Germinal Period …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42
The Embryonic Period …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 43
The Fetal Period…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 44
Prenatal Brain Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 45
Teratogens ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
Maternal Factors ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 52
Prenatal Assessment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 56
Complications of Pregnancy …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
Preparation for Childbirth ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59
Stages of Birth for Vaginal Delivery …………………………………………………………………………………………. 59
Assessing the Neonate …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 62
Problems of the Newborn ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 62
References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63
Chapter 3: Infancy and Toddlerhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 68
The Brain in the First Two Years ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 69
Infant Sleep ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 71
From Reflexes to Voluntary Movements ……………………………………………………………………………………. 73
Motor Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 75
Sensory Capacities ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 76
Nutrition ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
Global Considerations and Malnutrition …………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
Piaget and the Sensorimotor Stage ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
Infant Memory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 84
Language …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
Components of Language ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
Language Developmental Progression ………………………………………………………………………………………. 87
3
Theories of Language Development …………………………………………………………………………………….. 89
Temperament ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 93
Infant Emotions …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95
Forming Attachments ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 97
Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 98
Mary Ainsworth and the Strange Situation Technique …………………………………………………………………… 98
Erikson: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt ………………………………………………………………………………… 102
Measuring Infant Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 103
Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 103
References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 103
Chapter 4: Early Childhood ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 110
Brain Maturation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 111
Motor Skill Development……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 112
Toilet Training …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 114
Sleep ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 115
Sexual Development in Early Childhood ………………………………………………………………………………….. 116
Nutritional Concerns …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 116
Piaget’s Preoperational Stage of Cognitive Development……………………………………………………………… 118
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development ………………………………………………………… 121
Information Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 122
Attention ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 122
Memory …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 123
Neo-Piagetians …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 125
Children’s Understanding of the World ……………………………………………………………………………………. 126
Language Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 129
Preschool …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129
Autism Spectrum Disorder ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
Erikson: Initiative vs. Guilt …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 133
Self-Concept and Self-Esteem ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 134
Self-Control ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 134
Gender …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 135
Sibling Relationships …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 139
Play ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141
Children and the Media ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 143
Child Care ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 143
Child Abuse………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 146
Chapter 5: Middle and Late Childhood ………………………………………………………………………………………. 153
Sports ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 154
Childhood Obesity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
Concrete Operational Thought ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
Information Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 161
Language Development ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 163
Communication Disorders ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 164
Theories of Intelligence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 165
Measuring Intelligence: Standardization and the Intelligence Quotient ……………………………………………… 169
Extremes of Intelligence: Intellectual Disability and Giftedness ……………………………………………………… 170
Education …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 173
Cultural Differences in the Classroom……………………………………………………………………………………… 173
4
Children with Disabilities …………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 176
Children with Disabilities: Legislation …………………………………………………………………………………….. 180
Erikson: Industry vs. Inferiority ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 182
Self-Understanding …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 182
Kohlberg’s Stages of Moral Development ………………………………………………………………………………… 183
Friends and Peers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 185
Bullying …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 187
Family Life……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 188
Conclusions ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 193
References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193
Chapter 6: Adolescence ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 202
Growth in Adolescence………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 202
Sexual Development …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 203
Adolescent Brain ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 206
Adolescent Sleep ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 208
Adolescent Sexual Activity …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 209
Eating Disorders ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 210
Piaget’s Formal Operational Stage of Cognitive Development ………………………………………………………. 212
Information Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 214
High School Dropouts …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215
Teenagers and Working ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 216
Teenage Drivers …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 217
Self-concept and Self-esteem in Adolescence ……………………………………………………………………………. 218
Erikson: Identity vs. Role Confusion……………………………………………………………………………………….. 218
Parents and Teens: Autonomy and Attachment ………………………………………………………………………….. 222
Peers ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 222
Romantic Relationships ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 224
References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 225
Chapter 7: Emerging and Early Adulthood ………………………………………………………………………………….. 230
Emerging Adulthood Defined ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 230
Cultural Variations ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 232
When Does Adulthood Begin? …………………………………………………………………… …
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