Select Page
  

Instructions.Below you will find a list of four questions divided into two groups, which comprise Exam I. You are required to answer ONE from THE FIRST SECTION and ONE FROM THE SECOND SECTION for a total of TWO ANSWERS. Your answers should be typed, double-spaced, and at least four to five paragraphs, per answer, in length, minimum (longer answers are welcome and tend to score better). ANSWER ONE QUESTION FROM THE FIRST SECTION, AND ONE FROM THE SECOND SECTIONS FOR A TOTAL OF TWO ANSWERS, 40 POINTS.SECTION A[Answer ONE of the following questions in at least four or five paragraphs, making sure to use direct examples from course materials and discussion. 20 points.]What was the main cause of the American Revolution? Briefly describe the events leading up to the Revolutionary War. What role did the Sons of Liberty play in the Revolution and why? Why was the Declaration of Independence written (i.e. why did Revolutionary leaders feel it was necessary)? How are the ideas of the Enlightenment represented in this document? Be specific. What impact did the American Revolution have in other parts of the world?Discuss the process of industrialization. What were the necessary conditions/advantages that helped England industrialize first, and how was each critical? What principle inventions and innovations were important to the industrial revolution and why? In the document, “Industrial Revolution and Women,” what are some of the key ways the author suggests women workers were impacted by Industrialization (be specific). In the document “Coketown,” how does Charles Dickens portray everyday life during this time in history?SECTION B[Answer the following question in at least four to five paragraphs, making sure to use direct examples from course materials and discussion. 20 points.]What is imperialism? Which nations or regions of the world sought to create Empires in the late 1800s? What were their motivations for doing so? Include a discussion of (White Man’s Burden) in your response. What were some of the examples of imperialism we discussed/read about in class (hint: India, China, Africa, Japan, Cuba, Mexico)? Discuss at least three and explain why these can be considered imperialism. Note, one of your examples MUST be the Belgian Congo and should utilize that document, specifically.Please view the full instructions in the fileThere are also files that can help out with the assignmentHeres one of the files- https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/kipling.asp
screen_shot_2019_03_04_at_9.35.23_am.png

history_assignment.docx

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
FORDHAM World History The American Revolution & Imperialism Assignment
Just from $10/Page
Order Essay

belgium_congo.pdf

Unformatted Attachment Preview

History Assignment
1. Instructions.
Below you will find a list of four questions divided into two groups, which comprise Exam I.
You are required to answer ONE from THE FIRST SECTION and ONE FROM THE SECOND
SECTION for a total of TWO ANSWERS. Your answers should be typed, double-spaced,
and at least four to five paragraphs, per answer, in length, minimum (longer answers are
welcome and tend to score better).
II. Heading
Please include the following heading on your exam:
(top, left side of page)
Name (ex. Joe Schmo)
Course # (ex. HIST 106)
Exam I
Dr. George
Date (ex. 10-18-13)
III. Deadline and Penalties: DUE DATE=MARCH 5,
2019
Please submit your exam via CANVAS.

ALL PAPERS ARE DUE BY MIDNIGHT, MARCH 5, 2019.
IV. Grading




An “A” answer will begin with a clear topic sentence identifying the main point(s). The
answer will consist of specific examples from the readings and the course discussions. If
there are any direct references (quotes or paraphrasing) of sources, they will be properly
referenced by source and page number (ex. Sadler Document, p. 121 OR Ways of the
World, p. 188). The answer will be mistake-free, meaning it will be clearly written,
without typos, and exhibit proper grammar and spelling. The answer will end with a
concluding sentence restating the main point or points.
A “B” or “C” answer will have a topic sentence, some reference to the readings and course
discussions with proper citations, and will be relatively free of mistakes. The number of
specific references and mistakes will determine whether a “B” or “C” is merited.
A “D” answer will have little or no use of specific course materials and will be full of
grammatical mistakes and typos.
An “F” answer will consist of no specific course materials and be written without any
attempt at focus, grammar, or clarity. An “F” grade will also result if there is any evidence
of plagiarism (see course syllabus for definition and examples), if information from the
internet (other than the course website) is used in the paper, if material is copied from an
Encyclopedia or other non-course sources, or if there is evidence that the work is not
original or similar to that of another History 106 student(s). DO YOUR OWN WORK!
All papers will be submitted to turnitin.com for originality verification.
**10 points of your grade will be based on
the form (how well did you write) and
your sources (how well did you utilize the readings
in your responses and how specific were you) and if
you properly credited your sources(parenthetical
references at the end of the sentence or paragraph
are fine).
(Please be specific in your answer and in your discussion of the readings.)
V. Questions
ANSWER ONE QUESTION FROM THE FIRST SECTION, AND ONE FROM THE SECOND
SECTIONS FOR A TOTAL OF TWO ANSWERS, 40 POINTS.
SECTION A

[Answer ONE of the following questions in at least four or five paragraphs, making sure
to use direct examples from course materials and discussion. 20 points.]
1. What was the main cause of the American Revolution? Briefly describe the events
leading up to the Revolutionary War. What role did the Sons of Liberty play in the
Revolution and why? Why was the Declaration of Independence written (i.e. why did
Revolutionary leaders feel it was necessary)? How are the ideas of the Enlightenment
represented in this document? Be specific. What impact did the American Revolution
have in other parts of the world?
2. Discuss the process of industrialization. What were the necessary conditions/advantages
that helped England industrialize first, and how was each critical? What principle
inventions and innovations were important to the industrial revolution and why? In the
document, “Industrial Revolution and Women,” what are some of the key ways the
author suggests women workers were impacted by Industrialization (be specific). In the
document “Coketown,” how does Charles Dickens portray everyday life during this time
in history?
SECTION B

[Answer the following question in at least four to five paragraphs, making sure to use
direct examples from course materials and discussion. 20 points.]
1. What is imperialism? Which nations or regions of the world sought to create Empires in
the late 1800s? What were their motivations for doing so? Include a discussion of (White
Man’s Burden) in your response. What were some of the examples of imperialism we
discussed/read about in class (hint: India, China, Africa, Japan, Cuba, Mexico)? Discuss at
least three and explain why these can be considered imperialism. Note, one of your
examples MUST be the Belgian Congo and should utilize that document, specifically.
Belgium confronts its heart of darkness
King Leopold was hailed as a hero for ‘civilising’ the Congo. Now a remarkable exhibition in
Brussels tells the forgotten history of a brutal exploitation that killed millions and shamed a nation
By Michela Wrong
Wednesday, 23 February 2005
In the sprawling palace of Tervuren, in a leafy suburb of Brussels, Leopold, King of the Belgians
has finally been dethroned. A daunting statue of the hook-nosed monarch has been heaved from
centre stage in the royal museum that was his brainchild and built with the proceeds of his African
adventure.
In the sprawling palace of Tervuren, in a leafy suburb of Brussels, Leopold, King of the Belgians
has finally been dethroned. A daunting statue of the hook-nosed monarch has been heaved from
centre stage in the royal museum that was his brainchild and built with the proceeds of his African
adventure.
The avatar of the former national hero now skulks in a distant corner; in his place are a series of
antique black and white photographs of mutilated bodies in turn-of-the-previous-century Congo.
One of the stark and disturbing images shows a father from the Nsala tribe contemplating the
chopped-off hand and foot of his daughter in front of him. The sepia-tinted horror show is part of
“Memory of Congo, The Colonial Era” a remarkable exhibition that has set off a critical reexamination of Belgium’s grisly record in its only colonial possession.
As the decades roll by and the surviving archives are dusted off and opened up, the European
powers that colonised Africa in the 19th century’s undignified scramble for land are becoming
accustomed to an unpleasant, prickly emotion: shame. Whatever our own Gordon Brown may
have said during his recent trip to the continent, the time for apologising for colonialism’s errors is
by no means past. On the contrary, humble pie is more firmly on the menu now.
From the horrific tactics used by the British to put down Mau Mau in Kenya in the 1950s to the
racist laws the Italians applied with such gusto in the Horn of Africa in the 1930s, more damning
evidence is surfacing of systematic white misbehaviour in former Western colonies. But no colonial
master has more to apologise for, or has proved more reluctant to acknowledge and accept its
guilt, than Belgium.
On the roll-call of Africa’s colonial and post-independence abusers, it undoubtedly holds
unenviable pride of place. And the fractured, despairing state of the Democratic Republic of Congo
today, a ragged hole at the heart of Africa, plagued by civil war, destitution and disease, can be
traced back to that uniquely damaging misadministration. Little wonder, then, that when Congo’s
present leadership recently took the quixotic step of placing King Leopold’s statue back on its
plinth on the capital Kinshasa’s main thoroughfare, it stayed up for less than a day before the
authorities thought better of it. If modern-day Belgians have conveniently forgotten the past, the
Congolese, who toppled all Belgian statues in the 1970s on a nod from dictator Mobutu Sese
Seko, certainly have not.
The extraordinary brutality of the Belgian era owed a lot to the colony’s unique status. Most other
African colonies were appropriated by governments, regarded as national responsibilities. This
vast land mass in central Africa, 80 times the size of Belgium itself, became the personal
possession of King Leopold ll in 1885. With personal ownership comes a sense of total impunity.
While waiting to inherit the throne of tiny Belgium, Leopold had taken note of how Britain, Spain,
Portugal and the Netherlands had built their national wealth on foreign territories. He became
obsessed with finding his own, an acquisition that would, he believed, turn “a small country with
small horizons” into a world power commanding respect. “No country has had a great history
without colonies,” he wrote. “A complete country cannot exist without overseas possessions.”
He looked for openings in Fiji, Sarawak and the Philippines, before a golden opportunity presented
itself in the form of the American explorer, Henry Stanley, who in 1877 had braved malaria,
typhoid, whirlpools and cannibals to trace the course of the river snaking around the Congo basin.
Leopold recruited Stanley, known as “Breaker of Rocks”, as his agent and soon the explorer was
establishing trading stations along the river, signing treaties with chiefs who little understood they
were giving away their rights, land, and natural resources.
The King was extraordinarily successful in keeping the details of his pet project a secret, bribing
foreign journalists and politicians to write glowing accounts and systematically destroying
sensitive paperwork. In many ways, that culture of obsessive secrecy has reached out from the
past to suck in the modern era, making a form of national whitewash possible.
Leopold famously said when he was forced to hand over the Congo Free State to the Belgian
nation: “I will give them my Congo but they have no right to know what I have done there,” and
proceeded to burn archives.
Congo’s appropriation was presented to the world as a philanthropic act, a distorted version of the
facts which the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren has faithfully disseminated well into
the 21st century, despite a torrent of increasingly sarcastic remarks by modern historians.
In theory, Leopold was simultaneously wiping out the area’s vibrant slave trade and spreading
Christian civilisation. In fact, the monarch many Belgians still regard as a national hero had his
eyes firmly fixed on Congo’s ivory, timber, gum and copal. As the motorcar became popular in the
civilised world, Leopold’s attention turned to rubber, which grows wild in the Congo and was
needed to feed the world’s growing tyre industry. The entire colony became a vast rubber-tapping
enterprise, with villagers set cripplingly high production quotas by their Belgian superiors.
If they failed to meet the targets, the Force Publique – essentially a mercenary army recruited in
West Africa – would be sent in to slaughter the men, burn huts and rape women. These soldiers
cut off the hands of their victims, whether dead or alive, as proof for their Belgian masters that
their bullets had not gone to waste. If, today, we associate amputated hands as atrocities peculiar
to Sierra Leone and Mozambique’s rebel movements, it was a white-led force that introduced the
practice to the Congo.
One Congolese historian, Professor Ndaywel e Nziem, has estimated the death toll during that era
at a staggering 13 million. While that figure seems impossibly high, there is little doubt that vast
areas of Congo were left depopulated. The proceeds of Leopold’s looting funded many of the
grandiose monuments that grace Belgium today: the Royal Palace at Laeken, Brussels’
Cinquantanaire arch, Ostend’s seaside arcade and golf course were all paid for with Congolese
blood and sweat.
The brutality of the Leopold era, which prompted Joseph Conrad to write Heart of Darkness, was
eventually exposed thanks to the efforts of British journalist Edmund Morel and the homosexual
diplomat Roger Casement, who got the information they needed to create a scandal from
missionaries working in the Congo.
In 1908, faced with growing controversy over the brutalities, the ageing Leopold was forced to
reluctantly hand his prized possession – a territory he had never bothered to personally set foot in
– over to the Belgian government. But Belgium’s exploitation did not end with Leopold’s rule, it
merely entered a new chapter. The energetic extraction of copper and cobalt in the southern
Katanga province replaced the ruthless extraction of rubber as Congo’s main raison d’etre.
Belgian officials were known for their enthusiastic use of the chicotte, a murderous whip made of
plaited hippopotamus hide, and although the Belgian government undoubtedly invested in Congo’s
infrastructure, it also kept the country in a deliberately infantilised state. The primitive Congolese
needed to “evolve” before they could be trusted with their own destiny, white officials believed.
When Brussels, taken by surprise by the nationalist fervour sweeping Africa, reluctantly granted
independence in 1960, the country had only 17 university graduates and was clearly unprepared
for self-rule.
Some of Leopold’s regal arrogance undoubtedly communicated itself to his successors in the
Belgian government, who did not see why Congolese independence should mean the loss of
precious mineral resources. In a brazen bid to perpetuate colonial rule by other means, Belgium
encouraged Katangese leader Moise Tshombe to secede, pulling the carpet from under the feet of
Patrice Lumumba, Congo’s first elected prime minister.
The behind-the-scenes role subsequently played by Belgian officials in Tshombe’s torture and
assassination of the charismatic Lumumba was exposed to withering public light in 2001 by Ludo
de Witte, author of The Assassination of Lumumba.
Lumumba, still seen by many Congolese as the great nationalist leader they never had, was
beaten relentlessly, shot along with two aides and his body then dissolved in acid, to ensure it
was never found.
After publication of de Witte’s book’s and an official inquiry, a Belgian parliamentary commission
concluded that the country bore “moral responsibility” for Lumumba’s killing. Belgium’s Foreign
Minister formally apologised to the Congolese people and Lumumba’s family for his country’s
“apathy” and “indifference”.
For many Congolese, who see their own history as one long series of cynical manipulations by
outside powers with designs on their nation’s extraordinary natural resources, that apology
marked something of a symbolic turning point. But there are still plenty of retired Belgian
administrators and right-wing historians working and writing in Belgium today who believe their
country did a fine job in Congo and deserves to be congratulated rather than vilified.
The fact that the most popular recent book written on King Leopold’s depredations, Adam
Hochschild’s ” King Leopold’s Ghost, was the work of an American outsider rather than a Belgian
speaks volumes about the deliberate amnesia Belgium developed on the actions of its beloved
king.
Marc Reynebeau, who has written a political history of Belgium, is among those to highlight the
national importance of the horrors on show at the controversial royal museum. “Belgian
colonisation of Congo is seen as horror and violence,” the author said. “The pictures of children
with chopped-off hands are the ultimate symbols. It took Belgium a century to recognise that
past. The exhibit ‘Memory of Congo’ is the first impetus for change, the first time Tervuren
recognises the horror. But the real work has yet to start.”
Although the museum in Tervuren may be belatedly changing, it seems likely to be a long time
yet before Belgians look at statues of Leopold ll – instantly recognisable with his indomitable
hooked nose and spade-shaped beard – with anything other than respect.
Michela Wrong is the author of ‘In the Footsteps of Mr Kurtz: Living on the Brink of Disaster in the
Congo’, published by Fourth Estate. Her second book, ‘I didn’t do it for you: How the world
betrayed a small African nation’ has just been published

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

Order your essay today and save 10% with the discount code ESSAYHSELP