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Answer each question minimum of 400 words. Must use provided material (PDF book) as well as additional sources to help support answers. Remember to use in-text citations in each new paragraph. Reference/cite in APA format. DO NOT PLAGIARIZE. Here is the reference for the PDF: Saferstein, Richard (2014)
Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic
Science, 11th edition. Will extend deadline 5 additional hours if needed1.) In a narrative format, discuss the key facts and critical issues presented in the case. 2.) Based on your research, determine who you believe the killer to be and why. Give at least five reasons/factors (physical evidence) to support your conclusion.3.) As lead investigator in the case, you would need to hold a debriefing with your detectives. List what they did correct and any mistakes that were made. What should be done to ensure the mistakes are not repeated in the future?
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Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
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edition
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Criminalistics
An Introduction L
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to Forensic Science
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Richard Saferstein, Ph.D.
Forensic Science Consultant, Mt. Laurel, New Jersey
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Boston Columbus Indianapolis New York San Francisco Upper Saddle River
Amsterdam Cape Town Dubai London Madrid Milan Munich Paris Montréal Toronto
Delhi Mexico City São Paulo Sydney Hong Kong Seoul Singapore Taipei Tokyo
Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
chapter
1
introduction
KEY TERMS
expert witness
Locard’s exchange
principle
scientific method
After studying this chapter you should be able to:
t Define and distinguish forensic science andTcriminalistics
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t Recognize the major contributors to the development of
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forensic science
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t Account for the rapid growth of forensic laboratories
in the
past forty years
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t Describe the services of a typical comprehensive
crime laboratory in the criminal justice system
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t Compare and contrast the Frye and Daubert decisions relating
to the admissibility of scientific evidence in the courtroom
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t Explain the role and responsibilities of the5expert witness
t Understand what specialized forensic services,
6 aside from the
crime laboratory, are generally available to law enforcement
8
personnel
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ISBN: 978-1-323-16745-8
Learning Objectives
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Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
4
CHAPTER 1
Definition and Scope of Forensic Science
Forensic science in its broadest definition is the application of science to law. As our society has
grown more complex, it has become more dependent on rules of law to regulate the activities of
its members. Forensic science applies the knowledge and technology of science to the definition
and enforcement of such laws.
Each year, as government finds it increasingly necessary to regulate the activities that most
intimately influence our daily lives, science merges more closely with civil and criminal law.
Consider, for example, the laws and agencies that regulate the quality of our food, the nature and
potency of drugs, the extent of automobile emissions, the kind of fuel oil we burn, the purity of
our drinking water, and the pesticides we use on our crops and plants. It would be difficult to
conceive of a food or drug regulation or environmental protection act that could be effectively
monitored and enforced without the assistance of scientific technology and the skill of the scientific community.
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Laws are continually being broadened and revised to counter the alarming increase in crime
I law enforcement agencies have expanded their patrol and
rates. In response to public concern,
investigative functions, hoping D
to stem the rising tide of crime. At the same time, they are looking more to the scientific community for advice and technical support for their efforts. Can the
Dthe moon, split the atom, and eradicated most dreaded diseases
technology that put astronauts on
be enlisted in this critical battle?E
Unfortunately, science cannot offer final and authoritative solutions to problems that stem
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from a maze of social and psychological
factors. However, as the content of this book attests,
science occupies an important and
unique
role in the criminal justice system—a role that relates
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to the scientist’s ability to supply accurate and objective information about the events that have
, deal of work remains to be done if the full potential of science
occurred at a crime scene. A good
as applied to criminal investigations is to be realized.
Because of the vast array of civil and criminal laws that regulate society, forensic science, in
its broadest sense, has become T
so comprehensive a subject that a meaningful introductory textbook treating its role and techniques
I would be difficult to create and probably overwhelming to
read. For this reason, we have narrowed the scope of the subject according to the most common
definition: Forensic science is F
the application of science to the criminal and civil laws that
are enforced by police agencies
F in a criminal justice system. Forensic science is an umbrella
term encompassing a myriad of professions that use their skills to aid law enforcement officials
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in conducting their investigations.
The diversity of professions
Npracticing forensic science is illustrated by the eleven sections
of the American Academy of Forensic Science, the largest forensic science organization in the
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world:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
Criminalistics
Digital and Multimedia Sciences
1
Engineering Science
5
General
Jurisprudence
6
Odontology
8
Pathology/Biology
Physical Anthropology
T
Psychiatry/Behavioral Science
Questioned Documents S
Toxicology
Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
ISBN: 978-1-323-16745-8
Even this list of professions is not exclusive. It does not encompass skills such as fingerprint
examination, firearm and tool mark examination, and photography.
Obviously, to author a book covering all of the major activities of forensic science as
they apply to the enforcement of criminal and civil laws by police agencies would be a major
undertaking. Thus, this book will further restrict itself to discussions of the subjects of chemistry,
biology, physics, geology, and computer technology, which are useful for determining the
evidential value of crime-scene and related evidence. Forensic psychology, anthropology, and
INTRODUCTION
5
odontology also encompass important and relevant areas of knowledge and practice in law
enforcement, each being an integral part of the total forensic science service that is provided to
any up-to-date criminal justice system. However, these subjects go beyond the intended scope of
this book, and except for brief discussions, along with pointing the reader to relevant websites,
the reader is referred elsewhere for discussions of their applications and techniques. Instead, this
book focuses on the services of what has popularly become known as the crime laboratory, where
the principles and techniques of the physical and natural sciences are practiced and applied to the
analysis of crime-scene evidence.
For many, the term criminalistics seems more descriptive than forensic science for describing the services of a crime laboratory. Regardless of his or her title—criminalist or forensic
scientist—the trend of events has made the scientist in the crime laboratory an active participant
in the criminal justice system.
Prime-time television shows like CSI: Crime Scene Investigation have greatly increased
the public’s awareness of the use of science in criminal and civil
L investigations (Figure 1–1).
However, by simplifying scientific procedures to fit the allotted airtime, these shows have
I expectations of forensic
created within both the public and the legal community unrealistic
science. In these shows, members of the CSI team collect evidence
D at the crime scene, process all evidence, question witnesses, interrogate suspects, carry out search warrants, and
testify in court. In the real world, these tasks are almost alwaysDdelegated to different people
in different parts of the criminal justice system. Procedures that
E in reality could take days,
weeks, months, or years appear on these shows to take mere minutes. This false image is sigL
nificantly responsible for the public’s high interest in and expectations
for DNA evidence.
The dramatization of forensic science on television has led L
the public to believe that every
crime scene will yield forensic evidence, and it produces unrealistic expectations that a prosecutor’s case should always be bolstered and supported by forensic,evidence. This phenomenon is
known as the “CSI effect.” Some jurists have come to believe that this phenomenon ultimately
detracts from the search for truth and justice in the courtroom.
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FIGURE 1–1
A scene from CSI, a forensic science television show.
Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
6
CHAPTER 1
History and Development
of Forensic Science
Forensic science owes its origins first to the individuals who developed the principles and techniques needed to identify or compare physical evidence, and second to those who recognized the
need to merge these principles into a coherent discipline that could be practically applied to a
criminal justice system.
Literary Roots
Today many believe that Sir Arthur Conan Doyle had a considerable influence on popularizing scientific crime-detection methods through his fictional character Sherlock Holmes (see Figure 1–2),
who first applied the newly developing principles of serology (see
Chapter 14), fingerprinting, firearms identification, and questionedL examination long before their value was first recognized and
document
accepted
I by real-life criminal investigators. Holmes’s feats excited the
imagination of an emerging generation of forensic scientists and crimD
inal investigators.
Even in the first Sherlock Holmes novel, A Study
in Scarlet,
D published in 1887, we find examples of Doyle’s uncanny
ability to describe scientific methods of detection years before they
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were actually
discovered and implemented. For instance, here Holmes
probesLand recognizes the potential usefulness of forensic serology to
criminal investigation:
© Paul C. Chauncey/CORBIS All Rights Reserved
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FIGURE 1–2
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s legendary detective
Sherlock Holmes applied many of the principles of
modern forensic science long before they were
adopted widely by police.
“I’ve found it. I’ve found it,” he shouted to my companion, run,
ning towards us with a test tube in his hand. “I have found a reagent which is precipitated by hemoglobin and by nothing else.
. . . Why, man, it is the most practical medico-legal discovery for
T
years. Don’t you see that it gives us an infallible test for blood
I . . . The old guaiacum test was very clumsy and uncertain.
stains?
So is the microscopic examination for blood corpuscles. The latF
ter is valueless if the stains are a few hours old. Now, this appears
F as well whether the blood is old or new. Had this test been
to act
invented, there are hundreds of men now walking the earth who
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would long ago have paid the penalty of their crimes. . . . Criminal
N are continually hinging upon that one point. A man is suscases
pected
Y of a crime months perhaps after it has been committed. His
linen or clothes are examined and brownish stains discovered upon
them. Are they blood stains, or rust stains, or fruit stains, or what
are1they? That is a question which has puzzled many an expert,
and why? Because there was no reliable test. Now we have the
5 Holmes test, and there will no longer be any difficulty.”
Sherlock
6
Many8
people can be cited for their specific contributions to the field of
forensic
T science. The following is just a brief list of those who made the
earliest contributions to formulating the disciplines that now constitute
S science.
forensic
Important Contributors to Forensic Science
Bertillon devised the first scientific system of personal
identification. In 1879, Bertillon began to develop the science of anthropometry (see Chapter 6),
a systematic procedure of taking a series of body measurements as a means of distinguishing one
individual from another (see Figure 1–3). For nearly two decades, this system was considered
ALPHONSE BERTILLON (1853–1914)
Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
ISBN: 978-1-323-16745-8
MATHIEU ORFILA (1787–1853) Orfila is considered the father of
forensic toxicology. A native of Spain, he ultimately became a renowned teacher of medicine
in France. In 1814, Orfila published the first scientific treatise on the detection of poisons and
their effects on animals. This treatise established forensic toxicology as a legitimate scientific
endeavor.
INTRODUCTION
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Sirchie Fingerprint Laboratories
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FIGURE 1–3
Bertillon’s system of bodily measurements as used for the identification of an individual.
Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
8
CHAPTER 1
the most accurate method of personal identification. Although anthropometry was eventually
replaced by fingerprinting in the early 1900s, Bertillon’s early efforts have earned him the
distinction of being known as the father of criminal identification.
FRANCIS GALTON (1822–1911) Galton undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints and
developed a methodology of classifying them for filing. In 1892, he published a book titled
Finger Prints, which contained the first statistical proof supporting the uniqueness of his method
of personal identification. His work went on to describe the basic principles that form the present
system of identification by fingerprints.
LEONE LATTES (1887–1954) In 1901, Dr. Karl Landsteiner discovered that blood can be
grouped into different categories. These blood groups or types are now recognized as A, B, AB,
and O. The possibility that blood grouping could be a useful characteristic for the identification
of an individual intrigued Dr. Lattes, a professor at the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the
University of Turin in Italy. InL
1915, he devised a relatively simple procedure for determining
the blood group of a dried bloodstain, a technique that he immediately applied to criminal
I
investigations.
D To determine whether a particular gun has fired a bullet
requires a comparison of the bullet
D with one that has been test-fired from the suspect’s weapon.
Goddard, a U.S. Army colonel, refined the techniques of such an examination by using the
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comparison microscope. From the mid-1920s on, Goddard’s expertise established the comparison
microscope as the indispensableLtool of the modern firearms examiner.
L Osborn’s development of the fundamental principles of
ALBERT S. OSBORN (1858–1946)
document examination was responsible for the acceptance of documents as scientific evidence by
,
the courts. In 1910, Osborn authored the first significant text in this field, Questioned Documents.
CALVIN GODDARD (1891–1955)
This book is still considered a primary reference for document examiners.
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Dr. McCrone’s career paralleled startling advances in
sophisticated analytical technology.
Nevertheless,
during his lifetime McCrone became the
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world’s preeminent microscopist. Through his books, journal publications, and research institute,
F for applying microscopy to analytical problems, particularly
McCrone was a tireless advocate
forensic science cases. McCrone’s
F exceptional communication skills made him a much-soughtafter instructor, and he was responsible for educating thousands of forensic scientists throughout
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the world in the application of microscopic
techniques. Dr. McCrone used microscopy, often in
conjunction with other analytical
methodologies,
to examine evidence in thousands of criminal
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and civil cases throughout a long and illustrious career.
WALTER C. MCCRONE (1916–2002)
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Gross wrote the first treatise describing the application of scientific
disciplines to the field of criminal investigation in 1893. A public prosecutor and judge in Graz,
Austria, Gross spent many years1studying and developing principles of criminal investigation. In
his classic book Handbuch für Untersuchungsrichter als System der Kriminalistik (later published
5 Investigation), he detailed the assistance that investigators
in English under the title Criminal
could expect from the fields of6microscopy, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, zoology, botany,
anthropometry, and fingerprinting. He later introduced the forensic journal Archiv für Kriminal
8
Anthropologie und Kriminalistik, which still serves as a medium for reporting improved methods
of scientific crime detection. T
HANS GROSS (1847–1915)
Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Science, Eleventh Edition, by Richard Saferstein. Published by Prentice Hall. Copyright © 2015 by Pearson Education, Inc.
ISBN: 978-1-323-16745-8
S Although Gross was a strong advocate of the use of the
EDMOND LOCARD (1877–1966)
scientific method in criminal investigation, he did not make any specific technical contributions
to this philosophy. Locard, a Frenchman, demonstrated how the principles enunciated by Gross
could be incorporated within a workable crime laboratory. Locard’s formal education was in
both medicine and law. In 1910, he persuaded the Lyons police department to give him two attic
rooms and two assistants to start a police laboratory.
During Locard’s first years of work, the only available instruments were a microscope and
a rudimentary spectrometer. However, his enthusiasm quickly overcame the technical and monetary deficiencies he encountered. From these modest beginnings, Locard’s research and accomplishments became known throughout the world by forensic scientists and criminal investigators.
INTRODUCTION
Eventually he became the founder and director of the Institute of Criminalistics at the University
of Lyons; this quickly developed into a leading international center for study and research in
forensic science.
Locard believed that when a person comes in contact with an object or person, a crosstransfer of materials occurs (Locard’s exchange principle). Locard maintained that every
criminal can be connected to a crime by dust particles carried from the crime scene. This concept was reinforced by a series of successful and well-publicized investigations. In one case,
presented with counterfeit coins and the names of three suspects, Locard urged the police to
bring the suspects’ clothing to his laboratory. On careful examination, he located small metallic particles in all the garments. Chemical analysis revealed that the particles and coins were
composed of exactly the same metallic elements. Confronted with this evidence, the suspects
were arrested and soon confessed to the crime. After World War I, Locard’s successes served
as an impetus for the formation of police laboratories in Vienna, Berlin, Sweden, Finland, and
Holland.
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Locard’s exchange principle
Whenever two objects come into
contact with one another, there
is exchange of materials between
them.
the country. During its formative stages, agents consulted extensively with business executives,
manufacturers, and scientists whose knowledge and experience were useful in guiding the new
T largest forensic laboratory,
facility through its infancy. The FBI Laboratory is now the world’s
performing more than one million examinations every year. Its accomplishments
have earned it
I
worldwide recognition, and its structure and organization have served as a model for forensic
F as well as in other countries.
laboratories formed at the state and local levels in the United States
Furthermore, the opening of the FBI’s Forensic Science Research
F and Training Center in 1981
gave the United States, for the first time, a fac …
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