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The Indian Subcontinent
Achieves Freedom
nations emerged from the
British colony of India.
India today is the largest
democracy in the world.
• Congress Party
• Muslim League
• Muhammad Ali
• partition
• Jawaharlal
• Indira Gandhi
• Benazir
SETTING THE STAGE After World War II, dramatic political changes began to
take place across the world. This was especially the case with regard to the policy of colonialism. Countries that held colonies began to question the practice.
After the world struggle against dictatorship, many leaders argued that no country should control another nation. Others questioned the high cost and commitment of holding colonies. Meanwhile, the people of colonized regions continued
to press even harder for their freedom. All of this led to independence for one of
the largest and most populous colonies in the world: British-held India.
A Movement Toward Independence
The British had ruled India for almost two centuries. Indian resistance to Britain,
which had existed from the beginning, intensified in 1939, when Britain committed India’s armed forces to World War II without first consulting the colony’s
elected representatives. The move left Indian nationalists stunned and humiliated.
Indian leader Mohandas Gandhi launched a nonviolent campaign of noncooperation with the British. Officials imprisoned numerous nationalists for this action. In
1942, the British tried to gain the support of the nationalists by promising governmental changes after the war. But the offer did not include Indian independence.
As they intensified their struggle against the British, Indians also struggled
with each other. India has long been home to two main religious groups. In the
1940s, India had approximately 350 million Hindus and about 100 million
Muslims. The Indian National Congress, or the Congress Party, was India’s
national political party. Most members of the Congress Party were Hindus, but
the party at times had many Muslim members.
In competition with the Congress Party was the Muslim League, an organization founded in 1906 in India to protect Muslim interests. Members of the
league felt that the mainly Hindu Congress Party looked out primarily for Hindu
interests. The leader of the Muslim League, Muhammad Ali Jinnah
(mu•HAM•ihd ah•LEE JINH•uh), insisted that all Muslims resign from the
Congress Party. The Muslim League stated that it would never accept Indian
independence if it meant rule by the Hindu-dominated Congress Party. Jinnah
stated, “The only thing the Muslim has in common with the Hindu is his slavery
to the British.”
Following Chronological
Order Create a time line
of prominent Indian
prime ministers from
independence through
the current day.
The Colonies Become New Nations 997
Freedom Brings Turmoil
When World War II ended, Britain found itself faced with enormous war debts. As
a result, British leaders began to rethink the expense of maintaining and governing
distant colonies. With India continuing to push for independence, the stage was set
for the British to hand over power. However, a key problem emerged: Who should
receive the power—Hindus or Muslims?
Partition and Bloodshed Muslims resisted attempts to include them in an Indian
government dominated by Hindus. Rioting between the two groups broke out in
several Indian cities. In August 1946, four days of clashes in Calcutta left more
than 5,000 people dead and more than 15,000 hurt.
British officials soon became convinced that partition, an idea first proposed by
India’s Muslims, would be the only way to ensure a safe and secure region.
Partition was the term given to the division of India into separate Hindu and
Muslim nations. The northwest and eastern regions of India, where most Muslims
lived, would become the new nation of Pakistan. (Pakistan, as the map shows, comprised two separate states in 1947: West Pakistan and East Pakistan.)
The British House of Commons passed an act on July 16, 1947, that granted two
nations, India and Pakistan, independence in one month’s time. In that short period,
more than 500 independent native princes had to decide which nation they would
join. The administration of the courts, the military, the railways, and the police—the
whole of the civil service—had to be divided down to the last paper clip. Most difficult of all, millions of Indian citizens—Hindus, Muslims, and yet another significant religious group, the Sikhs—had to decide where to go.
The Indian Subcontinent, 1947
New Delhi
500 Miles
Interpreting Maps
1. Location Which Muslim country,
divided into two states, bordered
India on the east and the west?
2. Location Which Buddhist countries
bordered India to the north and
the south?
998 Chapter 34
Bra h m a p
Ganges R.
1,000 Kilometers
Bay of
Mostly Buddhist
Mostly Hindu
Mostly Muslim
Mostly Sikhs
Present day
boundaries are shown.
During the summer of 1947, 10 million people were on the
move in the Indian subcontinent. As people scrambled to relocate, violence among the different religious groups erupted.
Muslims killed Sikhs who were moving into India. Hindus
and Sikhs killed Muslims who were headed into Pakistan.
The following passage is representative of the experiences of
people in both the Hindu and Muslim communities:
All passengers were forced into compartments like sheep and
goats. Because of which the heat and suffocating atmosphere
was intensified and it was very hard to breathe. In the ladies
compartment women and children were in a terrible condition.
Women tried in vain to calm down and comfort their children.
If you looked out the window you could see dead bodies lying
in the distance. At many places you could see corpses piled on
top of each other and no one seemed to have any concern. . . .
These were the scenes that made your heart bleed and
everybody loudly repented their sins and recited verses asking
God’s forgiveness. Every moment seemed to be the most
terrifying and agonizing.
ZAHIDA AMJAD ALI, quoted in Freedom, Trauma, Continuities
In all, an estimated 1 million died. “What is there to celebrate?” Gandhi mourned. “I see nothing but rivers of
blood.” Gandhi personally went to the Indian capital of
Delhi to plead for fair treatment of Muslim refugees. While
there, he himself became a victim of the nation’s violence.
A Hindu extremist who thought Gandhi too protective of
Muslims shot and killed him on January 30, 1948.
The Battle for Kashmir As if partition itself didn’t result
Analyzing Causes
What was the
cause of the conflict
between India and
Pakistan over
The Coldest War
No part of Kashmir is beyond a fight
for India and Pakistan—including the
giant Siachen glacier high above the
region. The dividing line established
by the 1949 cease-fire did not extend
to the glacier because officials figured
neither side would try to occupy such
a barren and frigid strip of land.
They figured wrong. In 1984, both
sides sent troops to take the glacier,
and they have been dug in ever
since. At altitudes nearing 21,000
feet, Indian and Pakistani soldiers
shoot at each other from trenches in
temperatures that reach 70 degrees
below zero. This bitterly cold war was
interrupted in 2003 when Pakistan
and India declared a ceasefire.
in enough bloodshed between India’s Muslims and Hindus,
the two groups quickly squared off over the small region of
Kashmir. Kashmir lay at the northern point of India next to
Pakistan. Although its ruler was Hindu, Kashmir had a
majority Muslim population. Shortly after independence,
India and Pakistan began battling each other for control of the region. The fighting
continued until the United Nations arranged a cease-fire in 1949. The cease-fire
left a third of Kashmir under Pakistani control and the rest under Indian control.
The two countries continue to fight over the region today.
Modern India
With the granting of its independence on August 15, 1947, India became the
world’s largest democracy. As the long-awaited hour of India’s freedom
approached, Jawaharlal Nehru, the independent nation’s first prime minister,
addressed the country’s political leaders:
Long years ago, we made a tryst [appointment] with destiny, and now the time comes
when we shall redeem our pledge, not wholly or in full measure, but very substantially.
At the stroke of the midnight hour, when the world sleeps, India will wake to life and
JAWAHARLAL NEHRU, speech before the Constituent Assembly, August 14, 1947
The Colonies Become New Nations 999
Nehru Leads India Nehru served as India’s leader for its
first 17 years of independence. He had been one of Gandhi’s
most devoted followers. Educated in Britain, Nehru won
popularity among all groups in India. He emphasized
democracy, unity, and economic modernization.
Nehru used his leadership to move India forward. He led
other newly independent nations of the world in forming an
alliance of countries that were neutral in the Cold War conflicts between the United States and the Soviet Union. On
the home front, Nehru called for a reorganization of the
states by language. He also pushed for industrialization and
sponsored social reforms. He tried to elevate the status of
the lower castes, or those at the bottom of society, and help
women gain the rights promised by the constitution.
Troubled Times Nehru died in 1964. His death left the
Jawaharlal Nehru
Nehru’s father was an influential
attorney, and so the first prime
minister of India grew up amid great
wealth. As a young man, he lived and
studied in England. “In my likes and
dislikes I was perhaps more an
Englishman than an Indian,” he once
Upon returning to India, however,
he became moved by the horrible
state in which many of his fellow
Indians lived. “A new picture of India
seemed to rise before me,” he
recalled, “naked, starving, crushed,
and utterly miserable.” From then on,
he devoted his life to improving
conditions in his country.
Jawaharlal Nehru, go to
Congress Party with no leader strong enough to hold
together the many political factions that had emerged with
India’s independence. Then, in 1966, Nehru’s daughter,
Indira Gandhi, was chosen prime minister. After a short
spell out of office, she was reelected in 1980.
Although she ruled capably, Gandhi faced many challenges, including the growing threat from Sikh extremists
who themselves wanted an independent state. The Golden
Temple at Amritsar stood as the religious center for the
Sikhs. From there, Sikh nationalists ventured out to attack
symbols of Indian authority. In June 1984, Indian army
troops overran the Golden Temple. They killed about 500
Sikhs and destroyed sacred property. In retaliation, Sikh
bodyguards assigned to Indira Gandhi gunned her down.
This violent act set off another murderous frenzy, causing
the deaths of thousands of Sikhs.
In the wake of the murder of Indira Gandhi, her son,
Rajiv (rah•JEEV) Gandhi, took over as prime minister. His
party, however, lost its power in 1989 because of accusations
of widespread corruption. In 1991, while campaigning again
for prime minister near the town of Madras, Rajiv was killed
by a bomb. Members of a group opposed to his policies
claimed responsibility.
Twenty-First Century Challenges Since winning election as prime minister in
1998, Atal Bihari Vajpayee, leader of the Hindu nationalist party, has ruled over a
vibrant but often unstable nation. He faces challenges brought on by an increasing
population that is expected to push India past China as the world’s most populous
nation by 2035. In addition, the country is racked with social inequality and constantly threatened by religious strife.
Even more troubling are India’s tense relations with its neighbor Pakistan, and the
fact that both have become nuclear powers. In 1974, India exploded a “peaceful”
nuclear device. For the next 24 years, the nation quietly worked on building up its
nuclear capability. In 1998, Indian officials conducted five underground nuclear
tests. Meanwhile, the Pakistanis had been building their own nuclear program.
Shortly after India conducted its nuclear tests, Pakistan demonstrated that it, too,
had nuclear weapons. The presence of these weapons in the hands of such bitter
1000 Chapter 34
enemies and neighbors has become a matter of great international concern, especially in light of their continuing struggle over Kashmir:
Now that India and Pakistan have tested nuclear weapons . . . [There is] fear that a
remote but savage ethnic and religious conflict could deteriorate into a nuclear
exchange with global consequences. India and Pakistan must learn to talk to each other
and move toward a more trusting relationship.
The New York Times, June 28, 1998
In 2002, the two nations came close to war over Kashmir. However, in 2003 a peace
process began to ease tension.
Pakistan Copes with Freedom
The history of Pakistan since independence has been no less turbulent than that of
India. Pakistan actually began as two separate and divided states, East Pakistan and
West Pakistan. East Pakistan lay to the east of India, West Pakistan to the northwest. These regions were separated by more than 1,000 miles of Indian territory. In
culture, language, history, geography, economics, and ethnic background, the two
regions were very different. Only the Islamic religion united them.
Civil War From the beginning, the two regions of Pakistan experienced strained
relations. While East Pakistan had the larger population, it was often ignored by
West Pakistan, home to the central government. In 1970, a giant cyclone and tidal
wave struck East Pakistan and killed an estimated 266,000 residents. While international aid poured into Pakistan, the government in West Pakistan did not quickly
transfer that aid to East Pakistan. Demonstrations broke out in East Pakistan, and
protesters called for an end to all ties with West Pakistan.
Ali Bhutto
Prime Minister Ali Bhutto
of Pakistan is deposed in
a coup led by General Zia.
Bhutto is later hanged for
having ordered the
assassination of a
political opponent.
Mohandas Gandhi
Gandhi is shot to
death by a Hindu
extremist. The
assassin opposes
Gandhi’s efforts to
achieve equal
treatment for all
Indians, including
General Zia,
of Pakistan, dies
in a mysterious
plane crash.
Indira Gandhi
Indira Gandhi is
gunned down by
two of her Sikh
bodyguards. Her
murder is in
retaliation for an
attack she
ordered on a
Sikh temple.
General Pervez
Musharraf siezes
control of
government in a
military coup.
Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi is killed
by a bomb while
campaigning. The
bomb is carried by a
woman opposed to
Gandhi’s policies.
On March 26, 1971, East Pakistan declared itself an independent nation called
Bangladesh. A civil war followed between Bangladesh and Pakistan. Eventually,
Indian forces stepped in and sided with Bangladesh. Pakistan forces surrendered.
More than 1 million people died in the war. Pakistan lost about one-seventh of its
area and about one-half of its population to Bangladesh.
A Pattern of Instability Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the first governor-general of
Pakistan, died shortly after independence. This left the nation without strong leadership, and Pakistan went through a series of military coups, the first in 1958. Ali
Bhutto took control of the country following the civil war. A military coup in 1977
led by General Zia removed Bhutto, who was later executed for crimes allegedly
committed while in office.
After Zia’s death, Bhutto’s daughter, Benazir Bhutto, was twice elected prime
minister. After months of disorder, she was removed from office in 1996. Nawaz
Sharif became prime minister after the 1997 elections. In 1999, army leaders led
by General Pervez Musharraf ousted Sharif in yet another coup and imposed military rule over Pakistan. After the September 11 attacks on the United States,
Musharraf became a key American ally. By 2007, however, he faced growing political opposition at home.
How does the
history of Pakistan
in 1971 parallel the
history of India
in 1947?
Bangladesh and Sri Lanka Struggle
Meanwhile, the newly created nations of Bangladesh and Sri Lanka struggled with
enormous problems of their own in the decades following independence.
Bangladesh Faces Many Problems The war with Pakistan had ruined the econ-
omy of Bangladesh and fractured its communications system. Rebuilding the shattered country seemed like an overwhelming task. Sheik Mujibur Rahman became the
nation’s first prime minister. He appeared more interested in strengthening his own
power than in rebuilding his nation. He soon took over all authority and declared
Bangladesh a one-party state. In August 1975, military leaders assassinated him.
Over the years Bangladesh has attempted with great difficulty to create a more
democratic form of government. Charges of election fraud and government corruption are common. In recent years, however, the government has become more
stable. The latest elections were held in October of 2001, and Begum Khaleda Zia
took over as the nation’s prime minister.
Bangladesh also has had to cope with crippling natural disasters. Bangladesh is a
low-lying nation that is subject to many cyclones and tidal waves. Massive storms
Poverty Levels in Asia, 2002
United States
% of population in poverty
Source: The CIA World Factbook, 2002
1002 Chapter 34
▼ Overcrowded
and poor villages
are a common
sight throughout
regularly flood the land, ruin crops and homes, and
take lives. A cyclone in 1991 killed approximately
139,000 people. Such catastrophes, along with a
rapidly growing population, have put much stress on
the country’s economy. Bangladesh is one of the poorest nations in the world. The per capita income there
is about $360 per year.
Civil Strife Grips Sri Lanka Another newly freed
and deeply troubled country on the Indian subcontinent is Sri Lanka, a small, teardrop-shaped island
nation just off the southeast coast of India. Formerly
known as Ceylon, Sri Lanka gained its independence from Britain in February of 1948. Two main
ethnic groups dominate the nation. Three-quarters
of the population are Sinhalese, who are Buddhists.
A fifth are Tamils, a Hindu people of southern India
and northern Sri Lanka.
Sri Lanka’s recent history has also been one of
turmoil. A militant group of Tamils has long fought
an armed struggle for a separate Tamil nation. Since
1981, thousands of lives have been lost. In an effort
to end the violence, Rajiv Gandhi and the Sri
Lankan president tried to reach an accord in 1987.
The agreement called for Indian troops to enter Sri Lanka and help disarm Tamil
rebels. This effort was not successful, and the Indian troops left in 1990. A civil
war between Tamils and other Sri Lankans continues today.
As difficult as post-independence has been for the countries of the Indian
subcontinent, the same can be said for former colonies elsewhere. As you will read
in the next section, a number of formerly held territories in Southeast Asia faced
challenges as they became independent nations.
▲ This emblem of
the separatist group
Liberation Tigers
of Tamil Eelam
represents the
struggle …
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