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please answer questions 11.2, and 11.4 in page 380i attached the book and a sample of previous reflection bellow. ( please check it out)APA styleplease i want the reflection to look like the sample ( same style)


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Introduction to Leadership
Fourth Edition
To Madison and Isla
Introduction to Leadership
Concepts and Practice
Fourth Edition
Peter G. Northouse
Western Michigan University
SAGE Publications, Inc.
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Thousand Oaks, California 91320
E-mail: [email protected]
SAGE Publications Ltd.
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Copyright © 2018 by SAGE Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including
photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval
system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Printed in the United States of America
ISBN: 978-1-5063-3008-2
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
Acquisitions Editor: Maggie Stanley
Development Editor: Lauren Holmes
Editorial Assistant: Neda Dallal
eLearning Editor: Katie Ancheta
Production Editor: Libby Larson
Copy Editor: Melinda Masson
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Theresa Kay
Indexer: Wendy Allex
Cover Designer: Gail Buschman
Marketing Manager: Ashlee Blunk
Brief Contents
About the Author
1. Understanding Leadership
2. Recognizing Your Traits
3. Engaging Strengths
4. Understanding Philosophy and Styles
5. Attending to Tasks and Relationships
6. Developing Leadership Skills
7. Creating a Vision
8. Establishing a Constructive Climate
9. Embracing Diversity and Inclusion
10. Listening to Out-Group Members
11. Managing Conflict
12. Addressing Ethics in Leadership
13. Overcoming Obstacles
Detailed Contents
About the Author
1. Understanding Leadership
Leadership Explained
“Leadership Is a Trait”
“Leadership Is an Ability”
“Leadership Is a Skill”
“Leadership Is a Behavior”
“Leadership Is a Relationship”
“Leadership Is an Influence Process”
Global Leadership Attributes
The Dark Side of Leadership
Leadership Snapshot: Indra Nooyi
1.1 Case Study
1.2 Conceptualizing Leadership Questionnaire
1.3 Observational Exercise
1.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
2. Recognizing Your Traits
Leadership Traits Explained
Leadership Snapshot: Nelson Mandela
Leadership Traits in Practice
George Washington (1732–1799)
Winston Churchill (1874–1965)
Mother Teresa (1910–1997)
Bill Gates (1955–)
Oprah Winfrey (1954–)
2.1 Case Study
2.2 Leadership Traits Questionnaire
2.3 Observational Exercise
2.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
3. Engaging Strengths
Strengths-Based Leadership Explained
Historical Background
Identifying and Measuring Strengths
Strengths-Based Leadership in Practice
Discovering Your Strengths
Developing Your Strengths
Addressing Your Weaknesses
Leadership Snapshot: Steve Jobs
Recognizing and Engaging the Strengths of Others
Fostering a Positive Strengths-Based Environment
3.1 Case Study
3.2 Leadership Strengths Questionnaire
3.3 Observational Exercise
3.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
4. Understanding Philosophy and Styles
Leadership Philosophy Explained
Theory X
Theory Y
Leadership Styles Explained
Authoritarian Leadership Style
Democratic Leadership Style
Laissez-Faire Leadership Style
Leadership Snapshot: Victoria Ransom
Leadership Styles in Practice
4.1 Case Study
4.2 Leadership Styles Questionnaire
4.3 Observational Exercise
4.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
5. Attending to Tasks and Relationships
Task and Relationship Styles Explained
Task Style
Relationship Style
Leadership Snapshot: Mick Wilz
Task and Relationship Styles in Practice
Task Leadership
Relationship Leadership
5.1 Case Study
5.2 Task and Relationship Questionnaire
5.3 Observational Exercise
5.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
6. Developing Leadership Skills
Administrative Skills Explained
Administrative Skills in Practice
Interpersonal Skills Explained
Interpersonal Skills in Practice
Leadership Snapshot: Coquese Washington
Conceptual Skills Explained
Conceptual Skills in Practice
6.1 Case Study
6.2 Leadership Skills Questionnaire
6.3 Observational Exercise
6.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
7. Creating a Vision
Vision Explained
A Picture
A Change
Leadership Snapshot: Rosalie Giffoniello
A Map
A Challenge
Vision in Practice
Articulating a Vision
Implementing a Vision
7.1 Case Study
7.2 Leadership Vision Questionnaire
7.3 Observational Exercise
7.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
8. Establishing a Constructive Climate
Constructive Climate Explained
Climate in Practice
Providing Structure
Clarifying Norms
Building Cohesiveness
Promoting Standards of Excellence
Leadership Snapshot: Meg Whitman
8.1 Case Study
8.2 Organizational Climate Questionnaire
8.3 Observational Exercise
8.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
9. Embracing Diversity and Inclusion
Diversity and Inclusion Explained
Brief Historical Perspective
Inclusion Framework
Leadership Snapshot: Ursula Burns
Diversity and Inclusion in Practice
Model of Inclusive Practices
Leader Practices That Advance Diversity and Inclusion
Barriers to Embracing Diversity and Inclusion
9.1 Case Study
9.2 Cultural Diversity Awareness Questionnaire
9.3 Observational Exercise
9.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
10. Listening to Out-Group Members
Out-Group Members Explained
How Out-Groups Form
The Impact of Out-Group Members
Out-Group Members in Practice
Strategy 1: Listen to Out-Group Members
Strategy 2: Show Empathy to Out-Group Members
Strategy 3: Recognize the Unique Contributions of OutGroup Members
Strategy 4: Help Out-Group Members Feel Included
Strategy 5: Create a Special Relationship With Out-Group
Strategy 6: Give Out-Group Members a Voice and
Empower Them to Act
Leadership Snapshot: Abraham Lincoln
10.1 Case Study
10.2 Building Community Questionnaire
10.3 Observational Exercise
10.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
11. Managing Conflict
Conflict Explained
Communication and Conflict
Conflict on the Content Level
Leadership Snapshot: Humaira Bachal
Conflict on the Relational Level
Managing Conflict in Practice
Fisher and Ury Approach to Conflict
Communication Strategies for Conflict Resolution
Kilmann and Thomas Styles of Approaching Conflict
11.1 Case Study
11.2 Conflict Style Questionnaire
11.3 Observational Exercise
11.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
12. Addressing Ethics in Leadership
Leadership Ethics Explained
Leadership Ethics in Practice
1. The Character of the Leader
2. The Actions of the Leader
Leadership Snapshot: Warren Buffett and Bill and Melinda
3. The Goals of the Leader
4. The Honesty of the Leader
5. The Power of the Leader
6. The Values of the Leader
Culture and Leadership Ethics
12.1 Case Study
12.2 Sample Items From the Ethical Leadership Style
12.3 Observational Exercise
12.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
13. Overcoming Obstacles
Obstacles Explained
Overcoming Obstacles in Practice
Obstacle 1: Unclear Goals
Obstacle 2: Unclear Directions
Obstacle 3: Low Motivation
Leadership Snapshot: Bill Courtney
Obstacle 4: Complex Tasks
Obstacle 5: Simple Tasks
Obstacle 6: Low Involvement
Obstacle 7: Lack of a Challenge
13.1 Case Study
13.2 Path–Goal Styles Questionnaire
13.3 Observational Exercise
13.4 Reflection and Action Worksheet
Leadership is a salient topic today. Given the volatility of global events
and our national political climate, it is even more important now than it
was when the third edition of this book was published. The public remains
fascinated by who leaders are and what leaders do. People want to know
what accounts for good leadership and how to become good leaders.
Despite this strong interest in leadership, there are very few books that
clearly describe the complexities of practicing leadership. I have written
Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice to fill this void.
Each chapter describes a fundamental principle of leadership and how it
relates in practice to becoming an effective leader. These fundamentals are
illustrated through examples, profiles of effective leaders, and case studies.
The text comprises 13 chapters: Chapter 1, “Understanding
Leadership,” analyzes how different definitions of leadership have an
impact on the practice of leadership. Chapter 2, “Recognizing Your
Traits,” examines leadership traits found to be important in social science
research and explores the leadership traits of a select group of historical
and contemporary leaders. Chapter 3, “Engaging Strengths,” discusses
the emerging field of strengths-based leadership, looking at how several
assessment tools can help one to recognize his or her own strengths and
those of others and then put those strengths to work as an effective leader.
Chapter 4, “Understanding Philosophy and Styles,” explores how a
person’s view of people, work, and human nature forms a personal
philosophy of leadership and how this relates to three commonly observed
styles of leadership: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire. Chapter
5, “Attending to Tasks and Relationships,” describes how leaders can
integrate and optimize task and relationship behaviors in their leadership
role. Chapter 6, “Developing Leadership Skills,” considers three types
of leadership skills: administrative, interpersonal, and conceptual. Chapter
7, “Creating a Vision,” explores the characteristics of a vision and how a
vision is expressed and implemented. Chapter 8, “Establishing a
Constructive Climate,” focuses on how important it is for leaders who
are running groups or organizations to provide structure, clarify norms,
build cohesiveness, and promote standards of excellence. Chapter 9,
“Embracing Diversity and Inclusion,” discusses the importance of
inclusive leadership and the barriers that can be encountered when trying
to embrace diversity and inclusion. Chapter 10, “Listening to OutGroup Members,” explores the nature of out-groups, their impact, and
ways leaders should respond to out-group members. Chapter 11,
“Managing Conflict,” addresses the question of how we can manage
conflict and produce positive change. Chapter 12, “Addressing Ethics in
Leadership,” explores six factors that are related directly to ethical
leadership: character, actions, goals, honesty, power, and values. Finally,
Chapter 13, “Overcoming Obstacles,” addresses seven obstacles that
subordinates may face and how a leader can help to overcome these.
New to This Edition
This edition retains the chapters of the previous edition but has been
expanded and enhanced in several ways:
First and foremost, it includes a new chapter on diversity and
inclusion that examines the nature of diversity and inclusion,
provides a model of inclusive behavior, describes communication
practices to improve inclusion, and identifies barriers to effective
inclusive leadership.
Second, this edition premieres the Ethical Leadership Style
Questionnaire, a self-assessment instrument that allows readers to
learn what their ethical leadership behaviors tend to be. The
questionnaire in this book is an abridged edition of a longer, more
comprehensive assessment available to readers online.
Third, several chapters include a look at the dark side of leadership
in terms of the approaches explored in the book.
Fourth, new case studies, examples, and research are integrated
throughout the book.
Fifth, this edition includes new “Ask the Author” videos that show
Peter Northouse answering student questions.
Special Features
Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and Practice is designed to help the
reader understand how to become a better leader. While the book is
grounded in leadership theory, it describes the basics of leadership in an
understandable and user-friendly way. Each chapter focuses on a
fundamental aspect of leadership, discusses how it can be applied in real
leadership situations, and provides a relevant profile of a leader.
Perhaps the most notable features of this book are the four applied
activities included in every chapter, which allow the reader to explore
leadership concepts and real-world applications:
Case studies illustrate the leadership concepts discussed in the
chapter. At the end of each case, thought-provoking questions help
the reader analyze the case using ideas presented in the chapter.
Self-assessment questionnaires help the reader determine his or her
own leadership style and preferences. Students may want to complete
this questionnaire before reading the chapter’s content. By
completing the questionnaire first, the reader will be more aware of
how the chapter’s content specifically applies to his or her leadership
Observational exercises guide the reader in examining behaviors of
leaders from his or her life experiences.
Reflection and action worksheets stimulate the reader to reflect on
his or her leadership style and identify actions to take to become more
A practice-oriented book, Introduction to Leadership: Concepts and
Practice is written in a user-friendly style appropriate for introductory
leadership courses across disciplines. Specifically, it is well suited for
programs in leadership studies and leadership courses in schools of
agriculture, allied health, business, management, communication,
education, engineering, military science, public administration, nursing,
political science, social work, and religion. In addition, this book is
appropriate for programs in continuing education, corporate training,
executive development, in-service training, and government training. It is
also useful for student extracurricular activities.
Digital Resources
SAGE coursepacks allow instructors to import high-quality online
resources directly into Blackboard, Canvas, Moodle, or Brightspace by
Desire2Learn (D2L) in an intuitive, simple format. Instructors who do not
use an LMS platform can still access many of the online resources by
SAGE coursepacks include, for each chapter:
A diverse range of test items with pretests, posttests, and test banks
built on Bloom’s Taxonomy and AACSB standards, available with
ExamView test generation
Assignable SAGE Premium Video (available via the interactive
eBook version, linked through SAGE coursepacks) that includes
insights from Peter G. Northouse and other leadership experts, with
corresponding multimedia assessment options that automatically
feed to a gradebook
A comprehensive Media Guide for the video resources
Discussion questions to help launch classroom interaction
SAGE journal articles to show how scholarship relates to chapter
Editable, chapter-specific PowerPoint® slides that offer flexibility
when creating multimedia lectures
Sample course syllabi with suggested models for structuring a
leadership course
Lecture notes that summarize key concepts for each chapter
Ideas for class activities that can be used in class to reinforce active
Web exercises that direct students to useful websites to complete
creative activities and reinforce learning
Suggested films to facilitate showing examples of leadership in
Case notes that include case summaries, analyses, and sample
answers to case questions
The Reflection and Action Worksheets and Observational
Exercises from the text in downloadable Word document format for
more flexibility in using these resources
Tables and figures from the textbook
SAGE edge for students at
enhances learning in an easy-to-use environment that offers, for each
chapter, learning objectives, action plans to track progress, mobile-friendly
flashcards and practice quizzes, SAGE Premium Video featuring author
Peter G. Northouse, additional multimedia resources, and selected SAGE
journal articles to strengthen learning.
Interactive eBook
An interactive eBook version of the text is available for students to provide
a contemporary, multimedia-integrated presentation for learning. In
addition to a fully electronic textbook, students can link directly to “Ask
the Author” video, audio, additional enrichment readings from SAGE
journals titles, and other relevant resources, bringing the subject matter to
life in a way a traditional print text cannot.
The interactive eBook features exclusive Interactive Leadership
Assessments to help students strengthen their leadership abilities by
providing them with individualized feedback based on their responses to
each questionnaire. After completing each questionnaire, a student using
the interactive eBook will receive an in-depth analysis of her or his scores
as well as personalized, pragmatic suggestions for further developing her
or his leadership.
You can find the eBook icons in the print and electronic versions of the
text. Below is a guide to the icons:
“Ask the Author” video icon
SAGE journal article icon
Video icon
Web icon
I would like to express my appreciation to many individuals who directly
or indirectly played a role in the development of this book. First, I would
like to thank the many people at SAGE Publications, in particular my
editor, Maggie Stanley, who along with her leadership team (Liz Thornton,
Lauren Holmes, Neda Dallal, Katie Ancheta, Ashlee Blunk, Georgia
Mclaughlin, and Gail Buschman) has competently guided this revision
from the beginning review phase through the production phase. In
addition, I would like to thank copy editor Melinda Masson and production
editor Libby Larson. In their own unique ways, each of these people made
valuable contributions that enhanced the overall quality of the book.
Collectively, they are an extraordinary team that demonstrates the very
highest standards of excellence in all that they do.
For their thoughtful and constructive feedback on this latest edition, I
would like to thank the following reviewers:
Jens Beyer, Hochschule Anhalt Standort Bernburg
Carl Blencke, University of Central Florida
Roger Clark, NWN Corporation
Dan Cunningham, McDaniel College
D. Keith Gurley, University of Alabama at Birmingham
Sat Ananda Hayden, University of Southern Mississippi
Sharon Kabes, Southwest Minnesota State University
Lorin Leone, Independence University
Douglas Micklich, Illinois State University
Bryan Patterson, Johnson C. Smith University, Northeastern
Robert W. Robertson, Independence University
Lou L. Sabina, Stetson University
Stephanie Schnurr, University of Warwick
Douglas Threet, Foothill College
Simone Wesner, Birkbeck, University of London
Paula White, Independence University
Cecilia Williams, Independence University
For comprehensive reviews of past editions, I would like to thank the
following reviewers:
Maureen Baldwin, Saint Ambrose University
Barry L. Boyd, Texas A&M University
Susan Bramlett Epps, East Tennessee State University
Linda L. Brennan, Mercer University
Shannon Brown, Benedictine University
Lisa Burgoon, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Tom Butkiewicz, University of Redlands
Patricia Cane, Klamath Community College
Stephen C. Carlson, Piedmont College
Melissa K. Carsten, Winthrop Unive …
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