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Printed Name: _________________
The exam is to be completed by yourself without assistance, but you may use your book and
notes. Be sure to type your name at the top. Clearly highlight your selected answer in green for
the True/False and Multiple Choice questions. Please type your response to each short answer
immediately following the short answer question. Each of the diagrams will be constructed in
LucidChart using the modeling conventions used in the lectures. For each diagram, download
your diagram as a PDF using the menu option of File->Download As… Submit your exam
document and the PDF model documents via the D2L dropbox. Be sure to reopen your files
from D2L after submission to ensure that they work and that your models are completely
HCA 541
Mid-term Exam
True/False (10 points – 1 point each)
Highlight the correct response.
A stakeholder is any person who has an interest in an information system.
A systems analyst is a specialist that only concentrates on constructing
information systems based on design specifications.
The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a framework for determining the
maturity of an organization’s information systems development and management
Creeping commitment refers to an approach to systems development where the
feasibility of the project is review at multiple checkpoints during development.
A Gantt chart is less effective at communicating a schedule than a PERT chart.
Joint project planning only involves the technical specialists that will construct
the information system.
An expectations management matrix is a tool to understand tradeoffs between
knowledge, processes, and costs.
Scope defines what a project may or may not include.
In terms of system improvement objectives, constraints are measures of success
which are expected to be achieved if given sufficient resources.
When conducting an interview, the interviewer should avoid assuming anything
about the topic or the interviewee.
Multiple Choice (40 points – 2 points each)
Highlight one correct response:
A system owner is described as:
A. A technical specialist that user requirements into technical solutions
B. An experienced professional who plans, monitors, and controls projects.
C. A person that interacts with the system on a regular basis
D. A sponsor and advocate of the information system
The simplified system development process presented in the book consists of the following
phases EXCEPT:
A. Implementation
B. Design
C. Analysis
D. Business Process Reengineering
Which phase of the simplified system development process is described by the specification of a
technical, computer-based solution for identified business requirements?
A. Implementation
B. Design
C. Analysis
D. Business Process Reengineering
The building blocks of information systems include all of the following EXCEPT for:
A. Communication
B. Partnership
C. Knowledge
D. Processes
Interface specifications belong to which building block?
A. Communication
B. Partnership
C. Knowledge
D. Processes
Work flows are
A. A group of related business processes that support the business
B. Technical designs that document how system users interact with a system
C. The flow of transactions through processes to ensure appropriate checks and
D. Representations of users’ data in terms of entities and attributes
The text asserts that the term “Problem” consists of the following, EXCEPT for:
A. Problems
B. Directives
C. Suggestions
D. Opportunities
A statement of work is:
A. A categorization of problems and constraints
B. A contract or agreement to develop an information system
C. The physical design of an information system
D. A logical model of an information system
A common phenomenon where requirements and expectations increase without regard to the
impact on budget and schedule is:
A. Work flow creep
B. Scope creep
C. Creeping commitment
D. Creeping analysis
A project is considered a success if:
A. The system is delivered within budget
B. The development process had minimal impact on ongoing business operations
C. The system is delivered on time
D. All of the above
In estimating task durations, expected duration is:
A. The estimated amount of time to complete a task
B. The estimated amount of time required to complete a based on a weighted average of
other durations
C. The estimated maximum amount of time to complete a task
D. The estimated minimum amount of time to complete a task
The application of system analysis methods with the goal dramatically changing and improving
the fundamental business processes of an organization is:
A. The agile method
B. Rapid architected analysis
C. Fact-finding
D. Business process redesign
The purpose of the decision analysis phase is to:
A. Identify, evaluate and select a candidate solution
B. Decide which system development methodology to use
C. Identify and express system requirements
D. Negotiate baseline scope
When conducting an interview, you should:
A. Use jargon to illustrate your knowledge
B. Maintain control of the interview
C. Record the person for later review
D. Reveal your personal biases
A free-format questionnaire is
A. Designed to offer respondents greater latitude in responding
B. Contains questions that require selecting an answer from predefined responses
C. Used in structured interviews
D. Used in unstructured interviews
A primary business actor is
A. The stakeholder that receive the primary benefits of a use case
B. The stakeholder that directly interfaces with the system to initiate the use case
C. The stakeholder that responds to a request from the use case
D. The stakeholder that is not the primary actor, but still receives some benefit from a
use case.
In use cases, an association (aka communication) relationship is:
A. A relationship between actors created to simplify the drawing using an abstract actor
to show that multiple real actors involved in a use case
B. A relationship between use cases indicating that one use case cannot be performed
until another use case has been performed
C. A relationship between an actor and a use case in which an interaction occurs
between them
D. A relationship used to show that one use case performs a common set of steps among
two or more use case that has been isolated in an abstract use case to reduce
In use cases, an inheritance relationship is
A. A relationship between actors created to simplify the drawing using an abstract actor
to show that multiple real actors involved in a use case
B. A relationship between use cases indicating that one use case cannot be performed
until another use case has been performed
C. A relationship between an actor and a use case in which an interaction occurs
between them
D. A relationship used to show that one use case performs a common set of steps among
two or more use case that has been isolated in an abstract use case to reduce
In use cases, an uses (aka includes) relationship is
A. A relationship between actors created to simplify the drawing using an abstract actor
to show that multiple real actors involved in a use case
B. A relationship between use cases indicating that one use case cannot be performed
until another use case has been performed
C. A relationship between an actor and a use case in which an interaction occurs
between them
D. A relationship used to show that one use case performs a common set of steps among
two or more use case that has been isolated in an abstract use case to reduce
A use case narrative is
A. A line
B. The act of breaking down a system into subcomponents
C. An oval
D. A textual description of the business event and the user will interact with the system
Short Answer (25 points)
Sentences or bulleted responses as appropriate
Identify each of the general problem-solving steps as defined in Chapter 1 (7 points).
Define the items that comprise the PIECES framework classifying problems (7 points).
Identify and define the two types of system requirements. (4 points).
Identify two of the seven types of fact-finding techniques for requirements gathering defined in
the text. Then compare and contrast 3 different aspects of the techniques in terms of advantages
and disadvantages. (7 points)
PERT Chart (10 points)
Draw a PERT Chart for the following project activities and answer the questions that follow.
Use the symbols from the legend in your PERT Chart.
(or End)
Project Activities:
Duration (Days)
1. Identify each path and its total duration.
2. Identify the critical path and explain its implications for this project.
Use Case Diagram (15 points)
Draw a use case diagram for the system description below:
Our chain of pharmacies is considering implementing a self-service checkout system, called
SelfCheck in order to reduce the staff required to man the cash registers. With the resources
freed up by the automated checkouts, our goal is to add more pharmacy technicians to improve
satisfaction with the prescription-filling process. All the ways that the SelfCheck system can be
used are described below.
SelfCheck allows a customer to scan an item. The customer initiates this action by running the
barcode of the item over the barcode reader. The system records what item was purchased, for
what amount, etc.
Our pharmacies have a customer loyalty program that uses the little keychain cards like many
grocery stores. SelfCheck is built to handle this and a customer may scan their membership card
to tell the system to invoke membership benefits and discounts. They will receive the same
membership benefits as checking out as they would at a regular register.
Of course, the customers will need to pay for the items they have purchased. They tell the
system when they are done scanning and need to pay. They indicate the payment method and
provide cash, check, or credit card as appropriate.
We pride ourselves on responsive service. One of the things we like about SelfCheck is that it
allows the customer to request help at any time during the checkout process. The customer
presses a help button and the clerk will receive a notification that the customer needs help.
One of the features that our management requires is the system produces a statistical report.
SelfCheck automatically generates the statistical report on a weekly schedule and sends the
report to the pharmacy manager by e-mail. These reports will help our management determine
the adoption rate of SelfCheck and determine if the project will be considered successful.
The Context of Systems
Analysis and Design
A Framework for Systems
Analysis and Design
A system is a group of interrelated components that
function together to achieve a desired result.
An information system (IS) is an arrangement of
people, data, processes, and information technology
that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as
output the information needed to support an
Information technology is a contemporary term that
describes the combination of computer technology
(hardware and software) with telecommunications
technology (data, image, and voice networks).
Types of Information Systems
A transaction processing system (TPS) is an
information system that captures and processes data
about business transactions.
◼ A management information system (MIS) is an
information system that provides for managementoriented reporting based on transaction processing
and operations of the organization.
◼ A decision support system (DSS) is an information
system that either helps to identify decision making
opportunities or provides information to help make

Types of Information Systems
An expert system is an information system that
captures the expertise of workers and then simulates
that expertise to the benefit of non-experts.
◼ A communications and collaboration system is
an information system that enables more effective
communications between workers, partners,
customers, and suppliers to enhance their ability to
◼ An office automation system is an information
system that supports the wide range of business office
activities that provide for improved work flow between

Stakeholders’ Perspectives on
an Information System
System Owners
System owners – an information
system’s sponsor and executive
advocate, usually responsible for funding
the project of developing, operating, and
maintaining the information system.
System Users
System users – a “customer” who
will use or is affected by an
information system on a regular basis
– capturing, validating, entering,
responding to, storing, and
exchanging data and information.
Internal System Users

Clerical and service workers
Technical and professional staff
Supervisors, middle managers, and
executive managers
External System Users


Remote users – users who are not
physically located on the premises but who
still requires access to information systems.
Mobile users – users whose location is
constantly changing but who requires
access to information systems from any
System Designers and
System Builders
System designer – a technical specialist who
translates system users’ business requirements
and constraints into technical solution. She or
he designs the computer databases, inputs,
outputs, screens, networks, and software that
will meet the system users’ requirements.
System builders – a technical specialist who
constructs information systems and components
based on the design specifications generated by
the system designers.
Systems Analysts
Systems analyst – a specialist who studies the
problems and needs of an organization to determine
how people, data, processes, and information
technology can best accomplish improvements for the
• A programmer/analyst (or analyst/programmer)
includes the responsibilities of both the computer
programmer and the systems analyst.
• A business analyst focuses on only the nontechnical aspects of systems analysis and design.
The Systems Analyst
as a Problem-Solver

By “Problems” that need solving, we mean:

Problems, either real or anticipated, that require
corrective action

Opportunities to improve a situation despite the
absence of complaints

Directives to change a situation regardless of
whether anyone has complained about the
current situation
Where Do Systems Analysts
Skills Needed by
the Systems Analyst

Working knowledge of information technology

Computer programming experience and expertise

General business knowledge

General problem-solving skills

Good interpersonal communication skills

Good interpersonal relations skills

Flexibility and adaptability

Character and ethics
The Systems Analyst as
a Facilitator
The Project Manager
Project manager – an experienced
professional who accepts responsibility
for planning, monitoring, and
controlling projects with respect to
schedule, budget, deliverables,
customer satisfaction, technical
standards, and system quality.
Business Drivers

e-commerce / e-business

Security and Privacy
Collaboration and Partnership
Knowledge Asset Management
Business Process Redesign
Data, Information, Knowledge

Data – raw facts about people, places,
events, and things that are of importance in
an organization.
Information – data that has been processed
or reorganized into a more meaningful form
for someone.
Knowledge – data and information that is
further refined based on the facts, truths,
beliefs, judgments, experiences, and
expertise of the recipient.
Types of Knowledge


Recorded, written down, in repositories

In persons’ heads, in organization culture
Technology Drivers

Networks and the Internet
Mobile and Wireless Technologies
Object Technologies
Collaborative Technology
Enterprise Applications
Object Technologies
Object technology – a software technology that defines a
system in terms of objects that consolidate data and behavior (into

Objects are reusable
Objects are extensible
Object-oriented programming languages include C++, Java,
Smalltalk, and .NET
Object-oriented analysis and design – a collection of tools and
techniques for systems development that will utilize object
technologies to construct a system and its software.
Agile development – a system development strategy in which
system developers are given the flexibility to select from a variety
of tools and techniques to best accomplish the tasks at hand.
Project and Process
Project management – the activity of
defining, planning, directing, monitoring, and
controlling a project to develop an acceptable
system within the allotted time and budget.
Process management – the ongoing activity
that defines, improves, and coordinates the use
of an organization’s chosen methodology (the
“process”) and standards for all system
development projects.
A Simple System
Development Process
Our Simplified System
Development Process
General Problem-Solving Steps
System initiation
1. Identify the problem.
System analysis
Analyze and understand the problem.
Identify solution requirements or
System design
Identify alternative solutions and choose
the “best” course of action.
Design the chosen solution.
System implementation
Implement the chosen solution.
Evaluate the results. If the problem is not
solved, return to step 1 or 2 as appropriate.
Information System
Building Blocks
Last week

Learned that what an information system consists
of and reviewed the major types of systems.
Found out about different types of stakeholders and
their roles
Discussed the skills needed by systems analysts to
initiate change and solve problems
Realize that business and technology drivers are
affecting the development of information systems
Define a general problem-solving approach and
distilled that into a development process
Tonight: Legos – Building blocks
Front- and Back-Office
Information Systems

Front-office information systems support business functions
that extend out to the organization’s customers (or

Back-office information systems support internal business
operations of an organization, as well as reach out to suppliers
(of materials, equipment, supplies, and services).

Customer management
Human resources
Financial management
Inventory control
Information Systems Architecture
Information systems architecture – a
unifying framework into which various
stakeholders with different perspectives can
organize and view the fundamental building
blocks of information systems.
High-Level Goals of
System Owners and System Users

Improve business knowledge
Improve business processes and services
Improve business communication and people
Technology Perspectives of
System Designers & System Builders

Database technologies that support business
accumulation and use of business
Software technologies that automate and
support business processes and services
Interface technologies that support business
communication and collaboration
Focuses for Information Systems

Knowledge — the raw material used to
create useful information.
Process — the activities (including
management) that carry out the mission of
the busine …
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