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Reflective Essay (Journal) on the Spanish Mission EraPlease write about three pages of observations on the era of Spanish settlement in California, using selections from Connecting California. Relate your observations to events and concepts we have discussed in class. Reflect on how the documents help you grow as a historian.Please start your essay with an overall perspective on what you learned. Then examine each of your sources (critically) to show how they add to our understanding. Use about four selections from Connecting California, related to the era, that you have not used before. Please put titles of documents in bold the first you discuss them in a significant way. Using your own research, include an additional primary source document from the 1600s or 1700s. The document does not need to be about California, as long as it relates to the rest of the essay.


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Section III: Alta California: Spanish and Mexican Rule, 1768-1848
Chapter 4: Missions, Presidios and Pueblos, 1769-1821 (matches Section III intro in First Edition)
Comment: “About 60 percent of today’s Californians live in lands…once controlled by the missions.”
Who are the Franciscans? Why did they play such a key role in developments in California?
What were the purposes of the missions? Why was the Spanish government especially motivated to set
up missions in the 1760s?
Why were presidios and pueblos also important in this era?
What does Pedro Fages report about the native peoples in San Diego? How credible is his account?
Why would Fages be eager to please Jose de Galvez? (Selection 1) First Editon: Section III, Selection 3
Why does Father Jayme think the missionaries are making slow progress? Why is he frustrated with
the military leadership? (Selection 2) First Edition: Section III, Selection 4
From the document, how do you think Father Jayme views the native peoples?
Who is Felipe de Neve? How did he propose to make the Spanish settlements more self-sufficient?
Can you see why his plan would be considered very ambitious? (Selection 3) First Ed: Sec III, Sel. 6
What is remarkable about Father Junipero Serra? How does his letter to another Father give us insight
into his character and how he viewed the mission project? (Selection 4) First Ed: Sec III, Selection 7
Why would a French aristocrat be perhaps the best source on life in the missions? Why is La Pérouse
harshly critical of the mission he sees near Monterey? (Selection 5) First Ed: Section III, Selection 8
In what ways does the account from La Perouse reflect his ideas from the Enlightenment?
Why is Eulalia Perez a remarkable woman? Explain the advantages and disadvantages of interviewing
someone long after events they are discussing have passed? (Selection 6) First Ed: Sec III, Sel 12
In what ways does the variety of sources give you a better perspective on the era? What factors could
account for vastly different portrayals of life in the era?
From the documents, can you get a sense of how the Spanish settlements were changing over time?
Chapter 5: Mexican Independence, 1821-1848 (similar to Section IV intro in First Edition)
Comment: “In the 1830’s and 1840’s the lifestyle of the Spanish speaking people in California centered
on huge ranches.”
When Mexico became an independent nation, how did that affect California?
Do you think people in California understood what had happened in Mexico, and how it could impact
them? (Selection 1) First Edition: Section IV, Selection 1
Why is Pablo Tac an especially valuable source? Why might he be conflicted? First Ed: Sec III, Sel 11
How are the accounts of Pablo Tac and Eulalia Perez similar? Do you think it is especially significant
that Tac grew up in the mission system, and Perez started life in the missions as a young woman?
Who is Enrique Vermond? Why would he have a valuable perspective on Alta California? Why is it
important to notice that he is writing to the Mexican government? (Sel. 3) First Ed: Section III, Sel. 14
In regard to Virmond, why is the account of a Mexican government official especially interesting in
regard to the missions? Do you find it strange that this official was friends with one of the Fathers?
Describe the perspective Angustias de la Guerra shares on community life in Santa Barbara? Why is
she in a unique position to possibly be helpful? (Selection 4) First Ed: Sec IV, Selection 2
What kind of bias could del la Guerra possibly have? In what ways is her account similar to that of
Perez and Virmond? How is it also remarkably different?
What do you find interesting about the Russian settlement at Fort Ross? How do Russian observations
add to our understanding of the area? (Selection 5) First Ed: Sec IV, Sel 10
Why is Mariano Vallejo concerned about a wagon train coming from Missouri? What does his account
tell us about the precarious nature of Mexican rule in Alta California? (Sel. 6) First Ed: Sec IV, Sel 11
In what ways is Antonio Coronel not typical of people in the Mexican Rancho era? Why is he an
especially valuable source on the era? (Selection 7) First Ed: Section IV, Selection 12
In what ways does Coronel serve as a bridge between people of the Rancho era and people in more
recent times? (Fun fact: he was friends with Helen Hunt Jackson around the time she wrote Ramona.)
Can you see how Coronel’s account could have influenced the novel by Helen Hunt Jackson?
Gastil HIST-109 2.26.19 Lecture Notes
Facts from note cards
Sedentism in the archaic time means people settled down and adapted to the area (in health care
it means people are not getting enough exercise)
Columbus’s work was funded by Spain, so all of his accomplishments are officially Spanish
(even though he was from Genoa)
Thomas is sharing – connecting with veterans (documentary showing on Thursday)

Students veterans organization is showing a film (also sponsored by History Dept)
Movie with q/a with veterans – “Restrepo” is the film
Award winning historical documentary
Thurs, Feb 28, 6:00 pm, ENS 280
Bridge the gap between veterans and non-veterans
May be appropriate for extra credit – for extra credit you can go to the event and write
a page or so on where you went what you did and how it relates to class
Chapter 4 empires across the Atlantic
Why will this chapter be interesting?

Slavery is taken to a new level
Witchcraft trials – not trials for being witches but for practicing witchcraft
The world changed a lot during this chapter, 1650-1700
The United States as we know it is starting to form
William Pen/Quakers (intro; 98-99)

William Pen was a famous Quaker the founder of the Pennsylvania Colony
Why were they placed in the intro of the textbook – the contrast between the Puritans
from chapter 3 and the Quakers—also shows complicated relationships between colonists
and European powers
Quakers had a multicultural society that was diverse and welcomed anyone – brotherly
love (“Philadelphia” means land of brotherly love)
Quakers had a complicated relationship with the English Government
o They had been persecuted by Cromwell
o But a lot of them were established and had well know connections
o They were both persecuted and also had connections
Pennsylvania was not named after William Penn but rather after his father who was also
named William Penn. The older Penn was not a Quaker; he was an admiral and friends
with King Charles II.
Quakers were against violence and wanted equality

William Penn went to Jail several times in his life mostly for stuff like not taking off his
Quakers had a connection with indigenous people
o See picture in the hand out
▪ William Penn is displaying an open gesture
▪ The Native people were kind of confused because the Quakers wanted to
work out a business deal
▪ Quaker in green on his knees like a servant
English Civil War/ Oliver Cromwell- Movie recommendation came out when Gastil was a
kid “Cromwell”- really more about Charles I

The English Civil war is connected to the 30 Years War
The two wars overlapped and got related to each other
Cromwell was horrible – people were glad to get rid of him
o Charles II was contacted to become King after Cromwell the government
promised to give him time to run if something went wrong and not chop his head
off like they did his father

Modern day South Carolina
Restoration colonies: Carolina, NY, PA, NJ and Delaware
Charles II was key sponsor of Carolina and other “Restoration” colonies
Charles II never went to America but he had great effects on America
o He restored the English monarchy after his father was executed
o Star of the show during the Restoration; supported art and music and other things
Cromwell had not appreciated; loved a good party!
o Made England incredibly wealthy and powerful – increased slave trade
Rice – a lot of rice was grown in Carolina
Indigo – purple dye that they were also known for
The labor force was enslaved Africans
The only colony on the east coast in which a majority of the population was enslaved
o Minority exploiting the majority
o There was a famous rebellion (Stono Rebellion)
o The white minority was always on the lookout for the next rebellion
Charter of liberties and privileges (famous document)

Was in effect in Carolina
Was not talking about all of the people – only talking about the minority
Written by John Locke (who became famous later for ideas of “natural rights”)
First frame of Government

Written by William Penn (the younger one) – set up a colony to be governed by the
Charles II was in debt because he loved to party
William Penn 1 was given the colony so they gave it to William Penn 2 solved Charles’
debt problem and Quaker problem
Set up a constitution for the colony –predecessor to the Constitution of US
DFTTMWYDFTBA (don’t forget to tell me when you didn’t forget to be awesome)
Mercantilism/Navigation Acts

Regulated trans-Atlantic trade
Led up to the revolution (though this is still far away!)
Made the English government more powerful
Navigation acts major sticking point—not that big a deal unless they were enforced
Horses in North America (special section—really cool)
Haudenosaunee (Iroquois)

Extremely powerful and well organized
Got caught in the middle of the battle between the French and the English
Had 3 branches of government
Confederation 5 states (later included seven)
Similar to the nation that would become the United States
Parallel to the colonies in many ways
Older women had powerful roles in this society; they chose the male leaders
Gastil HIST-109 3/5/19
Scotland summer abroad in Edinburgh! July 20- Aug 17, 2019

Summer abroad 2019 deadline March 15
Summer session 2 classes (3 units each)
Upper division GEs
Learn from locals – no classroom
28 days four weeks
Happens during Fringe Festival — large performing arts festival
Sigma Alpha Lambda

National leadership and honors organization
Promoting “service, achievement, and leadership”
National organization with a chapter here at SDSU
Community service – ex helped prepare food for recovering addicts and homeless
o 3.0 GPA
o Sophomore or above
o Open to all majors
o Have to be invited in
o Can email (see below) if you meet requirement
o $75 membership fee
Theme of leadership and service—great opportunity to grow ☺
Offers member scholarships
Lots of opportunity for doing things that help your resume ☺
Next meeting Tuesday March 12 2019 in AL 566 @ 2 pm
[email protected] or [email protected]
Chapter five

Time frame – 50 years — a lot of history happened in a short period of time
o Events leading up to the American revolution (but before anyone was talking
about a revolution)
o Gives us a foundation for understanding why the American revolution occurred
Most of the chapter focuses on the British colonies that would later become the US;
notice the chapter also deals with areas of Spanish and French influence.
Development of families and communities in British colonies
o Lots of births—big families
o Low death rate in comparison to previous chapter
o In the last chapter not all 13 colonies existed there were only 11
o Carolina is going to become 3: North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia
Significance of 1700

o Scotland used to be a country and then it combined with England to make the
United Kingdom (Wales and Northern Ireland are also in UK)
o Scotland and England were combined in 1700
o No longer the English empire but the British empire
o “Britain” refers to the whole United Kingdom
Why was population growing dramatically in the English colonies in the early 1700’s
o Lots of slaves being brought over
o Slave families—more women from Africa and more people surviving to make
families—also slaves living to old age
o Natural increase
▪ Babies “babies are so cool”
• Lower infant mortality
• Mothers more likely to survive child birth
▪ There was more women in the society
• The more women the faster a society grows
▪ Slaves – higher survival rate
• High increase in females
▪ Low death rate – improvements in health
• Better food, better nutrition
• Fewer conflicts with indigenous people
Image “The Old Plantation”, South Carolina, 1790.
o One of the oldest images showing a Banjo in America
o Significant because
▪ It represents culture
▪ The mixing and transformation of culture, different African cultures being
mixed with European and Indigenous cultures
Image: Economic Products of the Colonies
o Georgia was just a slither of a place compared to the state today
o Spain had Florida
o Maine was part of Massachusetts
▪ They are not connected by land people would sail
▪ Massachusetts refers to Maine as “down east”
o The colonies are important because
▪ They are the foundation of America (the country)
o map tells us what they had to trade
▪ these are what the colonies were known for
▪ regional economies
• trade among the colonies was more important than trade with
England and other Europeans
• primarily trading with eachother
Image: The Middle Colonies 1750, Population Diversity pie chart
o Pennsylvania

New Jersey
New York
Large population diversity in small locations
▪ Biggest group was still the English
▪ The Scots-Irish
• They were Scottish originally but were living in Northern Ireland
got the name Scots-Irish and came to America
• They were very poor working people
• A lot of them came as indentured servants originally
• Some were “redemptioners” who paid the shipping company with
their labor
o Middle colonies had a significant slave population
o There were some free Africans—later on you would see a lot more “free blacks”
in the middle colonies, especially in cities like New York and Philadelphia.
o What is the biggest cultural difference between the Scottish and the Irish?
▪ Scots and Scots-Irish were mostly Presbyterian
▪ Irish were mostly Catholic
▪ Biggest difference is religion
o The chart tells us
▪ About the religious and cultural diversity
▪ The English settlers included a variety of religions such as Quakers,
Catholics, Episcopalians, Methodists and Baptists.
Images: Portraits of women in the Colonies
o Young girl – from Carolina
▪ Artist was a woman
▪ Girl’s husband paid for the portrait
▪ Shows the style of the time
• Young girl reflects a southern style
▪ Rosie cheeks
• Healthy
o Portrait of other young woman – similar also from Carolina
▪ Artist had less paint variety to work with
o Massachusetts paintings
▪ Reflect the cultural phenomenon of the enlightenment
▪ Enlightenment all around her
• Seeing where humans stand in nature
▪ The second painting
• Has a dark background in contrast with her skin
• The image is life size (at Timkin Museum in Balboa Park)
• She is wearing an outfit form another culture
o Outfit from Turkey (Ottoman Empire)
Gastil HIST-109 3.7.19 lecture notes
MEN-B—Meningitis B announcement

There was 3 confirmed cases at San Diego State
Make sure that you get both doses of the vaccination
A sign is a stiff neck that you can’t move your head from side to side or it really hurts
that is the main symptom that is different from the flu has locations for free vaccinations for students
What are the most important changes (on our world) found in chapter 5

Population increase
o Set the stage for America to become an independent nation
o Caused increase in production
Consumer revolution
o Some say it is even more profound than the American Revolution
o People were buying things instead of making things
Spanish settlement in California
o Horses
o Agriculture – allowed for cities and towns to grow
o Oranges
o Grapes
o Cows
Cultural changes
o Enlightenment
▪ Influenced the way of thinking and how the United States Government
would be set up
o Liberalism
▪ Wanted liberty
▪ Were against Mercantilism
Great Awakening
o Religious and spiritual awakening in which people became more in tune with
their religions and wanted to connect to their religion on a spiritual level
instead of focusing on memorization and doctrines
o The Great Awakening connected the colonies together
o Involved everyone, men, women, slaves
o Two churches that are really big in America form the great awakening
▪ Methodists
▪ Baptists
▪ Both churches have a large African American following
Conflicts between the native people
o It is important because we learn about what they went through
o It is good to honor and respect the people who lost their lives in different
o Realize that history does not revolve around Europeans
Why were colonists eager to acquire enslaved African women in this time period? (124)

Because women could produce more slaves
Some people were against the slave trade but not against slavery
Women were a way to reduce the necessity of the slave trade because then slaves
would be born in America
Slaves raised on plantations were thought to be stronger and healthier
The plantation was thought to be more stable is the slaves had families and
communities developing
Why did the British government send people they considered trouble makers to America?

Encouraged people to leave for America so that the British Government would not have
to deal with them
Why was Pennsylvania especially popular to migrants from Germany and France? (126)

Best poor man’s country
Religious freedom and toleration
How do you see native peoples coping with the stress that came from the growing English
colonies? Describe the conflict between the Haudenosaunees and the Delawares. (127)

Realize that your life is so much better than those in the past
What was happening in the Ohio Valley in this era? What could this lead to? (127)

Middle of nowhere but everyone wants to go there
Cultural cross road
o Mingling and interacting between different cultures and belief systems
Epicenter of major international conflict
o Every one claimed Ohio Valley
o 7 years’ War also known as the French Indian war was a fight for this land
How did New England continue to prosper in the early 1700s? (128)

Grows dramatically in population
Puts pressure on families to own land
What do you find most notable about the Middle Colonies in this era? (128-129)

Incredibly diverse

Strong middle class
Describe the social changes in the Chesapeake region. (129-130)

Extreme income inequality
James Madison’s grand parents

There was a revolt
Slave tried to rebel and escape
James Madison’s grandfather choose to forgive the slaves for their attempt of rebellion
o Had empathy for the slaves
o Event likely had large impact of James Madison
What do you see happening in the Lowcountry (Lower South)? Describe the differing
experiences of rural and urban slaves in this region. (130)

Lots and lots of slaves gobs and gobs of money
Why did the colonies of New France and New Spain grow slowly? (130-131)

British colonies were self-sustaining
The French and Spanish Colonies were not gaining power and wealth
o They had issues with diseases
Why do the authors say inequality was a defining feature of colonial America? (136)

How did Franciscans view the Native American attack on one of their missions in Texas? (136)

Thought they weren’t doing their job very well
Better at promoting religion than promoting health—we also see this probl …
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