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The book is Practical Argument by Laurie Kirszner short edition. That is required.1. Please read Practical Argument pages 137 to 151. 2. Please read and watch the Faulty Logic powerpoint uploaded below.3. Please read and watch the Evaluating an Authors Argument powerpoint below. 4. Read pages 137 to 151 and complete exercises 5.10 and 5.11.I just need exercises 5.10 and 5.11 completely answered. There is no page or word minimum required. Please let me know if there are any questions or anything that needs clarifying. Thank you
engl_120_faulty_logic.pptx

evaluate_an_argument__1_.ppt

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FAULTY LOGIC
{
Recognizing and Avoiding Faulty Logic
Faulty logic is unsound reasoning
 Logic can be flawed in a number of

specific ways

Keep in mind that just because it is
unsound doesn’t mean people don’t
use it intentionally

informal conversations, political debates
and speeches, magazines, books, and
more…
What is Faulty Logic?

Understanding faulty logic can:

of media, products, and information
easily
Why Study Faulty Logic?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Circular reasoning /Tautological
Reasoning
Overgeneralization
False Causality/Post hoc, ergo propter hoc
Oversimplification
Assumption
Either or Fallacy
Types of Faulty Reasoning
The writer (or speaker or ad) supports a
claim with restatements of that same
claim. The argument goes around and
around with the reason making the same
claim as the original argument.
 A way of saying nothing

Ex) Rachel is a good student because she
 Ex) Larry is handsome because he is very
good looking.

Circular Reasoning
The writer reaches a conclusion based on
a generalization/
 Look out for the words: all, every, always,
and never.

Ex) All athletes earn enormous sums of
money.
 Ex) Because my niece likes to spend time
with me, I know that children like me.

Overgeneralization
The writer makes two plainly
 Often used as a type of misdirection

Ex) As Mayor, my top priority will be
improving education, so my first act of
office will be to cut funding for our
public schools.
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc: “After this,
therefore because of this”
 Two things can be connected, and the
writer assumes that one event caused the
other.

Ex) Our house was burglarized right after
that new family moved in next door.
 Ex) It has been proven that many heroin
addicts smoked marijuana in their youth.

False Causality
This occurs when a single cause is
assumed to have created a problem or an
issue. In reality, the problem or issue may
have been created by a number of causes.
 Look for blatantly missing information.

Ex) The Civil War was caused by a
Oversimplification
This most often occurs when an author
states a personal opinion as if it is a fact.
 The statement may be true, but it isn’t
based on evidence.

Ex) Yosemite Valley is the most beautiful
place in America.
 Ex) My brother is the worst person I
know.

Assumption
 Attacking a person’s character rather
argument

Ex) Ms. Bauer is incorrect when she
argues that we should build a new
parking lot. She doesn’t even own a
car.
 Ex) How can you argue your case for
vegetarianism when you are enjoying

The writer presents only two options and
fails to acknowledge any middle ground
or alternate options.
Ex) Either we continue to
build weapons or we will
fall prey to the demands
of other countries.

Either or Fallacy
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
Circular reasoning /Tautological
Reasoning
Overgeneralization
False Causality/Post hoc, ergo propter hoc
Oversimplification
Assumption
Either or Fallacy
Review
Evaluating an Author’s
Argument
Author’s Argument
An author’s argument is the opinion
or belief that he or she wants to
Chapter 11: Evaluating an Author’s Argument
2
Identify the Issue
Issue means the controversial topic
the author is discussing.
Controversial issues on ones on which people
disagree. Examples of controversial issues include
the death penalty, gun control, foreign policy, and
abortion.
Ask yourself, “Is the author writing
Chapter 11: Evaluating an Author’s Argument
3
Determine the
Author’s Argument
The author’s argument is his or her
point of view on an issue.
Ask yourself, “What is the author’s
position on the issue?”
Chapter 11: Evaluating an Author’s Argument
4
Step 1: Identify Argument and
Audience
Identify or restate the author’ thesis or
main argument
Consider the person’s audience
The only way to know if the argument is
effective is to know who it is meant to be
Chapter 11: Evaluating an Author’s Argument
5
Step 2: Identify the
Types of Support
Types of support refers to the kind of
evidence the author uses to back up the
argument.
Ask yourself, “What kind of support does the
author present to back the argument?”
Support can include research findings, case
studies, personal experience or observation,
examples, facts, comparisons, expert testimony
and opinions.
Chapter 11: Evaluating an Author’s Argument
6
Step 3: Determine the
Relevance of the Support
Relevance means the support is
directly related to the argument.
Ask yourself, “Is the support directly
related to the argument?”
Unless the author is an expert, his or
her opinion or personal experience may
not be particularly relevant.
Chapter 11: Evaluating an Author’s Argument
7
Step 4: Determine the
Author’s Objectivity
The author’s argument has objectivity
when the support consists of facts and
other clear evidence.
Ask yourself, “Does the author present
facts and clear evidence as support?”
Chapter 11: Evaluating an Author’s Argument
8
Step 5: Determine the
Argument’s Completeness
An argument is complete if the author
overcomes opposing points.
Sometimes authors do not give enough support.
Sometimes they leave out information that would
weaken their argument. Their argument would be
stronger if they presented it and countered it.
Chapter 11: Evaluating an Author’s Argument
9
Step 6: Determine if the
Argument Is Valid
An argument is valid (has validity) if
it is logical.
Ask yourself, “Is the argument logical
(well-reasoned)?”
Chapter 11: Evaluating an Author’s Argument
10
Step 7: Decide if the
Argument Is Credible
An argument has credibility if it is
believable (convincing).
Ask yourself, “Is the author’s argument
believable?”
Validity and credibility are closely
related since an argument that is not
valid will not be credible.