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Running head: IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN RADIOLOGY
Impact of Occupational Stress among technologists in Radiology department
Lujain Alzaidi
Thomas Jefferson University
Jefferson College of Health Professions
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IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN RADIOLOGY
Table of Contents
Contents
Table of Contents ………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1
Impact of Occupational Stress among technologists in Radiology department in Radiology
…………………………………………………………………………………………..Error! Bookmark not defined.
Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Background ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 3
Problem Statement………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4
Purpose…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4
Research Questions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4
Aims ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
Methods ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5
Study selection (flow chart) …………………………………………………Error! Bookmark not defined.
Flow Chart …………………………………………………………………………Error! Bookmark not defined.
Data extraction form…………………………………………………………..Error! Bookmark not defined.
References ………………………………………………………………………….Error! Bookmark not defined.
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IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN RADIOLOGY
Impact of Occupational Stress among technologists in Radiology department
Introduction
Occupational stress can be a major challenge for workers in radiology. Stress can
provoke psychological and physical responses among individuals so that it influences their
behavior and attitude at work. Occupational stress is commonplace among professionals in the
healthcare setting. Stress can affect the provider of healthcare and compromise the quality of
care, life, and outcomes for the patient (Duvall, Guma, Kamen, Croft, Parides, George, &
Henzlova, 2013). Among the most common reasons for occupational stress in healthcare include
encounters with deaths, shortage of staff, long working hours, public expectations, workload and
exposure to infectious conditions among others. Lua (2011) observes that radiographers are
highly stressed among the health professionals followed by the medical laboratory technologists
and nursing staff. One of the critical factors for increased stress among the radiographers is
overtime working hours. Essentially, radiographers in private and public sectors experience the
same levels of occupational stress (Fileni, Magnavita, Mammi, Mandoliti, Lucà Magnavita, &
Bergamaschi, 2007.
Background
There are a limited literature or research about the causes and the effects of stress among
technologists something that has brought about significant concerns regarding how their
performance is affected by stress. The available literature has affirmed that there is a substantive
level of occupational stress among the technologists as compared to allied other health areas. Of
the health professionals, radiographers are largely affected by occupational stress because of
their great exposure to stressors (Ashong, et al. 2016). There is necessity, however, to conduct
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IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN RADIOLOGY
further investigation into this area by comparing the impact of occupational stress for
radiographers in order to develop interventions that will competently address the problem of
stress and ensure that the impact of stress among the radiographers does not affect the quality of
their wok or the patient experiences and outcomes.
Problem Statement
Occupational stress is a common problem among health professionals but among
radiographers there is limited research available. Raj (2006) conducted a review of literature to
evaluate the occupational stress among radiographers and compare it to other health professionals.
It was discovered that severe stress related consequences are present among health professionals
but there are insufficient studies to compare it with radiographers so for creating an interventional
plan, further studies are needed. My main research focus is:

To compare the prevalence of mental and physical effects with other allied health
professionals

To study the impact of stress on work quality

To evaluate the reasons of stress
Purpose
The primary purpose of this study is to conduct a systemic literature review as to how
occupation stress occurs for the technologists. The study will focus on determining the impact of
the occupational stress on the technologists in radiology department to understand how the stress
could affect their mental and physical health also, the impact on the job quality and the patients’
outcome.
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IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN RADIOLOGY
Research Questions
The research study will consider various questions which include

What are main causes of the occupational stress?

How does occupational stress affect the physical and mental health of the
technologist?

does occupational stress affect the job quality?
Aims
After having the enough knowledge about the causes of the occupational stress and the
impact on the mental and physical health, the effect on the job provided quality

To create awareness among radiographers for the psychological and mental well-being.

To generate a web-based training program on occupational stress management.
Methods
To achieve the objective, aims, and purpose of this study, the investigation will employ a
mixed methods approach. In essence, a mixed methods approach will offer a wide array of
options to choose from so that data can be collected through different data collection techniques,
and the data analysis executed through different approaches as will be fit at every level of data
analysis. Essentially, among the data collection instruments that will be utilized include surveys,
interviews, observation, and literature review (Schneider, 2017). These are necessary to ensure
plenty of credible and reliable data is obtained, analyzed and screened appropriately to remove
unnecessary data details and remain with concrete data usable in decision making to achieve the
ultimate objective of accurate and reliable data. Data sources will be selected based on their
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IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN RADIOLOGY
credibility, validity, and focus. Impliedly, this means that the data will mostly come from peerreviewed sources or primary data sources in order to maintain credibility. Sources of data that are
not peer-reviewed will be dropped (Sciacchitano, Goldstein, & DiPLACIDO, J. O. A. N. N. E.
2001). Similarly, sources of data that offer generalized information about occupational stress will
not be considered in this study.
Essentially, different databases with information and materials about occupational stress
for radiographers and other allied health areas will be considered for the literature review. This is
necessary because this is a comparative study that seeks to understand the impacts of
occupational stress in radiology as compared to different allied health fields (Rutter, &
Lovegrove, 2008). Among the search terms that will be keyed in the search area of the databases
include, “impact of occupational stress in radiology compared to other allied health areas,”
“levels of occupational stress for radiographers compared to other health professionals,”
“Occupational stress in healthcare,” “occupational stress among radiographers,” and “” how
occupational stress affects the quality of work for radiographers and other allied health
professionals.
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IMPACT OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS IN RADIOLOGY
Duvall, W. L., Guma, K. A., Kamen, J., Croft, L. B., Parides, M., George, T., & Henzlova, M. J.
(2013). Reduction in occupational and patient radiation exposure from myocardial
perfusion imaging: impact of stress-only imaging and high-efficiency SPECT camera
technology. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 54(8), 1251-1257.
Fileni, A., Magnavita, N., Mammi, F., Mandoliti, G., Lucà, F., Magnavita, G., & Bergamaschi,
A. (2007). Malpractice stress syndrome in radiologists and radiotherapists: perceived
causes and consequences. La radiologia medica, 112(7), 1069.
Running head: SHORTENED TITLE ALL CAPITAL LETTERS
Full Title of Research
Author’s Name
Thomas Jefferson University
Jefferson College of Health Professions
Capstone Advisor’s Name
Date of Submission
1
SHORTENED VERSION OF PROPOSAL
Table of Contents
2
SHORTENED VERSION OF PROPOSAL
3
Abstract
This template is a guide to writing a document in APA Style, 6th edition. It provides the
necessary sections, headings, and subheadings for a systematic review, as well as the line and
paragraph spacing, page breaks, page numbering, and referencing styles. It is formatted with one
inch top, bottom, left, and right margins; Times New Roman font in 12 point; double-spaced;
aligned flush left; and paragraphs indented 5-7 spaces. The page number appears one inch from
the right edge on the first line of each page. There should be two spaces between sentences.
Without changing the formatting, insert your own text into each template section. This section of
the template provides an example of what an abstract would look like. An abstract is a brief
(approximately 250 words) one-paragraph summary of the contents of the proposal. The
abstract, typically written last, includes an overview of the proposed project’s background and
review of literature, purpose, method, results, and conclusion. It is non-evaluative, that is, does
not contain personal comments. It is not indented nor does it contain citations. Keywords, such
as those below, are words you used to perform database searches for the proposal.
Keywords: APA style, sixth edition, publication manual
SHORTENED VERSION OF PROPOSAL
4
Introduction and Background
In this introductory section, write a few paragraphs that give an overview of your topic and
full background information. This section should be written in a way that is comprehensible to
readers without specialist knowledge of your modality. The main purpose of this section is to
build a case for the need for your research project and convince readers that the problem you are
addressing is significant and worthwhile. Include a summary of a search of the literature to
indicate why this study was necessary and what it aimed to contribute to the field. End with a
brief statement of what is being reported in the article. Support this with findings from the
literature, include relevant statistics, and cite them according to APA Style, 6th ed.
All source material used in this research project must be documented in the body of the
paper by citing the authors and dates of the sources. The full reference to each citation must
appear on a separate reference page(s) entitled ‘References’. Reference entries are typed in
hanging indent format, meaning that the first line of each reference is set flush left and
subsequent lines are indented. For more information about APA Style, see the Publication
Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), the APA Style web site found at
http://www.apastyle.org/, and the Purdue Owl Writing Center website found at
https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/.
Problem Statement
Your introduction section should smoothly transition into your problem statement. Include
your research question that will provide direction for your work. Explain your approach to the
problem and how your approach will address it.
Hypothesis
SHORTENED VERSION OF PROPOSAL
5
You may not have a hypothesis, but if you do, it should follow the problem statement. Be
sure to word the hypothesis (or null hypothesis) correctly.
Aims/Objectives
Explain the aims/objectives of your research project. A research study usually has one
overarching aim that captures what you hope to achieve through your project. You may have
several objectives – more specific goals – that support the aim. Aims and objectives are often
written in bullet points as ‘to’ statements, such as, ‘to’ develop, ‘to’ identify, ‘to’ measure, ‘to’
explain, ‘to’ compare.
Review of Literature
The goal of a review of literature is to present an in-depth, current state of knowledge
about your particular topic. Rather than just summarizing and listing research studies performed
on your topic, summarize and then synthesize the key concepts of the literature you have read.
Identify any major trends, patterns, or gaps you may have found in the literature and identify any
relationships among studies. In general, there is a five-year span from the present for the date of
literature you should use except for an older, landmark study, which should be identified as such.
Think of a review of literature as a puzzle that you will put together with individual
pieces from various sources of literature in order to reveal a whole picture of the state of
knowledge about your topic. The review of literature for your proposal should provide the
context for your proposal and your future capstone project.
When you begin to write your narrative, define your topic and provide relevant statistical
information, followed by historical and current background information. Organize your main
findings by using subheadings called Level 2 headings, which are typed in bold face type, in
upper and lower case letters, and typed flush with the left side of the paper. Use Level 3
SHORTENED VERSION OF PROPOSAL
6
headings to further subdivide topics. Level 3 headings are indented, typed in lowercase letters, in
boldface, indented, and followed by a period. The APA Manual or the Purdue Owl Writing
Center website provides more information about all five levels of headings in APA Style, 6th
edition. Conclude the review of literature with a concise summary of your findings and provide a
rationale for conducting your capstone, based on your findings.
Writing Tips

Avoid describing a series of studies.

Use quotes sparingly and only to emphasize or explain an important point.

Do not make broad statements about the conclusiveness of research studies, either
positive or negative.

Be objective in your presentation of the facts.

Paragraphs should flow logically.
Methods
If you have planned your research protocol diligently, writing the Methods section should
be quite straightforward. You will reap the benefits of keeping accurate records of all the titles,
abstracts, and articles that you screened, and your reasons for including or excluding the articles.
This section should include the following sub-parts:

Criteria for including or excluding studies.

Details of electronic database searches, with search terms.

Study selection – how you handled and screened all the articles you found. Include a flow
chart to show how many potentially relevant papers you found at each stage of the
literature search, how many were rejected at each stage, and why.
SHORTENED VERSION OF PROPOSAL

7
Data extraction – description of the data you extracted from the articles. Include your
data extraction form.

Quality assessment of included articles and any specific tools used to assess bias in these
articles. Remember there are some simple checklists for critiquing different types of
research in the back of the Greenhalgh book.

Your thoughts about analysis of your data. What you are actually able to accomplish here
will depend on the type and quantity of data you will be able to extract. At this point in
your capstone project, start thinking about what might be the best way to present the data.
Results
Describe the results of your research in logical order. Include the following:

Results of your literature search – number of articles identified, number of duplicates,
articles excluded based on screening the title or the abstract, how many full articles were
assessed and how many were included, how many were excluded and for what reasons…

Study range and characteristics – features of population or research criteria that you were
looking for in your included studies.

Comment on quality (bias potential) of included studies.

Actual findings of your research.

Relevant tables, figures, diagrams, images, etc. Each must have a legend and be
appropriately labeled. Refer to the APA Manual or the Purdue Owl Writing Center
website for detailed information about APA Style, 6th ed. formatting.
Discussion
The discussion should follow a logical order. Include the following:
SHORTENED VERSION OF PROPOSAL

8
Summarize and explain the findings of your review. You may have found that there is
not enough evidence to reach a conclusion and answer your research question.

Describe and explain the limitations of the included articles and limitations of your
review.

Describe the strengths and weaknesses of your review methods.

Place your findings in the context of other knowledge on the topic. You can support your
writing with references to the literature.
Conclusion
State clearly the main conclusions of the research and give a clear explanation of their
importance and relevance. Think about the following:

What are the implications for current practice and future research?

Has your review uncovered any gaps in knowledge that require further research?

Do you have enough information to influence current clinical practices?
SHORTENED VERSION OF PROPOSAL
9
References
As previously mentioned, all literature cited in the proposal must be referenced in APA
Style, 6th edition, on a separate reference page(s). The following list shows the more commonly
used references. For more information on how to reference, refer to the Publication Manual of
the American Psychological Association (6th ed.), the APA Style web site found at
http://www.apastyle.org, and the Purdue Owl Writing Center website found at
http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/.
SHORTENED VERSION OF PROPOSAL
10
References
American Psychological Association. (2010). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (6th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (1991). Title of book chapter or entry. In A. Editor, B. Editor, &
C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). St. Louis: Mosby.
SHORTENED VERSION OF PROPOSAL
11
Appendix
Appendices appear after the reference page(s). They are used to present detailed
information that adds to the body of the paper, for example, sample questionnaires, tables, or
figures. Tables usually show numerical values or textual information arranged in an orderly
display of columns and rows. Any type of illustration other than a table is a figure. Figures
present data in the forms of graphs, charts, maps, drawings, and photographs.
If your manuscript has only one appendix, label it Appendix in italics. If it has more than
one, label each appendix with a capital letter, for example, Appendix A, Appendix B, according to
the order in which you refer to it in your text. Label each appendix with a title, but refer to it in
the text by its label, for example, (see the Appendix for basic APA, 6th edition, citat …
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