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You should focus on those sections of the document to respond to the following questions:Why was education for southern blacks important after the Civil War?What kind of education did Armstrong believe was the most appropriate for freed blacks and why did he promote it?How does this source help us to understand the problems of Reconstruction? In other words, why would historians find this source to be significant (or useful)? Please reference at least two other primary sources [they will be in the file I upload and can use primary sources in the PPT] that were assigned to formulate your answer.Please pose at least one discussion question about this source. What do you think is important to talk about with regard to Armstrong’s effort to provide schooling to freed blacks in the South While answering these questions, please quote or paraphrase from the documents I uploaded and cite them.word counts should be 500-600.Responses will be graded according to the following criteria:Does the response address all the questions posed?Does the response demonstrate that the student has done a close and careful analysis?Does the response offer a thoughtful engagement with the source?Does the response demonstrate a concerted effort to think about the significance of the source and its relationship to course topics?Does the response make sense? Are the ideas within it clearly communicated?Is the response written in essay form, with a thesis, a set of paragraphs that each address a distinct argument in support of the thesis, and a conclusion?


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Samuel Chapman Armstrong on the Founding of the Hampton Institute, 1868
A day dream of the Hampton School, nearly as it is, had come to me during the war a few times,
once in camp during the siege of Richmond, and once one beautiful evening on the Gulf of
Mexico, while on the wheel-house of the transport steamship “illinois,” en-route for Texas with
the Twenty-fifth Army Corps (negro) for frontier duty on the Rio Grande River…
The thing to be done was clear; to train selected Negro youth who should go out and teach
and lead their people, first by example by getting land and homes; … to teach respect for
labor, to replace stupid drudgery with skilled hands; and to these ends, to build up an
industrial system, for the sake not only of self-support and intelligent labor, but also for the
sake of character. And it seemed equally clear that the people of the country would support a
wise work for the freedmen. I think so still!
The missionary plan in Hawaii had not, I thought, considered enough the real needs and
weaknesses of the people, whose ignorance alone was not half the trouble. The chief
difficulty with them was deficient character, as it is with the Negro. He is what his past has
made him. The true basis of work for him and all men is the scientific one – one recognizing the
facts of heredity and surrounding all the facts of the case.
There was no enthusiasm for the manual labor plan. People said, “…It won’t pay.” “Of course,”
said I, “it cannot pay in a money way, but it will pay in a moral way, especially with the
freedmen. It will make them men and women as nothing else will. It is the only way to make
them good Christians.”

From the first it has been true to the idea of education by self-help, and I hope it will remain
so. Nothing is asked for the student that he can provide by his own labor; but the system that
gives him this chance is costly. The student gets nothing but an opportunity to work his way.
While the workshops must be made to pay as far as possible, instruction is as important as
The Slater Fund has been a great stimulus to technical training. The Negro girl has proved a
great success as a teacher. The women of the race deserve as good a chance as the men. So far
it has been impossible to supply the demand for Negro teachers. School-houses and salaries,
such as they are ready; but competent teachers are the great and pressing need, and there is
no better work for the country than to supply them. But the short public school sessions, of
from three to seven months, do not give full support, and skilled labor is the only resource of
many teachers for over half the year. As farmers and mechanics, they are nearly as useful as
in the school-room. Hence the importance of industrial training.
War and State Development
• Stronger federal power: authority and bureaucracy
• Military Power: warships, munitions, federal conscription
• Finance: Tariffs, Direct Taxation, War Bonds, Currency, impressment of
goods (in the South), Printing money in the South
• Suspension of Civil Liberties
Emancipation Proclamation, September, 1862
By the President of the United States of America: …
“That on [January 1, 1863], all persons held as slaves within any State or designated part of a State, the people whereof
shall then be in rebellion against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free; and the Executive
Government…, including the military and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom of such
Now, therefore I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested as Commanderin-Chief, of the Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion against the authority and
government of the United States, and as a fit and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do, on this first
day of January…order and designate as the States and parts of States wherein the people …, are this day in rebellion
against the United States, the following, …:
Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, (except the Parishes of St. Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, St. John, St. Charles, St. James
Ascension, Assumption, Terrebonne, Lafourche, St. Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including the City of New Orleans)
Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia, (except the forty-eight counties
designated as West Virginia, and also the counties of Berkley, Accomac, Northampton, Elizabeth City, York, Princess Ann,
and Norfolk, including the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth[)],…
I do order ..that all persons held as slaves within [these] States, and parts of States, are, and henceforward shall be free;
and that the Executive government of the United States, including the military and naval authorities thereof, will
recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons.
And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free to abstain from all violence, unless in necessary self-defence;
and I recommend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable wages.
And I further …make known, that such persons … will be received into the armed service of the United States …
And upon this act, sincerely believed to be an act of justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military necessity, I
invoke the considerate judgment of mankind, and the gracious favor of Almighty God.
Understanding the Emancipation Proclamation

Lincoln’s advisors did not all support it; slavery in the South was already disintegrating
Dred Scott v Sandford forced northerners to think about issues of black citizenship
Outlaws slavery only in the Confederate states (not those that stayed in the Union).
It was an executive order; it was not a law passed by Congress.
Allowed blacks to enter the military and fight for the Union.
It led to the Bates Report (from Attorney General Bates), which affirmed national
citizenship rights for blacks and whites.
• Republicans argued that enslavement of free blacks or re-enslavement of ex-slaves
(official Confederate policy) was a violation of citizen rights – based on personal liberty
laws of northern states. The Proclamation changed the focus of the War and prevented
Britain and France from supporting the Confederacy
• Fear that post-war, the courts would use state’s rights arguments to support reenslavement of black citizens; the 13th Amendment made challenges moot
Turning Point in the War
• Gettysburg, July 1-3, 1863
• Robert E. Lee had hoped that a northern offensive would force
Lincoln to negotiate.
• Day two of the battle included 100,000 troops, of which 1/5th were
killed, wounded or missing.
• Confederates lost 28,000 soldiers at Gettysburg; Union lost 23,000,
but had a much larger standing army.
• General Ulysses S. Grant was successful in western fighting and
became commander of all the Union armies.
Abraham Lincoln: The Gettysburg Address, November 19, 1863
speech to designate the Gettysburg cemetery as a memorial
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation,
conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation so
conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that
war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those
who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper
that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate — we can not consecrate — we can not hallow – this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it,
far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember
what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather,
to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so
nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining
before us — that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for
which they gave the last full measure of devotion — that we here highly resolve that
these dead shall not have died in vain — that this nation, under God, shall have a new
birth of freedom — and that government of the people, by the people, for the people,
shall not perish from the earth.
Union Victory
• 1864 Presidential Election demonstrated that northerners were tired
of war and it was unclear the Union would win
• McClellan: “The Union as it was, the Constitution as it is, and the
Negroes where they are.”
• McClellan lost the election when Union General Sherman took Atlata
and northerners believed victory was close
• January 31, 1865: 13th Amendment
• April 9, 1865: General Robert E. Lee surrenders
Thirteenth Amendment: The Abolition of Slavery
Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a
punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly
convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to
their jurisdiction.
Section 2. Congress shall have power to enforce these article by
appropriate legislation.
December 6, 1865.
The Problems of Reconstruction
• What was to be the status of the emancipated slave? Would they
have equal political rights? Social rights?
• How would the southern economy recover sufficiently to rebuild the
South, pay off war debts, and continue agricultural production
without a slave population?
• What did the country owe to the former enslaved people?
• How would the South be brought back into the Union – governance,
role of citizens, economy?
Defining Equality: Natural Rights, Civil Rights,
Political Rights, and Social Rights
• Natural rights: Slavery was wrong because it violated the natural
rights – life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness – common to all
• Civil rights: equal treatment by the courts and legal system – also
considered essential because natural rights required it
• Political rights: more complicated because voting was a “privilege”
rather than a right and it depended upon states
• Social rights: 19th Century thinkers believed this to be personal and
“social equality” made even Radical Republicans nervous
A Taste of Freedom
• 4 million freed men and women
• Sought land ownership; explored free labor
• First goal for many was education: the antithesis to slavery
• Traveled to reunite with families; worked to establish more traditional
household and labor practices
• Religious independence: established a network of black churches
• Sought the vote
Report of the U.S. Army Board of Education for Freedmen, Department of
the Gulf, for the year 1864 (Source: Pamphlets from the Daniel A.P Murray Collection)
It is scarcely possible to exaggerate the difficulty of establishing these schools in the country parishes. Considering the expense and the probability of
change in the school districts, the Board decided not to build school-houses at present, but to [use] accommodations that could be found.
The …Marshals were directed to seize and turn over to the Board all buildings designated by our agents as essential to the schools, taking care not to
…irritate any one, beyond the necessities of the case.
Any hesitancy to act, or indifference…was met …in the shape of a[n].. order, or by the prompt removal of [the] subordinate. By this means the first
obstacles were overcome…
Cabins, sheds, unused houses, were appropriated, roughly repaired, fitted with a cheap stove for the winter, a window or two for light and air a
teacher sent to the locality, the neighboring children gathered in, and the school started.
In some of the parishes… many of the teachers were provided with temporary homes. But it frequently occurs, that in a desirable locality for a school,
it is impossible to obtain boarding for the teachers. In such cases, a weather-proof shelter of some kind–very poor at best–is obtained, some simple
furniture provided, and a teacher sent who is willing to undergo the …hardships-of boarding herself, in addition to the fatigues of her school,
Compelled to live on the coarsest diet of corn bread and bacon; often no tea, coffee, butter, eggs, or flour; separated by miles of bad roads from the
nearest provision store; refused credit because she is a negro teacher, unable to pay cash because the Government is unavoidably in arrears;
subjected to the jeers and hatred of her neighbors; cut off from society, with unfrequent and irregular mails; swamped in mud–the school shed a
drip, and her quarters little better; raided occasionally by rebels, her school broken up and herself insulted, banished, or run off to rebeldom; under
all this, it is really surprising how some of these brave women manage to live, much more how they are able to …[serve] as teachers.
Despite all the efforts of our agents…and the devotion of the teachers, many of these schools would have to be abandoned but for the freedmen
themselves. These, fully alive to all that is being done for them, gratefully aid the teachers from their small store, and mount guard against the enemy
of the schools, whether he be a rebel, a guerilla, or a pro-slavery professed unionist skulking behind the oath.
An 1868 sketch by A. R. Waud illustrates the difficulties faced by
the Freedmen’s Bureau, caught between white planters on one
side (left) and emancipated slaves on the other (right). The bureau
was established in 1865 after Union general William T. Sherman
issued his Field Order No. 15, which called for the resettlement of
freedpeople on confiscated lands.
Courtesy of Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division
South Carolina Planters to the Commander of the Northern District of the Department of the South, signed by 17
Eastern Branch of Cooper River – [Charleston District, S.C.]. June 20th ’65
General, We are very reluctant to trespass upon your valuable time. Our apology for doing so must be the necessity
of the case. There is no …officer in authority …to aid us with his counsel & protection & to redress our many
grievances, increasing daily,…[we] appeal to you …to define our rights that we may govern ourselves
accordingly… We submit them to your consideration with all due respect, & hope you will oblige us by a reply, for
the benefit of all concerned.
1st. Is the land, or is it not, ours?–
2nd. Have strange negroes the right to come on our plantations & settle there, without our consent?– If we order
them off & they refuse to go, what is the power we possess to enforce compliance with our wishes?
3d. Have we not the power to send away the idle & dissolute negroes that formerly belonged to us & who will not
work;–hunting all day, depredating on the stock of the country, killing cattle, sheep, hogs–instead of contributing by
their personal labour towards making provisions for the next year; thereby setting a bad example to & are being
complained of daily by the better disposed & more industrious people on our plantations?–
4th Have negroes the right to be walking about our plantations with guns or pistols in their hands, claiming a right,
because they have been pronounced free, to the stock of their former owners & in some cases, contending even, for
right to the land itself?…
6th Have negroes, who seldom work, a right to share equally with those who are uniformly at their business?
7th How many hours in each day, are the negroes expected to work?…
10th. The contract recommended by Gen: Hatch has been submitted by some of our Planters to the negroes working
their lands, but they have refused to sign it. What are we to do under such circumstances?…The owner of the land
is willing to sign & has, in many instances done so, why should not the freedman be required to do the same, a
penalty to be visited on him, if needs be, for his contumacy?…
Missouri White Farmer or Farm Laborer to a White Farmer
[southwest Missouri?, spring? 1865]
Mr. Campbell Sir I am Ablede [obliged] to go to town to day and I Cant
help you Mr Campbell Sir thare appears to be sum dissatisfaction
about that niger setler on this side of the Creek it appears that all the
nabers is opposes to it as we have had no nigers on this Sid of the
Creek I think it would be beter for him to go back on his own Side I am
afraid it will Cass others to setel herere that we had beter keep them
out when we have them out
Mr Campbell Sir I Send this to you not to rase any hard feeling
James Martin
Freedmen and Southern Society Project,
Phases of Reconstruction
• Lincoln – 1863:
Ten Percent Plan: Offered amnesty to any southerner who proclaimed loyalty to the Union and
supported emancipation
When 10% of residents in a state took the oath, the state could develop and new government
and abolish slavery
State would be eligible to reenter the Union with full privileges, including representation in the
House of Representatives and the Senate
• Wade-Davis Bill (response to Lincoln’s 1863 plans):
Republican response to Lincoln requiring 50% loyalty oath for readmission to the Union
“Iron-Clad Oath,” requiring that anyone who wanted to earn the right to vote or serve in a
constitutional convention testify that they had not aided the rebellion. Goal was to ensure that
only Unionists in the South could hold political power.
Vetoed by Lincoln
• Lincoln – 1865:
military rule and stiff conditions upon the defeated southern states to return to the Union
No commitment to granting voting rights to black men with property and education.
• Freedman’s Bureau
• Johnson’s Presidential Reconstruction
• Radical Republicanism
Lincoln’s Plans: 1863 – 1865
• Perceived as too weak in 1863
• More stringent in 1865, but presented only to the Cabinet
• Republican concerns:
1. Defeated states likely to impose racial strictures and labor conditions that
would maintain the power of the planter class.
2. Potential for southern states to regain control in Congress
3. Black enfranchisement required to vote out confederate sympathizers.
4. Republicans were a new party and had a fragile hold on government: black
votes would continue party power.
5. Republicans under pressure by radical reformers, who wanted racial
Freedman’s Bureau: 1865 (Bureau of Refugees,
Freedmen and Abandoned Lands)
• Adjudicate disagreements
• Build and manage new schools
• Provide food and medical care to needy southern black and white
• Ensure equal access to the judicial system for all southerners
• Successes: built three thousand schools and expanded medical care
throughout the South, particularly for freed slaves
• Failures: addressing economic relations.
Fanny Tipton vs Richard Sanford: Cause – Assault & Battery 30 Stripes, March 24, 1866
Freedmen’s Bureau, National Archives,
F. T. Sworn. Deposes.: Hired to defdts Father since Christmas 1865. Had no Contract in writing, he promised one, but
never gave me one. He agreed to give me $40 for years work. Quarters&Fuel. …Left him because defendts. son
whipped me…because I had not cleaned a Rabbit for him on Monday night. I was not the cook. and had no place in
the Kitchen. I was hired for a Field hand. He called me out on Tuesday morning, and asked me if I had cleaned the
Rabbit I said, No! and that I did not intend to. He said he would clean me, and I said “clean away” and started off
after Water. He picked up a Stick and called me to stop. I did not stop. and he struck me with the stick–A Stick as thick
as my thumb. He struck …
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