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Introduction to HospitalityInstructionsWe have discussed various types of venues within the hospitality industry. Please choose one of the venues that is of the most interest to you and write a research paper of no less than three pages, not including the title page and references, covering the following topics:how technology is utilized in the venue,career opportunities within the venue,marketing strategies within the venue,how positive and poor customer service can affect consumer behavior within the venue,the importance of competent communication and decision making in the venue, andhow the concept of control is used in the venue.Please be certain that all references, including your textbook, are cited properly using APA format.Textbook:Walker, J. R. (2013). Introduction to hospitality management (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.
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UNIT VIII STUDY GUIDE
Communications, Decisions, and Control
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VIII
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
8. Distinguish necessary components of management styles for successful travel industry professionals.
8.1 Determine the importance of competent communication and decision making in the hospitality
industry.
8.2 Explain how the concept of control is utilized within the hospitality industry.
Reading Assignment
Chapter 17: Communication and Decision Making
Chapter 18: Control
Unit Lesson
In this unit, the focus is on making management and decisions effective and efficient. The strength of the lines
of communication are a precursor for success. As mentioned in your textbook, “communication is the oil that
lubricates all other management functions” (Walker, 2013, p. 608). A member of leadership or management
must be adept at establishing relationships and maintaining communications in order to maximize the benefits
of these relationships. Communication is the exchange of information along with the desired meaning. A
challenge is to verify that the meaning intended is the meaning received. There are several items that can
affect the proper relay and decoding of information: understanding, perception, attitudes, beliefs, semantics,
and ensuring that the receiver is cognizant of why he or she is the receiver. According to Walker (2013), to
overcome barriers to effective communications, the sender must accomplish the following:




utilize a feedback circle in order to establish both verbal and non-verbal understanding,
be an active listener and respond appropriately while conveying understanding,
avoid being defensive and critical during the communication process, and
demonstrate a positive and receptive attitude.
In an organizational setting, the flow of communication is generally formal and informal. Formal
communication is utilized to convey job requirements to employees. Informal communication is the everyday
banter enjoyed and present in all organizations (Walker, 2013). The flow of communication can also be traced
via the up and down lines of the organization chart. Departments, employees, managers, and supervisors will
communicate from the top to the bottom, bottom to top, and laterally across departments.
In order to make informed decisions, management must utilize these strong lines of communication. The most
important aspect of a manager’s job is decision making. When communication is not effective, the decision
process is flawed and is detrimental to the operations of the organization (Walker, 2013). A critical component
in both communication and decision making processes is control. This is a management function that allows
the accomplishing of goals and objectives. Without control or controls in place, effective management
decisions cannot be assured, leading to failure to achieve objectives. Controlling is an important function of
management. Walker (2013) tells us that the control process includes five steps:





determining goals,
setting standards,
measuring actual performance,
comparing actual performance to established standards, and
taking managerial action to correct and adjust as needed.
BHM 3010, Introduction to Hospitality
1
The importance of control is demonstrated by its effect on the management function.
how a company
UNIT x Imagine
STUDY GUIDE
would operate if there were no standards, rules, or operating procedures. TheTitle
business would be chaotic and
not worthy of investment. The chance for profitability would be non-existent. The control process also affects
the personnel function. Employees are constantly evaluated for their performance and adjust according to
management standards. The employees are given a direction and a standard to work toward (Walker, 2013).
The distribution and/or execution of controls is another management challenge. This is where the strong lines
of communication come into play. All associates must be aware and trained in the proper established
controls. Without that knowledge, achievement is dubious. One of the prime methods for managers to
communicate and verify is management-by-walking-around (MBWA). The definition is just what it seems.
Managers consistently walk through their area of purview to make them visible and approachable to
associates. This can be compared to an open door policy but with a higher point of visibility. MBWA works
very well in all organizational environments (Walker, 2013).
According to business guru Ronald Heifetz (1994), a successful leader is able to communicate and nurture
enthusiasm, handles setbacks and difficulties with maturity, is a master communicator, has the ability to
convince skeptics to come on board by utilizing a sincere moral conviction, and is dedicated to the success of
the change venture. As noted previously, strong communication skills are the heart of organizations, with
most successful organizations understanding that to be successful in today’s spastic economy, strong
communications and a moral compass at all levels are essential (Heifetz, 1994).
Leaders do not simply influence followers. Heifetz (1994) claims they work together just like doctors and
patients do when major life-changing decisions need to be made The process that leads to effective moral
action and decision making can be roughly divided into three components.



Moral awareness—the process of identifying the ethical issues involved, the parties who have a stake
in the action, what is at stake, and what the action options are
Moral judgment—the process of weighing the ethical considerations that bear on the situation and
determining the moral course of action
Acting in accordance with moral judgment—deciding the right thing to do is not enough. One still
needs to form the intention to do the moral thing and deal with practical obstacles in order to act
effectively (Heifetz, 1994)
Heifetz (1994) feels that leadership induces people to reassess their values. For him, leadership is always
about people’s values, but leadership in a technical context is not about values. The increasing popularity of
“evidence-based” decision-making suggests that there are many technical contexts where hard facts are
sufficient for one person to show leadership to others (Heifetz, 1994).
Organizations have a far-wider agenda today, especially since the whole world can see and judge how
leaders and organizations behave (Heifetz, 1994).Take into account the leaders of Enron, who maintained a
false front of success and ethical behavior until it ruined them. According to Heifetz (1994), leadership
involves using authority to help followers handle the differing values that emerge in a rapidly changing
environment. The ethics involved in this perspective are based directly on the values of workers. These
ethical values provided a basis of trust and support of which Enron leaders ignored and ultimately destroyed.
Leadership has several responsibilities both to the organization and its members. The evidence of
organizational objectives that have been effectively communicated, a positive and reaffirming atmosphere,
and the opportunity for growth by members can be considered the essential ingredients. The failure to provide
these essentials will eventually lead to the downfall of the organization’s structure, both morally and ethically.
Leadership provides a voice that reflects the internal resources of the organization (Heifetz, 1994). Trust is
the crucial word in the development of this voice and eventually who will wield the most power in the
workplace. Leaders and the developing teams will thrive in this culture of trust by identifying constructive
behaviors that reflect the organization’s values and ethics and thus create a strong working environment.
Without the presence of a trusted leader, workplace individuals will not have the opportunity to mirror these
values and ethics in their teamwork and production capabilities. This begins with the establishment and
communication of defined objectives (Dyer, Dyer, & Dyer, 2007).
BHM 3010, Introduction to Hospitality
2
Developing a teamwork approach in the workplace contributes to higher productivity,
quality,
happier
UNIT x better
STUDY
GUIDE
employees, and resultantly, more satisfied customers. All of these items are essential
Title pieces of an effective
and efficient working environment, and they need to be injected into the thoughts and minds of team
members. Confidence and trust must be established and maintained (Lencioni, 2002).
References
Dyer, W. G., Dyer, W. G. Jr., & Dyer, J. H. (2007). Team building. Proven strategies for improving team
performance. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Heifetz, R.A. (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lencioni, P. (2002). The five dysfunctions of a team: A leadership fable. San Francisco, CA: Josey Bass.
Walker, J. R. (2013). Introduction to hospitality management (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice
Hall.
Suggested Reading
Click here to view the Chapter 17 PowerPoint presentation or here to view a PDF of the presentation.
Click here to view the Chapter 18 PowerPoint presentation or here to view a PDF of the presentation.
Please use the Business Source Complete data in the CSU Online Library to locate and read the following
article:
Murray, A., & Devlin, J. (2007). Making knowledge-informed decisions in a flat world. KM World, 16(2), 19-20.
BHM 3010, Introduction to Hospitality
3
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e
and
Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e
John R. Walker
Communications and Decision Making
Chapter 17
Managerial Communication
• Personal face-to-face.
• Telephone.
• Mail/fax.
• Memos, reports, log books, & other
internal/external written communication.
• Email, Internet web sites.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Communication
• The definition of communication is the
exchange of information & meaning.
• The essence of communication is the
exchange of information.
• Another important aspect of communication is
understanding the meaning.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Types of Communication
• Interpersonal:
– Between two or more people.
• Organizational:
– All the different forms, networks, & systems of
communication that occur among individuals,
groups, or departments within an organization.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
7 Elements:
Interpersonal
Communication Process
1.
The communication source
2.
The message
3.
Encoding
4.
The channel
5.
Decoding
6.
Receiver
7.
Feedback
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Noise
• Part of the interpersonal communication
process.
• Noise can consist of various activities going
on in the background, sounds of machinery or
coworkers, or as simple as static in the
telephone line or illegible print.
• Noise is considered a constant disturbance in
the communications process & the cause of
distortions of the message.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Communicating Interpersonally
• When people are engaged in a conversation,
only a small fraction of the total message they
share is contained in the words they use.
• A large part of the message is contained in
gestures, postures, facial expressions, vocal
elements, etc. (this may = 2/3 of the
conversation).
– Nonverbal
– Body language
– Verbal intonation
Book Title
Author name
© 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Barriers to Effective
Interpersonal Communication
• Perception
• Semantics
• Nonverbal communication:
– Misinterpretations
– Multicultural issues
• Ambiguity
• Defensiveness
Book Title
Author name
© 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Overcoming Barriers
• Use feedback:
– Restate message for clarity.
• Active listening:
– Listening for the total meaning.
• Avoid triggering defensiveness.
• Interpersonal Dynamics:
– See next slide.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Overcoming Barriers
• Interpersonal Dynamics:
– Have a great attitude toward your associates.
– Treat them fairly, with respect, & establish a climate of
trust.
– Include them in decision making.
– Be sensitive to cultural differences.
– Learn the best ways to communicate with your
associates.
– Make sure that your associates know what is expected.
– Actively listen to associates.
– Involve your associates.
– Train & develop associates so they can reach their full
potential!
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Formal vs. Informal
Communication
• Formal:
– Used by managers to communicate job
requirements.
– Follows chain of command.
• Informal:
– Discussion may be job related but may not be
essential to performing job duties.
– Does not follow chain of command.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Flow of Communication
• Upward: takes place when superiors rely on
their subordinates for receiving information.
– It flows upward from employees to managers.
• Downward: flows down from supervisor to
employee.
• Lateral: takes place between the employees
of a company who are on the same
hierarchical level in the organization.
• Diagonal: takes place between employees
who are on different hierarchical levels & in
different departments of the organization.
Book Title
Author name
© 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Communication Networks
• Chain: flows according to the existing chain of
command of an organization.
– This includes downward as well as upward communication flow.
• Wheel: communication flows between a strong
leader & each individual in a group or team.
– In this network coworkers communicate solely with their leader.
• All-channel: freely flowing communication
between all members of a group or team.
• The grapevine: one survey reported that 75% of
employees hear about matters first through
rumors on the grapevine!
Book Title
Author name
© 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Decision-Making Process
1. Identify & define problem.
2. Identify decision criteria.
3. Allocation of weights to criteria.
4. Development of alternatives.
5. Analysis of alternatives.
6. Selection of alternative.
7. Installation of alternative.
8. Evaluation of decision effectiveness.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Making Decisions
• Rationality: fully objective & logical.
• Bounded rationality: managers make decisions based
on the decision-making process that is bounded, or
limited, by an individual’s ability to gain information &
make decisions.
• Intuitive decision making is a subconscious process of
making decisions on the basis of experience &
accumulated judgment.





Values- & ethics-based
Experience-based
Affect initiated-based
Cognitive-based
Subconscious-based
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Types of Problems &
Decisions
• Programmed: situations that recur on a
regular basis.
• Non-programmed: nonrecurring & made
necessary by unusual circumstances.
• Conditions under which decisions are made:
– Certainty
– Risk
– Uncertainty
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Decision-Making Styles
• Way of thinking: decision makers differ in their
way of thinking; some are rational & logical,
while others are intuitive & creative.
• Tolerance for ambiguity: managers with a
high tolerance for ambiguity save a lot of time
while making a decision.
– These individuals are able to process many thoughts
at the same time.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Decision-Making Styles
• 4 major decision-making styles:
– Directive: low tolerance for ambiguity, rational thinker,
usually logical, & efficient.
– Analytical: large tolerance for ambiguity, require more
information before making their decisions, & consider
more alternatives.
– Conceptual: look at numerous alternatives, are
typically very broad in their outlook, & focus is on the
long run.
– Behavioral: work well with others, receptive to
suggestions, concerned about the achievements of
employees, commonly communicate through
meetings, & try to avoid conflict.
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Trends
• Trends such as improving technology to aid
with communication are likely to continue.
• An integral part of management’s decisionmaking process is the management support
system (MSS).
– The MSS has two distinctive elements: the
management information system (MIS) & the
decision support system (DSS).
Book Title
Author name
© 2012 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The End
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e
and
Introduction to Hospitality Management, 4e
John R. Walker
Control
Chapter 18
What is Control?
• Control provides a way to check actual results
against expected results.
• Action can then be taken to correct the situation
if the results are too far from the expected
outcome
• It is also about providing guidelines and
mechanisms to keep things on track
Introduction to Hospitality, 6e and Introduction to
Hospitality Management, 4e – Walker
© 2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
What is Control
• Control is the management function that
provides information on the degree to which
goals and objectives are being accomplished.
• Management engages in controlling by
monitoring activities and taking corrective
actions whenever the goals are not being met.
• An effective control system ensures that
activi …
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