For this assignment Please follow the instructions :Please only bid if you have access to the book. Textbook: Albanese, Catherine. America: Religions and Religion, 5th ed. (Boston: Wadsworth Cengage, 2013). ISBN:9781133050025. You must use the book for the assignment I also attached a powerpoint.No plagerism,no copy and paste original work please. Please respond with 750 words total In a three paragraph essay, describe principles and practices that united 1) Reform Jews in America, then 2) Conservative Jews in America, and finally 3) principles, practices, and issues that united all Jews together in America
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Judaism in America
Rituals and Festivals
The Jewish Diaspora (Dispersion)
Four waves of Jewish Immigrants to America
There would be 4 waves of Jewish immigrants to America
1. 1492 to 1700s – from Spain & Holland
2. 1820-1880 – from Germany
3. 1880-1914 – from eastern Europe
4. 1930-1940s – fleeing Nazism in Europe
II. Biblical Judaism
The story of Judaism begins with Abraham in 1800 BCE
A creed was recited at religious festivals found in
Deuteronomy 26 in the Old Testament (Hebrew Scriptures)
concerning the story of Abraham
The creed begins,
“A wandering Aramean was my father Abraham . . .”
The creed continues to explain that
Abraham, his sons, and grandsons . . . descendants
were wandering and homeless for centuries
until they finally settled in the Promised Land
– a land God promised them, the land of Canaan.
They called it Israel.
The history of the Jewish people
as described in the bible shows
that the theme of wandering,
or looking for a place to call home,
has always been a part of Judaism
A brief history of Judaism as presented in the Bible
1800 BCE Abraham and Sarah settle in Canaan (later to be called Israel)
Abraham’s son Isaac marries Rebekah. They have twin sons Jacob & Esau.
Jacob (also called Israel) has 12 sons which become the 12 tribes of Israel.
1700 BCE Jacob and sons move to Egypt due to a famine & remain for 450 years
becoming enslaved eventually.
1280 BCE The Exodus: the Hebrews (tribes of Israel) leaves Egypt led by Moses.
The people receive the 10 commandments at Mt. Sinai and live/wander in the
desert for 40 years. After this, Joshua becomes the leader and he leads the
people back to Canaan/Israel. They battle local inhabitants for 200 years. Local
leaders arise and are called Judges.
A brief history of Israel (continued)
1025 BCE The United Monarchy of Israel begins with the first king, King Saul
1000-960 BCE King David, 2nd king. Capital is built in Jerusalem. The borders of
Israel are the largest they will ever be.
960-921 BCE King Solomon, 3rd king. Jerusalem Temple is built. Golden Age of Israel
After Solomon’s death there is a civil war, the north against the south.
This begins the Divided Monarchy of Israel. Now two nations exist, Judah in the
South and Israel in the North.
A brief history of Israel (continued)
The Divided Monarchy
South: Judah with Jerusalem as capital
Both nations exist side by side for 200 years.
In 721 BCE the northern kingdom of Israel falls to Assyria
In 586 BCE the southern kingdom of Judah is taken over by Babylon. The Temple is
burned down. The people of Judah are taken captive to Babylon and made slaves.
539 BCE Persia (Iran) defeats Babylon. The Persian religion is Zoroastrianism.
King Cyrus of Persia releases the slaves and allows the Jewish people (people of
Judah) to return home. When they get home, they begin re-building the temple.
A brief history of Israel (continued)
515 BCE – 70 CE The Second Temple Period
458 BCE Ezra the Scribe returns to Judah with the Torah which is the first 5 books
of Bible, and the first mention of it.
333 BCE The Greeks, under Alexander the Great of Macedonia conquer Persia and
the entire Mediterranean region. The area formerly called Israel and Judah is now
called Palestine. After Alexander’s death, his empire is divided and ruled by his
323-198 BCE Palestine (Israel/Judah) is ruled by Egypt
198-167 BCE Palestine ruled by Syria
167 BCE Maccabean revolt. The Jewish people win their independence.
63 BCE Palestine is conquered by Rome.
70 CE Romans burn down Jerusalem, Temple is destroyed (never to be rebuilt), the
Bible is compiled, and the Jewish people are dispersed from their homeland.
III. Rituals and Festivals
The most important Jewish ritual is the celebration of the Sabbath
• The Sabbath is the 7th day of each week.
• In the first book of the Torah, Genesis chapter 1
• It states that God rested on the Sabbath.
• Therefore, the Jews “rest” on the Sabbath
• There is also a family celebration
• The Sabbath begins sundown on Friday
• And ends sundown on Saturday
On the Sabbath,
there is a ritual meal shared on Friday at sundown
• The mother of the house lights candles
• She gives a blessing
• Then the father of the house reads from scriptures (or chants)
• He blesses the bread
• Breaks it apart, and distributes pieces to each family member.
• After this, a lively meal is shared.
Image: bread and wine
Other Jewish celebrations
1. Passover recalls the Exodus from Egypt
2. Shavuot recalls the giving of the 10 Commandments to Moses
3. Sukkot recalls the desert wandering period
4. Rosh Hashanah = Jewish New Year (Jews use the lunar calendar)
5. Yom Kippur is the Day of Atonement, a time to purge sins once a year.
6. Hanukah recalls the rekindling of the lights of the candelabrum
(menorah) when the Temple was re-dedicated after Israel regained its
independence in the Maccabean Revolt.
Jewish rites of passage
• A rite of passage is a religious ritual that one goes through in puberty.
• Most religions have a coming-of-age celebration.
• For Jewish boys there is the Bar Mitzvah
• For Jewish girls, it is called a Bat Mitzvah
• At age 13, one becomes responsible or is held accountable for their actions.
• The Bar or Bat Mitzvah is a ceremony to commemorate one’s new status.
image: Bar Mitzvah ceremony
IV. The Jewish Diaspora
The word diaspora means dispersion
Image: Jewish man
In the 1st century
the Romans burned down Jerusalem and the Temple
The temple would never be rebuilt.
From this point on, the Jews have been scattered from their
Image: model of Jewish temple
Jews fled throughout the Mediterranean region
A large community settled in Spain
Image: Mediterranean region
During the Middle Ages,
there were 2 distinct groups of Diaspora Jews in Europe
1) Spain – Sephardic Jews
2) central Europe – Ashkenazi Jews
They experienced systematic persecution:
Discrimination of Jews by Christians started in 4th century
when Christians gained power
Christian Catholic monarchs
in league with bishops
passed laws against Jews for centuries
(Also against Christian heretics, pagans, Muslims).
forced Jews to live in “ghettoes”
Ghetto means “little village” in Yiddish
Yiddish is a combination of Jewish and German.
These villages would get quite over-crowded
but were the only places they were allowed to live
image: entrance to ghetto
century in Spain
1. All Jewish rituals were forbidden
2. marriage between Jews & Christians forbidden
3. Jews could not engage in business with Christians
3 images: Sabbath candles, ghetto, Jewish wedding
The Spanish inquisition began in the 12th century
The Catholic Church conducted a Tribunal to interrogate persons
who were not Christians:
Muslims, Jews, heretical Christians, pagans
Non-Christians were tortured & Converted by force
Methods of torture used by the Inquisition
• Burned at the stake
• Stretched on a rack
• Confiscation of land and wealth
With Queen Isabella & king Ferdinand II of Spain
in the 15th century
The Inquisition shifted from the Church to the monarchy
Images: Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand
Queen Isabella was the individual who also
gave Christopher Columbus
funds to make his famous voyage to America in 1492
Image: Christopher Columbus
Also in 1492
the Jews were expelled from Spain
V. The 4 waves
of Jewish immigration to America
Image: 4 waves and lighthouse
The 1st wave of Jewish immigration to America 1492-1700s
Jews from Spain came with Columbus to America in 1492
Columbus came to the Bahamas, Canary Islands, Cuba, and
Brazil. Jews settled here.
Image: Canary Islands
Jews from Spain also fled to Holland
Immigrants from Holland, which included Jews,
founded the colony of New Amsterdam, later called New York
In 1624, the Dutch East India Company of Holland founded
New Amsterdam on the Island of Manhattan in New York.
Image: map of U. S. with New York highlighted
More Jews arrived in New Amsterdam
From Amsterdam, Holland and from Brazil
Image: Holland tulip field and windmill
England eventually took over New Amsterdam
It was re-named New York
In the treaty,
the Dutch secured religious tolerance for inhabitants.
Images: map of U.S. with New York highlighted
The 1st Jewish congregation in America
was established in 1654 in New York in Manhattan
Until 1825 all Jews in New York belonged to this congregation
called Israel Shearith.
Image: synagogue in Manhattan
Rabbi Gershom Mendes from the NY congregation
was one of the founders of Columbia University,
established in New York in 1754.
Jewish immigrants from Holland
also came to Rhode Island
Image: map of U.S. with Rhode Island circled
founded a congregation in Newport, Rhode Island.
In 1759, they built (what would become)
the oldest synagogue in America, the Touro Synagogue
Image: Touro synagogue
The Touro Synagogue
received a letter from George Washington.
The Touro Synagogue is a historic landmark
Image: inside Touro synagogue
Letter from George Washington to Touro Synagogue Aug 17, 1790
– plaque on the wall
The government of the U.S. …gives to bigotry no sanction, to
persecution no assistance … May the children of the stock of
Abraham, who dwell in this land, continue to merit and enjoy
the good will of the other inhabitants; while everyone shall sit in
safety under his own vine and fig tree, and there shall be none
to make him afraid. May the father of all mercies scatter light
and not darkness in our paths, and make us all in our several
vocations useful here, and in his own due time and way
The 1st amendment was up for a vote in congress.
Jews also came to Georgia in the 1st wave
in 1733, Savannah, Georgia
Image: map of U. S. with Georgia highlighted
Founder James Ogelthorpe
was not sure if he wanted Jews in his colony,
but found out there was a
and Wine maker
He let them in.
Dr. Sam Nunes saved colonists from the Yellow Fever
14 Jewish families lived in 1st Georgia colony
3rd Jewish congregation in America
was esablished in 1735, Savannah, Georgia
image: stained glass window
Jews took part in the Revolutionary war
They also founded the Union Society –
the oldest charitable society in the state of Georgia
Image: two orphans
An urban legend:
In 1888, a Jewish man, Joe Jacobs,
owned a chain of drug stores in Atlanta, Georgia.
A customer with a headache
wanted Pimberton’s tonic (a medicine)
to be mixed with seltzer water
Coca-Cola was born
Image: bottle of Coke
Many Jews of Georgia had to flee
to the Carolinas
due to Spanish invaders
coming up from the south.
Jews in South Carolina
By 1800, Charleston, South Carolina
had the largest Jewish population in America
Image: map of U.S. with South Carolina highlighted
The Charter of South Carolina
was written by philosopher John Locke
It guaranteed “liberty of conscience”
to Native Americans, Jews,
& Christian dissenters
South Carolina Jews were from Portugal, Spain, Holland
Image: philosopher John Locke
was the 1st Jewish congregation in South Carolina in 1750
The synagogue was built in 1794
Image: Beth Elohim synagogue
The Hebrew Benevolent Society
of Charleston, S.C.
was established 1784 to help poor and orphans
It still exists today.
Summary of 1st wave 15th – 18th c.
These were Sephardic Jews from Spain, Portugal, Holland
fleeing the Spanish Inquisition
They became landowners, built synagogues, helped with the
Revolutionary War, and founded charitable societies
At end of 1st wave, there were 5,000 Jews in America settled
along eastern seaboard. Population of U.S. at the time, 4.5 million.
About ½ were in South Carolina.
They were Orthodox Jews
The 2nd wave of Jewish immigrants to America 1820-1880
In this time period,
the Jewish population increased to 400,000
These were Ashkenazi Jews from central Europe (Germany)
They were Jews of the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment was a philosophical movement
beginning in the 18th century,
for which REASON became the primary source of authority,
rather than the church, monarchy, tradition
The Enlightenment encouraged education
and independent thought
The American and French Revolutions occurred
in the Enlightenment era.
In this era, the French Emperor, Napoleon,
put an end to the Spanish Inquisition
The invention of printing press in 1440
contributed to the sharing of ideas in the Enlightenment.
The Bible was translated into the common languages.
Previously, it was in Greek and Latin, which very few
people could read.
Image: printing press
Religious scholarship advanced significantly.
The tools of biblical scholarship were developed. This is the
scientific approach to bible study, called “Higher criticism.”
This brought a liberal view to Judaism and Christianity
2nd wave Jews were Liberal Reform Jews
The Enlightenment brought Jews out of the ghettoes in Europe
Legal liberation was experienced under Napoleon
Jews entered the Universities
A failed German revolution in 1848
brought many Jews to America
Educated, Liberal, Reform Jews
came to America in the 2nd wave
They came to cities in the Midwest:
Chicago, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, St. Paul
Employment in America:
First, the Jews found work as peddlers,
they sold their goods out of suitcases or wagons door to door.
As the businesses grew, they started department stores
The Jews entered the middle class
Examples of department stores:
Gimbel’s, Bloomingdale’s, Neiman Marcus, etc.
The Jews built . . .
Homes for orphans
Image: Jewish synagogue in Chicago
Cincinnati Ohio was a center for Reform Judaism
The Leader was Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise
He founded Hebrew Union College to educate rabbis
Images: Rabbi Isaac Meyer Wise and Hebrew Union College
By 1880, the end of the 2nd wave
there were 270 synagogues in U.S.
and 400,000 Jews in America
Image: synagogue in Cincinnati
But prejudice was still a problem
During the Civil War in the 1860s
General Grant did not allow Jews to serve in the military
until Pres. Lincoln found out and rescinded the rule.
Image: President Lincoln
Reform Jews have women rabbis
The first woman rabbi was in Germany in 1935 Regina Jonas
The first woman rabbi in America was in 1972 Sally Priesand
Image: female rabbi
When Jewish immigrants arrived in America
they were alone in a new country,
but their Jewish identity
gave them a way to unite with other Jews.
Image: figures uniting
Reform Jews in America adopted principles and
practices that united them.
1. Reform rabbis formed an organized conference – meaning they
formed a group to decide matters for Reform Jews in America.
2. In 1885 they met in Pittsburgh and put together a set of principles,
the Pittsburgh Platform, of what it meant to be Jewish. They
agreed that the most important thing was to spread justice and
mercy as the Jewish prophets of the bible had taught.
The Reform rabbis also
3. Published a Prayer book to be used as a new order of worship for
4. They agreed that worship services would be conducted in English
5. They did not see the need to follow the Mosaic dietary restrictions;
they did away with eating kosher.
With these changes, 1-5 a Reform Jew could go to any Reform
synagogue in America and know what they stood for (standing up for
justice and mercy), what it meant to be Jewish, and worship in the
3rd wave of Jewish immigrants to America 1880-1914
were Jews from eastern Europe: Poland & Russia
They were Conservative Jews
Image: Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe
These were Jews escaping pogroms in Russia
Pogrom is a Russian word meaning to wreak havoc
These were organized riots against Jews
They wrecked their homes & confiscated property
90% of Jews in Russia left and came to the U.S.
The 3rd wave of Jewish immigrants came to big cities
• New York
Image: late 19th century city
They found employment
in factories, mines, garment industry
These were Conservative Jews
They were just happy to have their freedom
and wanted to conserve their traditional religion,
which they could not do in eastern Europe.
Like the Reform Jews, the Conservative Jews also had
principles and practices that united them.
• The center of the Conservative movement was in Philadelphia under
the leadership of Mordecai Kaplan.
• The Conservatives promoted following the full Mosaic law, including
the dietary restrictions of eating only kosher food, whereas Reform
Jews followed more the principles of establishing justice and mercy.
• Their synagogue services would be conducted in Hebrew
• In 1918, Mordecai Kaplan created the Synagogue Center movement
which provided a place for Jews to meet for many social activities.
is a branch of conservative Judaism
It originated in eastern Europe
The founder was Israel ben Eliezer
He lived from 1698-1760
He was a healer, he could predict the future,
was very wise, and taught in parables
Hasidism means piety (personal devotion)
Beliefs and practices:
1. Believe God permeates all nature
2. Emphasis on prayer
3. Exuberant worship services
4. miracles experienced
Image: Jewish man raising hands in prayer
Hasidic Jews wear distinctive clothing
Dark jacket or overcoat
Image: Hasidic Jews
The majority of Hasidic Jews live in New York City
They tend to work in the garment industry
and diamond industry
In the 15th and 16th centuries,
Diamond mines were discovered in Brazil.
Jewish immigrants from Brazil
brought this business
with them to the U.S.
The 4th wave of Jewish immigrants to America
Were from Nazi Germany and central Europe
This was in the 1930s and 1940s
Image: Jews in 1930s Europe
The Holocaust occurred in the 1930s and 40s
This was a time of persecution
and genocide of Jewish people in Europe.
Holocaust is a Greek word meaning burnt offering.
Image: required identification badge of Jews in Europe
In 1933 Hitler became chancellor of Germany in the Nazi
political party of the National Socialist German Workers
• Germany became a dictatorship in 1934
• Hitler promoted ethnic cleansing
• Claiming the Aryan race as superior
• Jews became a primary target
Image: Hitler gives speech to crowds
Nazi Germany Invasions
• In 1939, Germany invaded Poland
• 1940 Denmark, Norway WWII begins
• 1940 France, Netherlands, Belgium
• 1941 N. Africa, Yugoslavia, Greece, Soviet Union
In Germany and occupied lands
Jews (and others) were rounded up,
put in concentration work camps.
Jews were state slaves in work camps
They often died of starvation & disease
image: photo of Jews in German concentration camp
Towards the end of WWII
Jews were systematically burned alive in crematoriums
or suffocated to death in gas chambers
to speed up the elimination process
There were 9 million Jews living in Europe in 1930
6 million Jews were killed by Hitler
1 million were children
Image: 2 Jewish children in Nazi Germany
What did America do to help?
• During the Great Depression of 1930s work was scarce and
anti-semiticism was strong (hostility & prejudice towards Jews)
• Few Jews were allowed into America
• Efforts to allow more Jews in were voted down by Congress.
• Finally, in 1948 after the war
new laws allowed more Jews into America.
Philosopher Edmund Burke said:
that is necessary
for the triumph of evil,
is for good men do nothing.”
America became the largest center of Judaism in the world
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