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Literature review on
A Research Study on the Negative Effects
of Social Media and Cyberbullying amongst Teenagers in the United States
use the sources provided. Below I have attached a topic statement.


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Dharna Patel
GE 2024 Research and Technology
Professor Nkansah
Annotated Bibliography
Wednesday, February 27,2019
A Research Study on the Negative Effects of Social Media and Cyberbullying amongst
Teenagers in the United States
Rogers-Whitehead, C. (2018, October 17). What causes cyberbullying? Retrieved February 27,
This article is helpful for my research because the article states the reasons of
cyberbullying. It mentions the kind of audience being targeted and what kind of people
are the bullies. This article also explains on how to prevent cyberbullying.
Gabriel, G. (2015, June 22). What are the Causes of Cyber Bullying? Retrieved February 27,
Not an exact reason is mentioned of why people cyberbully In this article Gabriel
mentions how empowered the bully feels by bullying others. It boosts their confidence or
satisfies their ego. There are many possible reasons of why they it. If Cyberbully is gets
caught, it’s going to affect their future since it’s a lawfully a crime. Finally, it mentions a
couple of negative effects of it.
Johnson, A. L. R. (2017). Negative effects of cyberbullying and social media use among young
adolescents (Order No. 10599840). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.
This is a research study on negative effects of cyberbullying and social media use among
young adolescents, this research will contribute a lot to my research study because it has
lots of classified tables and interviews. I could use these as examples for my survey
questions and tables for example a table where they have records of the relationship
between social media and cyberbullying.
Gordon, S., & Forman, J. (2018, September 21). How Does Cyberbullying Affect Your Child?
This article explains about many negative effects are that the victim of cyberbullying
faces. Victims may feel overwhelmed, powerless, exposed, angry and vengeful. Victims
tend to feel lonely and depressed which causes them to feel suicidal as well.
Patchin, J. W. (2017, August 08). Summary of Our Cyberbullying Research (2004-2016).
This a research which was carried out by Patchin at the Cyberbullying Research Center
where they were able to have a survey done from a large number of middle and high
schools by which they were able to draw charts and compare it with their previous
research of the victims of cyberbullying.
Recognizing the signs of cyberbullying and its effects. (2016, Oct 14). The Leduc
In the newspaper article, it teaches parent on how to prevent their child from misusing
social media, and keep track of their activities on social media. This is one of the
questions I raised for my research study, how to prevent todays teenager to use social
media for cyberbullying.
Teen Cyberbullying and Social Media Use on the Rise [INFOGRAPHIC]. (2018, October 29).
This is an article which contribute a lot to my research study since it has both kind of
information qualitative and quantitative about cyberbullying. This article has everything
one needs to know about cyberbullying, the causes, effects, symptoms, preventions and
the statistics.
Martin, N. (2018, December 20). From Cyberbullying To Digital Addiction: How Social Media
Is Affecting Teens.
In this Forbes article the author has collected data from different sources in which they
have statistics from the amount of students who have cell phones to number of percentage
of the students of how social media affects the teenagers.
Cyberbullying. (n.d.). Retrieved from
This is website that is specially created for bullying and cyberbullying is one of the main
topic. It has texts and videos of teenagers who talk about being cyberbullied through
social medium and their effects and differences it brings to their daily lives.
Diep, F. (2018, April 25). Confronting My Cyberbully, 13 Years Later. Retrieved from
This a story in which a student decides to raise her voice against her cyberbully after 13
years. In this article, she mentions how she was bullied by her own bestie after being in
bad terms. They cyberbully used the victims own account to send suicidal and cruel
notes. How things would have been different if she raised her voice earlier and later what
happened when she met her cyberbully. This is a good example to include in my research
Student Perceptions of the Hip Hop Culture’s
Influence on the Undergraduate Experience
Roger D. Wessel   Kerry A. Wallaert
This study sought to determine how identification
and engagement with the hip hop culture
influenced the educational experiences of
undergraduate students at a Midwestern,
predominately White university by interviewing
11 students who self-identified as being immersed
in the hip hop culture. Through a qualitative,
phenomenological investigation, the hip hop
culture was found to have a positive impact
on the collegiate experiences of undergraduates
specifically as it related to socialization, personal
expression through language and clothing, goals,
and cultural appreciation of college students.
The collegiate environment offers an oppor­
tunity for students to explore different
lifestyles, personality traits, and beliefs (Loxley
& Whiteley, 1986), and these experiences
often define the type of persons they become
(Astin & Antonio, 2000). Students are
introduced to various cultures in college that
often can be differentiated into subgroups
sharing distinctive values, attitudes, and
norms (Kuh, 1995). Some individuals have
expressed concern about college students
identifying with the negative behaviors of
the hip hop/rap music culture and how it
hinders the collegiate process both inside and
outside the classroom (Evelyn, 2000; Hikes,
2004; Stewart, 2004). This study sought to
determine how identification and engagement
with the hip hop culture influenced the
educational experiences of undergraduates at a
Midwestern, predominately White university.
Following a review of the related literature
and methodology describing how the study
was conducted, findings and conclusions of
student perceptions of the influence of the hip
hop culture on the undergraduate experience
are provided.
Student Development,
Student Cultures, and Hip
Hop Culture
An increasingly diverse population of American
students attends college (Pascarella & Terenzini,
2005). Factors such as the environment,
socialization, and academics, including how
college students develop and the role student
cultures have in the undergraduate experience,
play a role in understanding the collegiate
experience. The review of related literature
provides context for how college students
transition into higher education, develop and
mature, and identify with various student
subcultures, and how the hip hop culture
impacts the collegiate experience.
Student Development
While immersed in the higher education
environment, students mature, change, and
develop (White, 1980) influenced by physical
maturation, environmental influences, and the
personal involvement between an individual
and the environment (Kitchener, 1982).
Astin’s (1984) five postulates on college student
involvement serve as the theoretical founda­
tion for this study. The first postulate is that
“involvement refers to the investment of
Roger Wessel is Associate Professor of Higher Education at Ball State University and Kerry A. Wallaert is Coordinator
of Residential Leadership at Georgia State University.
March/April 2011

vol 52 no 2
Wessel & Wallaert
physical and psychosocial energy in various
objects” (p. 298). This can be demon­strated
by something as generalized as the student
experience or very specific such as preparing
for an exam. The second postulate, that
involvement occurs along a continuum,
indicates that students have different degrees
and objects of involvement. The third postulate
is that involvement has both quantitative and
qualitative features. For example, a student’s
involvement in academic work can be measured
by the amounts of hours spent studying
(quantitative) or whether or not the student
understands reading assignments (qualitative).
The fourth postulate is that student learning
is “directly proportional to the quality and
the quantity of student involvement in that
program” (p. 298). The last postulate is that
the goal of educational policy and/or practice
should be to increase student involvement.
Given that Astin believed that involvement has
a behavioral component—“it is not so much
what the individual thinks or feels, but what the
individual does, or how he or she behaves, that
defines and identifies involvement” (p. 298)—
he claimed that these postulates should provide
clues for encouraging student involvement in
campus experiences and designing campus
environments for college students.
In addition to transitional issues and per­
sonal development, there are many changes
in college students’ cognitive skills, character­
istics, values, behaviors, and attitudes while
attending college as reported in Pascarella
and Terenzini’s (1991, 2005) collection of
research studies. The interaction of a person
with the surrounding environment often
results in personal change. Changes in selfconcept, self-esteem, attitudes, values, and
identity are examples of how the collegiate
experience affects students. Identity formation,
occurring during the traditional undergraduate
experience and influenced by the collegiate
settings, allows students to partake in diverse
environments, connect with successful role
models, and examine opportunities presented
to them (Waterman, 1982).
While immersed in diverse environments,
and learning through new opportunities,
undergraduates are able to develop their selfconcept (Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991, 2005).
Academic and social self-concepts are relational
terms used to signify students’ personal
competence or skills in relation to the skills
of other students. Academic self-concept is
considered to be reflective of the way in which
students compare themselves to other students
based on academic skill or performance. Social
self-concepts include characteristics such
as popularity, leadership ability, social selfconfidence, and understanding others. Selfesteem, defined as “the evaluation which the
individual makes and customarily maintains
with regard to himself ” (Coopersmith, 1967,
p. 4-5), is considered to be connected with
an undergraduate student’s perception of selfconcept. Academic and social self-concepts
often impact the individuals with whom
students identify in the collegiate setting.
Student Cultures
Student cultures are often informally differ­
entiated into subgroups sharing distinctive
values, attitudes, and norms. Student cultures
and subcultures, defined as having “a particular
combination of interests that sets them apart
from other groups” (Kuh, 1995, p. 570),
comprise individuals with similar interests
in areas such as religion, gender, social
and political connections, and educational
and occupational goals. Although some
undergraduates seem unaware of the diverse
culture around them (Stearns, 2004), student
subcultures with which individuals identify and
affiliate, influence student behavior (Weidman,
1984) and play a role in the development of
students (Kuh; Pascarella & Terenzini, 1991).
The student’s interpersonal environment has
Journal of College Student Development
Student Perceptions of Hip Hop Culture
the “greatest impact on changes in values,
attitudes, beliefs, and actions” (Whitt et al.,
2001, p. 174). The peer culture permeates all
aspects of students lives and either “enhanced
or eroded the best educational efforts of
faculty and administrators” (Dalton & Petrie,
1997, p. 18). Some student subcultures affect
cognitive, psychological, and behavioral
development because they determine how
much students study, what they learn, and
with whom they interact (Kuh, 1995). One of
the student subcultures some students identify
with is the hip hop culture.
Hip Hop Culture
The hip hop counter-culture movement took
form in the South Bronx in the early 1970s
in lower socioeconomic areas of New York
(Perkins, 1996). Disc jockeys, emcees, break
dancers, and graffiti writers brought about the
hip hop cultural revolution (Keyes, 2002). Hip
hop culture is defined by behavior displayed
through stylized dress, language, and gestures
associated with urban street culture. It welcomes
a diverse audience; African American and White
youth are engaged in a similar culture (Kitwana,
2002). The communication within this culture
provides a public space for individuals to
connect with each other. Rap music is a
common expression of the hip hop culture
(George, 1998), yet Price (2006) has questioned
if the violent lyrics often associated with rap
music are indeed part of the hip hop culture.
Many authors have documented the
impact of music and fashion on past cultural
movements. For example, Kaiser (1988)
demonstrated how music shaped an American
generation during the 1960s, Wintz (1988)
documented how the Harlem Renaissance
impacted literature and the arts near the
end of World War I, and Latham (2000)
acknowledged how fashion impacted the
1920s. Currid (2007) argued that fashion,
art, and music has impacted the economy of
March/April 2011

vol 52 no 2
New York City as much if not more than real
estate and finance. Similarly, amid the success
of hip hop and the rap subgenre, controversy
has existed regarding the impact of hip hop
on the culture (Keyes, 2002; Roach, 2004).
There have been negative influences of the hip
hop culture. In her editorial on the hip hop
subculture on college campuses, Evelyn (2000)
voiced concern that college students were
identifying with negative components of the
hip hop/rap music culture. Evelyn indicated
that college and university officials claimed
that this culture was “eating away at the
morals, and ultimately classroom experience,
of today’s college student” (p. 24). Faculty and
students occasionally had differing views of the
influence that the hip hop culture had on the
collegiate learning experience; students stated
that they could “listen to the music, even party
to it” (p. 25) and still have an engaging and
critical response when in the classroom.
Hikes’s (2004) comments regarding
a popular rap artist’s potential visit to the
Spelman College campus indicated that some
rap music imagery was “instrumental in driving
respect for Black culture to an all-time low” (p.
40). She said some rap music provides for nonBlack children “gross mis­repre­sentations of the
Black experience,” for Black girls an “unrealistic
and harmful images of Black womanhood,”
and for Black boys a “glorification of the ‘thug
life’ and its per­petual cycle of violence” (p.
40). Stewart (2004) reported on the negative
influences of the hip hop culture and rap
music on many histor­ically black colleges and
universities but also suggested that one can
enjoy the culture and music without letting it
control oneself.
Even though there has been a notion of
negativity regarding undergraduates and the hip
hop culture, Kitwana (2002) claimed that the
messages within hip hop lyrics could be utilized
to inspire students, especially students of color.
Students were able to make connections to
Wessel & Wallaert
their coursework in areas such as history, art,
and language. For example, interest in the hip
hop culture led students to explore writing
and poetry and inspired students to utilize
their creativity and to pursue career goals. The
intellectual connection between students and
the hip hop culture has influenced American
students, Black and White, to actively explore
ways to empower younger generations. Petchauer
(2009) framed the growing hip hop literature
into three categories: hip hop based education
(using hip hop as a curricular resource), hip
hop meaning(s) and identities (relationships
between hip hop and young people), and
hip hop aesthetic forms (ways of being and
doing). Although problematic expressions have
been acknowledged (materialism, offensive
language, stereotypes, hedonism), the hip hop
subculture uses creative cultural expression
to provide context for contemporary politics,
history, and race (Dyson, 2007). Hip hop has
impacted the daily lives of college students,
including their organizations, events, routines,
and habits (Petchauer, 2010). Walker (2006),
reporting that more than 85 courses focused
on hip hop were taught in American colleges
and universities during 2005–2006, said that
hip hop as an academic discipline “allows for
the teaching of the genre’s beginnings without
getting sidetracked by its current negative
connotations” (p. 22). Integrating hip hop into
the basic writing curriculum in colleges may
have positive student persistence implications
(Forell, 2006).
The purpose of this phenomenological study
was to determine how identification and
engagement with the hip hop culture influ­enced
the educational experiences of under­graduate
students at a Midwestern, pre­d omi­n ately
White university. The research question was:
How has identification with the hip hop
culture influenced the educational experiences
of undergraduate students at a Mid­western,
predominately White university? For the
purpose of this study hip hop is defined as
a culture one lives or experiences, often
demonstrated as the stylized appearance,
language, and gestures often associated with
urban street culture (Kitwana, 2002). Rap
music is considered to be a subgenre of the hip
hop culture (George, 1998).
Design of the Study
The study’s population consisted of under­
graduates immersed in the hip hop culture at
a Midwestern, predominately White university,
during the 2005–2006 academic year. It was
impossible to know exactly how many students
at this university fit the population profile.
A sample of 11 undergraduate students who
self-identified as immersed in the hip hop
culture participated in semistructured personal
interviews. Astin (1984) identified student
involvement as the amount of physical and
psychological energy that students devote to
the undergraduate experience. He provided
an example of a highly involved student as
one who “devotes considerable energy to
studying, spends much time on campus,
participates actively in student organizations,
and interacts frequently with faculty members
and other students” (p. 297). The students in
this study, self-identified as being immersed
in the hip hop culture, fit Astin’s definition of
involved students within the hip hop culture.
No attempt was made to measure immersion
in the hip hop culture; the researchers sought
undergraduates who had a personal and
significant involvement with the hip hop
culture and self-identified as being immersed
in the hip hop culture.
The participants were selected in the
following manner. In her role as a member
of the housing and residence life staff, one of
the researchers had access to email addresses
Journal of College Student Development
Student Perceptions of Hip Hop Culture
of all students living on campus. An electronic
message was sent to approximately 6,000
undergraduates living on campus explaining
the nature of the study and inviting them
to participate. Eleven students who selfidentified with the hip hop culture and agreed
to participate in the study were interviewed.
Prior to the beginning of the interviews, the
students were informed of their rights as
informants, that their participation in the
study was voluntary, and that their answers
would be anonymous. The participants
consisted of 6 female and 5 male traditional
undergraduates. These students, ages 17 to 23,
self-identified as being immersed in the hi …
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