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Settling length (ft) =
o
Temperature of water ( C)=
4
20
3
Density of water (kg/m ) =
dynamic viscosity (kg/m s) =
gravitaional constant (m/s^2)=
Particle diameter
1.5 mm
3mm 6 mm
Total settling length (m)
Weight of particles (g)
Number of particles
NR
0.0238
10
0.1663
10
1.3824
10
Weight per particle (g)
Diameter of particle (m)
3
Volume of particle (m )
Specific weight (N/m3 )
Specific gravity
1
2
3
Average
Exp. Settling Velocity (m/s)
Members:
1.5 mm
15.97
16.28
16.16
16.14
Time (sec)
3mm
9.52
9.60
9.46
9.53
6 mm
5.53
5.66
5.60
5.60
Cd
Vs (m/s)
orange
1.5 mm
green
3mm
white
6 mm
1. Compute the Reynolds number (NR) for each particle and
determine if laminar, transition, or turbulent conditions exist.
(base on the temperature, find the viscosity and desity of water
)
2. Find the Cd based on NR
3.Apply the equations for discrete particle settling to estimate
1. Plot the settling velocity (Y-axis) vs particle
diameter (X-axis) for each type of particle
tested.
2. Compare plots v vs. d; v vs. d2; v vs. d0.5
h particle and
conditions exist.
nd desity of water
tling to estimate
Settling Distance =
5 ft
1.524 m
Turbidity (NTU) of
Tap Water
Mixture
1
1.27
302
2
1.95
317
Average
1.61
309.5
1ft
Time (min)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
309.50
245.00
88.40
45.10
34.60
29.10
24.70
21.50
Turbidity (NTU) of water at each sampling port
2ft
3ft
4ft
1
2
3
4 Average
309.50
309.50
309.50
309.50
339.00
360.00
362.00
326.50
145.00
399.00
437.00
267.35
66.20
71.70
367.00
137.50
40.10
38.60
66.50
44.95
29.50
41.60
34.20
33.60
27.70
26.50
23.20
25.53
22.20
29.30
20.00
23.25
%Rt
Vu (m/s)
1. Calculate %R.
2. Plot %R vs settling time (ts)
(X-axis)
WIDENER UNIVERSITY
DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING
CE 304
Water Resources and Environmental Engineering
Laboratory Manual
Revised
2018
John F. Davis, Ph.D., PE
Kevin Wang, Ph.D.
INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………… 2
LABORATORY POLICIES ……………………………………………………………………. 5
REPORTS AND PROJECTS REQUIREMENTS ………………………………………….. 6
LAB 1 – DEVELOPMENT OF A CALIBRATION CURVE FOR A TRACER …………. 9
LAB 2 – OPEN CHANNEL HYDRAULICS AND FLOW MEASUREMENT USING
WEIRS………………………………………………………………………………. 13
LAB 3 – ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL TRANSPORT THROUGH A CONTINUOUS
FLOW COMPLETE MIX REACTOR (CFCMR) …………………………….. 18
LAB 4 – ANALYSIS OF MATERIAL TRANSPORT THROUGH A PLUG FLOW
REACTOR ………………………………………………………………………….. 27
LAB 5 – EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SEDIMENTATION ………………………. 43
LAB 6 – ADSORPTION KINETICS AND EQUILIBRIUM ISOTHERMS …………… 58
LAB 7 – COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION OF COLLOIDAL SOLIDS …….. 69
LAB 8 – MEASUREMENT OF WASTEWATER BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN
DEMAND (BOD) AND TREATMENT EFFICIENCY ………………………. 77
APPENDIX ……………………………………………………………………………………. 83
1
INTRODUCTION
CE 304 is an introductory lab course in water resources and environmental
engineering. The course provides hands-on experiments to allow students to observe and
quantify fundamental processes that occur in engineered environmental systems and
natural aquatic environments. Lectures are provided before each major lab to prepare
students with basic theory and address any questions regarding the experiments. Students
will be guided to apply the experimental results to design treatment processes.
Students will take this course as an introduction to lecture-based theory and design
courses with the philosophy that the learning process can be enhanced by first providing
an opportunity to observe and measure fundamental environmental processes. Prior to
this course, students should have taken basic chemistry, physics, and calculus preferably
through differential equations.
Students taking Introduction to Environmental
Engineering, Fluid Mechanics, Hydrology, Water and Wastewater Treatment should
benefit from taking CE 304.
CE 304 is a Writing Enriched (WE) course and is scheduled as the third WE course in
the civil engineering curriculum (Engineering Techniques –ENGR 111 and Materials and
Structures Lab – CE 206 are scheduled prior to CE 304). As such, the writing for this
course is expected to show improvement in writing skills from the previous courses and
continued progress toward professional level report writing.
A. COURSE OBJECTIVES
1. To introduce students to fundamental environmental processes.
2. To familiarize the student with basic measurement and experimental techniques
for open-channel water flow and water and wastewater treatment processes.
3. To guide students in applying experimental results for the design of water and
wastewater treatment processes.
4. To familiarize the student with basic statistics for analysis of experimental data;
5. To develop the student’s written and oral communication skills;
6. To expose the student to the interpersonal relationships involved in group work.
2
B. CLASS ORGANIZATION
1. Lab teams will be organized for each experiment. All experimental work will be
performed by the team as a group. Each student is required to submit an
individual lab report for each experiment.
2. Each team will perform 8 prepared experiments and an independent project.
3. Detailed instructions for the prepared experiments are included in this manual.
Since most of the technical material in the experiments will not have been
covered in lecture courses at this point in the curriculum, lectures are scheduled
prior to each experiment to provide the necessary background and answer any
questions. Students are expected to be familiar with the objectives, scope, and
content of the lab prior to the lecture and experiment. References are provided and
should be read prior to the lecture and experiment. Deviations from the lab
manual will be discussed by the instructor prior to the lab.
4. Safety policies are posted in each laboratory and in this manual (see Laboratory
Policies). Students are expected to comply with these policies at all times. Failure
to comply with these policies will result in reductions of lab grades and possibly
dismissal from the lab.
C. LABORATORY ORGANIZATION
1. A schedule of lab experiments will be provided to each group for the semester.
Each student is expected to read and be familiar with the objectives, background,
and procedures of each laboratory prior to conducting the experiment.
2. All students are required to be present for, and participate in, the experimental
work done in the laboratory. All excused absences require a written request in
advance and/or proper corroboration such as a physician’s note. Unexcused
absences cannot be made up and will result in the student receiving a zero for that
exercise.
3. All members of the group are expected to participate and contribute to the success
of each lab experiment. Tasks that could be coordinated within each group
include: set up of lab equipment, perform preliminary calculations and quality
assurance checks, obtain measurements, and record data. It is the responsibility of
the entire team to ensure that the best results are obtained.
4. One set of data should be recorded per group. The data should be compiled into a
spreadsheet and examined for completeness and accuracy. Once validated, the
data file should be posted via email to all group members and the instructor. The
data files should be printed and attached to the lab reports as an appendix.
3
The grading policy of the instructor is summarized as following:
1. Lab reports: 80%. Refer the grading template in the appendix.
2. Course participation/attendance/assignments: 8%
3. Independent Group Project, Presentation and Evaluation: 12%
Student should submit the assignment (pre-lab questions) before the lecture each time.
Student should submit the lab reports online before the due time. Hardcopy or
submission via email will NOT be accepted and graded. Late submission without
official excuses will be subjected to penalty of the report grade (10% off per day late).
4
LABORATORY POLICIES
Most laboratory regulations are in effect for one of two reasons: to protect the student
or to protect the equipment. The following rules must be observed by all students
utilizing the laboratory:
1. Any accident which results in damage to person or property (yours or Widener’s),
no matter how minor, must be reported to the instructor as soon as possible. First
aid materials are available from the instructor and/or lab technicians.
2. Eye protection shall be worn when handling chemicals or equipment that
could cause an eye injury. Proper footwear is required (no sandals or opentype shoes).
3. Eating and drinking are not permitted at any time in the laboratories,
including computer labs.
4. Horseplay, which is dangerous in a laboratory environment, will not be tolerated
and will result in dismissal and a failing grade.
5. Most of the laboratory experiments are designed to be completed during
scheduled laboratory periods. If for some reason a group does not complete a lab
in class it will be necessary to make up the lab outside of class time. Makeup
time must be approved in advance by the lab instructor. Outside of class periods,
students may not work alone in a laboratory but rather, for safety reasons, must
work in a minimum group of two. When students have finished their work, they
must secure the room (close windows, disconnect power, switch off lights, cleanup work area, return equipment to storage, lock doors, etc.).
6. All equipment should be handled carefully, with due attention paid to possible
hazards. Students should be sure of procedures before beginning work. Consult
the equipment manual or the instructor if there is a question about proper
operation.
7. The laboratories must be left in a clean and tidy state, with equipment put away
and messes thoroughly cleaned up. Failure to do so will result in the lowering of
5
REPORTS AND PROJECTS
REQUIREMENTS
A. REPORTS WRITING
1. Lab reports should be written from the perspective of a practicing engineer to
the extent possible. The reports should be written for a general technical
audience (such as another engineering student or faculty). Assume that the
assignments are projects that you are assigned to work on by your project
manager or client. Therefore, phrases such as: “the students were given the test
specimens ….,” should be avoided. In addition, the stated objectives of the lab
should be technical objectives, not “educational objectives.” For instance, a
practicing engineer is not likely to tell his client that he did the work to learn how
to use the equipment.
2. All reports should be prepared using a Word processor (Microsoft Word) and
submitted online. Students will be responsible for maintaining copies of all
reports in the event that a file is lost or revisions are necessary. All text should be
double spaced. Margins (at least one-inch) should be provided on all sides of the
page. Pages should be consecutively numbered beginning with page 1 following
the title page.
3. All Tables and Figures must be presented in similar format to the ASCE
journals. They should be properly numbered (Figure 1, Table 1), titled, and
labeled (including units), and they should appear as soon as possible after
they are referred to in the text.
4. For figures (graphs, sketches, pictures, or other illustrations), the figure
number and title appear at the bottom of the figure. Table numbers and
titles appear at the top of each table. Original data records and sample
calculations DO NOT belong in the body of the report, but should be included in
titled appendices. The results should be presented in tabular or graphical
format, and should include all pertinent data and information to allow the
reader to independently check the work.
5. All equations must be sequentially numbered ( ie. Eq. 1 or Equation 1.), and all
variables in the equation must be identified the first time they appear in the report.
6. Avoid the use of personal pronouns such as “we” or “I”. Although these
pronouns are acceptable and may be preferred in other writing styles, they are not
widely accepted by technical journals in engineering. Engineering journals prefer
an objective viewpoint; the work being described should be reproducible by
anybody following the procedures described in the study. The use of “we” and
“I” is subjective and may imply that only the authors could do the work.
6
7. Avoid the use of colloquialisms, jargon, and meaningless or unnecessary phrases
(ie. – “the results were as expected”, or “this was a good experiment”). All
parts of the lab report should directly support the objectives of the lab.
8. Use proper spelling and grammar – points will be deducted from lab reports if
grammar and spelling errors persist. Help from the University Writing Center
should be considered, or may be required, if writing problems are not corrected.
References will be made available for help with technical writing.
9. Sections and Content of the Lab Reports:
Students should take pride in their lab reports since they represent the work that
was put into the lab. A “short report form” will be used for the lab reports for
these experiments, and will include the following sections:
a. Title Page
c. Abstract: a brief one to two-paragraph summaries of the objectives, work
conducted during the experiment, and significant results or findings.
Sometimes a background statement may be provided at the beginning of
the abstract.
d. Introduction: Background statement on the relevance of the lab from an
engineering perspective; objectives of the lab; overview, or scope, of the
work.
e.
Procedures and Methods: This section consists of two subsections: (1)
the experimental procedures performed to acquire the data, and (2) the
methods applied to analyze the data to produce the results and achieve the
objectives.
i. Many students fail to recognize that the equations and statistical
methods applied to obtain the results are as important as the raw
data. The reader expects to see these methods discussed in this
section in order to understand how the objectives of the work were
achieved. After reading these details in the Procedures and
Methods Section, the reader will know what to look for and expect
in the Results and Discussion Section. Students may wish to use
subheadings, such as Experimental Procedures and Data Analyses,
to help write and organize this section.
ii. Provide a general description of the work conducted during the
experiment with particular attention to any deviations from the lab
manual. Do not provide a step by step set of instructions that
are found in the lab manual! Theories, formulas, and equations
7
that are applied to the data, or otherwise examined during the
experiment, should be presented and discussed in this section (Data
Analyses). Equations should be numbered and all symbols or
parameters in the equation should be identified as you would find
in a technical journal article.
f. Results and Discussion: Tables and graphs should be used to present
your data, calculations, and results. Discussion must be provided to
describe and explain the data and significance of the information in the
tables and graphs. Comparison of results with theory or accepted formulas
should be discussed. Sources of error should be discussed with respect to
your findings and the significance of these errors with respect to the
objectives of the lab
g. Conclusions: Summarize objectives, significant results, and discuss
conclusions and recommendations.
h. References: Provide a bibliographic list of references used in the lab
report.
i. Appendix: Include the original data sheets from lab, calculations (or at
least one complete set of well documented sample calculations),
application problems, and any other related information which supports
the lab report, but does not fit in the main report. All information and data
needed to develop the results of the lab or project should be presented
either in the main report or the appendix.
10. Check List (in appendix):
Students should use the check list to proofread the report and revise the formats,
contents of the report if necessary. The check list should be placed in the last page
of the report.
B. INDEPENDENT PROJECTS
Each group will be required to present their independent project. During the last week
of the course, each team will make a 15-20 minute oral presentation. Organization of the
presentation can follow the general section outline used for the lab reports. Practice
speaking on your feet without reading what you wish to say. Note cards are certainly
acceptable and often a good idea, but the speech should not be read word for word from
them. Graphical and technical aids should be prepared well in advance, making sure that
you are familiar with the operation of the particular overhead projector, slide projector,
etc., that you will be using. Keep your presentation on-time, respecting your partners’
time allotments. Be prepared to answer questions from the audience once everyone in
your group has finished speaking. Gear your talk to the level of the audience.
8
Lab 1 – Development of a Calibration
Curve for a Tracer
Pre-lab Questions:
1. What is the purpose of using blank sample in the test?
2. What is calibration curve?
A. Lab Objectives
1. Develop a statistically significant calibration curve for both a spectrophotometer
and a colorimeter to measure concentrations of a tracer dye for use in contaminant
transport studies.
2. Apply the calibration curve to determine the concentration of tracer dye in
unknown sample.
B. Student Learning Objectives
1. Learn how to operate a spectrophotometer and colorimeter for reading absorbance
of prepared standard solutions of known concentrations.
2. Learn how to use Excel for regression analyses to determine a statistically
significant relationship to predict concentration as a function of absorbance.
C. References
Hach DR900 Colorimeter User’s Manual
Hach DR4000-UV Spectrophotometer User’s Manual
D. Background
Nonreactive (conservative) dyes are often used in environmental studies to examine
how a fluid (air or water) is transported through an engineered reactor or a natural
environmental system such as a lake or stream. Parameters such as residence times and
flow velocities are often determined from these studies. The dyes should be nontoxic and
easy to detect and measure. Usually a spectrophotometer is required to measure the
absorbance of the dye solution at an optimum wavelength specific to the dye being used.
If a calibration curve is developed for the spectrophotometer from standard solutions of
known dye concentrations, the absorbance measurements can be translated into dye
9
concentrations (mass/volume). Ideally, a linear equation can be developed to calculate
the concentration as a function of absorbance.
For this lab, both a spectrophotometer and a colorimeter may be used to develop
calibration curves for each instrument. The spectrophotometer can be used the find
optimum wavelength for measuring the dye absorbance, and then a calibration curve will
be developed for the spectrophotometer at the optimum wavelength. Since colorimeters
are usually limited to one or two specific wavelengths, a separate calibration curve will
be developed using the wavelength closest to the optimum determined from the
spectrophotometer.
E. Equipment
Hach DR4000-UV Spectrophotometer, Hach DR900 Colorimeter, Red Food
F. Procedure
1. Standard Solutions
a. Prepare a 1000 mg/L standard dye solution by adding 1 mL of dye to 1 L
of water. …