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The experiment is from page 20 to 26 from the Lab Manual. It is called “Lake Profile Lab”.Please see the rubric requirements and follow them.The experiment date is included.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DlT51AosbcAhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XExQ6uaDEJQhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XYjh6sD6BqkPlease see these links to help you finish the lab Report
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………..1
Lab Safety……………………………………………………………………………………………….3
Biochemical Oxygen Demand…………………………………………………………………….4
Coliform Lab ………………………………………………………………………………………….11
Jar Test…………………………………………………………………………………………………16
Lake Profile……………………………………………………………………………………………20
Noise Pollution ……………………………………………………………………………………….27
Settleability of Solids……………………………………………………………………………….34
Solid Waste……………………………………………………………………………………………39
Solids ……………………………………………………………………………………………………43
ii
INTRODUCTION
Environmental Engineering is a profession directly involved with the identification
and design solutions of environmental problems. Environmental Engineers are
directly responsible for providing safe drinking water, minimizing and preventing
pollution in rivers, lakes and oceans, treating and properly disposing of municipal,
industrial and hazardous waste, and the remediation of contaminated soil and
water, among other charges of the profession. Understanding and mastering the
art of Environmental Engineering requires the integration of biology, chemistry,
physics, mathematics, computer science, laboratory analyses, and
communication skills.
The purpose of these experiments is to introduce you to various aspects of
Environmental Engineering through laboratory analysis that integrates hands-on
investigation, data reduction and interpretation. Experiments include measuring
conventional water and wastewater parameters as well as exploring the natural
environment. A more detailed description and professional standards for a
majority of these experiments can be found in Standard Methods for the
Examination of Water and Wastewater. Standard Methods, as this book is often
referred to, is a joint publication of the American Public Health Association, the
American Water Works Association and the Water Environment Federation.
In each experiment, you will find material that relates to both the theory and the
practical application of the laboratory in engineering practice. The supplemental
web site for this manual is at:
http://civil.engr.siu.edu/nsflab/NSFProject/Environmental/Environ_Frame.htm
At this site additional learning tools such as video clips, photographs, and sample
data sets are continually being added to illustrate key concepts of the laboratory.
At this time, we are in the developmental stage of the site and the lab manual.
We welcome and encourage the use of this material in your courses. We only
request that you acknowledge us and let us know that you are using it. Feedback
from you is both appreciated and invaluable to the development of this project.
Please contact us if you have any comments, suggestions or questions.
Lizette R. Chevalier, Associate Prof., Department of Civil Engineering,
SIUC, [email protected]
James N. Craddock, Associate Prof., Department of Civil Engineering,
SIUC, [email protected]
1
Partial support for this work is provided by the National Science Foundation’s Course,
Curriculum and Laboratory Improvement Program under grant DUE9952577. Additional
support is provided by Southern Illinois University Carbondale College of Engineering,
College of Mass Communication and Media Arts and the Materials Technology Center.
ENGINEERING
LAB SAFETY
A more thorough review of laboratory safety is presented under General Topic
from the web site. The purpose of this laboratory is to identify the location and
use of the following items in the laboratory. Review these items with your lab
instructor prior to conducting any labs.

Safety glasses

Eye wash station

Shower

Latex gloves for BOD, Solids, Solid Waste and Coliform Labs

Insulated gloves and tongs for muffle furnace

Aprons

Spill kit

Fire extinguisher

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

Campus unit responsible for the pickup and disposal of waste; Explain use
of request forms for pickup and the need for proper labeling.
In this lab, all chemicals must be in labeled containers. The label on purchased
chemicals generally identifies the content adequately. However, when you
prepare a reagent for use, it must be labeled as follows: The name of the
chemical or reagent, the concentration, the date and your name. You are
required to label every bottle used longer than one laboratory period.
Figure 1: Example of proper labeling.
3
BIOCHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND
Introduction
In characterizing wastewater and surface water, the amount of biodegradable
organics in the water is an important parameter. When these organics degrade in
the aquatic environment, dissolved oxygen is consumed. Since oxygen is not
very soluble in water (Table 1), a heavy loading of organics may deplete oxygen
levels, which in turn may lead to fish kills and anaerobic conditions. Although
most substances can also be degraded under anaerobic conditions, the process
is slow and results in foul odors.
Biochemical oxygen demand, or BOD, is a test to measure the consumption of
dissolved oxygen due to biological degradation of organic materials and chemical
oxidation of inorganic materials. In fact, BOD is used as an indicator to determine
compliance with wastewater discharge permits, in the design of wastewater
facilities, to monitor plant performance, and to determine the approximate
quantity of oxygen required to biologically stabilize or oxidize organic matter.
BOD is also an important parameter in models that estimate the assimilative
capacity of the receiving body of water.
The standard measurement is the BOD after five days (BOD5), although BOD7 is
also used to correspond with work schedules, especially at smaller plants. In this
procedure, dissolved oxygen is measured initially and after a 5 (or 7) day
incubation period. The BOD measured during this period is the carbonaceous
BOD, since the bacteria that oxidize nitrogen are not in sufficient numbers to
influence oxygen consumption until approximately seven days. However, it is
common practice to use a nitrogen inhibitor. Seeding and dilution of samples are
commonly used to ensure an acceptable change of dissolved oxygen occurs.
Bacterial growth requires nutrients, including nitrogen, phosphorus and trace
metals. These nutrients are added to dilution water, which is also buffered to
ensure that the pH of the sample remains suitable for the bacteria. Oxygen
consumed after 60-90 days of incubation is used to determine the ultimate BOD.
Continuous oxygen uptake can be used to determine the kinetics of degradation,
utilizing analysis tools such as the Thomas Method.
4
Table 1: Saturation of Dissolved Oxygen in Distilled Water
Temperature ºC
Solubility (mg/L)
Temperature ºC
Solubility (mg/L)
0
14.6
16
9.9
1
14.2
17
9.7
2
13.9
18
9.5
3
13.5
19
9.3
4
13.1
20
9.1
5
12.8
21
8.9
6
12.5
22
8.7
7
12.1
23
8.6
8
11.8
24
8.4
9
11.6
25
8.3
10
11.3
26
8.1
11
11.0
27
8.0
12
10.8
28
7.8
13
10.5
29
7.7
14
10.3
30
7.6
15
10.1
Application
The following figure shows a basic treatment train found at municipal wastewater
treatment facilities. In this laboratory, you will be measuring the BOD of the
influent and the effluent. One of the primary objectives of municipal wastewater
treatment is the reduction of BOD in the effluent, which is released into a
receiving body of water.
5
Figure 1: Generalized schematic of a wastewater treatment facility.
Materials and Equipment

Standard BOD bottles with ground glass stoppers (300 mL).

Paraffin wrap.

Dissolved oxygen meter with appropriate DO probe.

Wide tipped volumetric pipet.

Magnetic stirrer if DO probe does not have a stirrer built in.

Incubator: thermostatically controlled with a temperature of 20°C ± 1°C. All
light must be excluded form the samples during incubation.

Dilution water prepared by instructor.

Glucose-glutamic acid solution prepared by instructor.

Influent and effluent sample of wastewater from a local municipal
wastewater treatment facility. Obtain the effluent sample prior to
disinfection so that dechlorination and seeding will not be required in this
laboratory.
Procedure
Samples should be used within 48 hours of collection. Samples should be stored
at approximately 4°C to ensure that oxygen concentrations remain constant. In
addition, samples should be incubated in the dark to prevent oxygen
replenishment from photosynthesis. Prior to use, the sample must be brought to
room temperature. The pH of samples must be between 6.5 and 7.5 to ensure
biological growth. The pH of samples can be adjusted with a solution of sulfuric
acid (H2SO4) or sodium hydroxide (NaOH). To increase the pH of a sample, you
need to add a base. In Standard Methods, the pH of a BOD sample is increased
by adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Dissolve 40 g sodium hydroxide in distilled
water. Dilute to 1 L.
6
Since the actual BOD5 is not known, several dilutions must be prepared and
tested. Typical municipal influent wastewater has a BOD5 of 150-350 mg/L,
whereas the effluent ranges between 10-40 mg/L. For this laboratory, prepare
three dilutions of each sample. Use Table 2 to determine the required dilutions.
Prepare one dilution in the appropriate range, then one below and above.
Using the effluent sample, prepare two BOD bottles at each of the three dilutions.
To prepare the dilution, place the required amount of sample in the bottle.
Completely fill the remainder of the bottle with dilution water, taking care not to
entrap air bubbles. Place the glass stopper on the bottle, allowing for a small
amount of water to spill off the bottle. There should be a water seal remaining in
the lip area. This water seal will prevent oxygen from entering the bottle. As an
additional precaution, wrap a piece of paraffin wrap over the top of the bottle.
Repeat this procedure for the influent sample. Use one set of each dilution to
measure the initial DO, and incubate the other set. Place the remaining six
bottles (three influent and three effluent dilutions) in the incubator. Record the
time and date. As with the samples collected from the treatment facility, these
prepared samples must be kept in the dark to prevent oxygen replenishment
from photosynthesis and at a constant temperature of 4°C to ensure that oxygen
concentrations remain constant.
Table 2: Dilution ranges for pipetting into 300 mL BOD bottles.
Sample Volume
(mL)
Minimum BOD
(mg/L)
Maximum BOD
(mg/L)
1
600
2400
3
200
800
5
120
480
10
60
240
30
20
80
50
12
48
100
6
24
200
3
12
300
2
8
After the required incubation period (5 or 7 days), remove the BOD bottles from
the incubator and measure the final dissolved oxygen levels.
7
Check the dilution water blank to be certain that the DO uptake (DOinitial – DOfinal)
was not more than 0.2 mg/L. If the value is above 0.2 mg/L, the results are
suspect. A valid dilution is one that has a final DO greater than or equal to 1
mg/L and a DO uptake of at least 2 mg/L.
Place 6 ml of the glucose-glutamic acid standard in two BOD bottles. Then add
15 mL of wastewater effluent for seed. Fill the remainder of the bottle with dilution
water. Use one bottle to determine the initial DO. Incubate the second bottle with
the other samples and measure the final BOD after 5 days.
Also prepare two blank samples of dilution water. Use one bottle to determine the
initial DO. Incubate the second bottle with the other samples and measure the
final BOD after 5 (or 7) days.
Make sure to properly label all bottles. The label should state what is in the
bottle, the concentration, the date, and your name.
Analysis
As stated earlier, a valid dilution is one that has a final DO of at least 1 mg/L, and
a DO uptake of at least 2 mg/L. The BOD of the sample is determined from the
DO uptake and the fractional dilution (F):
BOD =
DOinitial − DO final
F
The fractional dilution of the sample is the volume of sample divided by the BOD
bottle volume.
Because the BOD test is a bioassay, the results can be influenced greatly by the
presence of toxic substances. Distilled waters, which is used to prepare the
dilution water, are frequently contaminated with copper. Use the bottles with the
glucose-glutamic acid to check for water quality as well as seed effectiveness
and the quality of your analytical technique. The BOD5 for this 300 mg/L mixed
primary standard should be 198 ± 30.5 mg/L if a nitrogen inhibitor was used.
Elements of Report
Within your report, you should include the following items specific to your
experiment:

Name, location and general description of wastewater facility

Specific equipment (manufacturer and model) used and accuracy

Which dilution provided the best estimate of BOD5 for the influent and the
effluent?

Identify any BOD samples that should be eliminated based on the final DO
or the minimum DO depletion.
8

What is BOD5 of the influent and effluent, and how does this value
compare to typical values reported in the literature?

What are the different compounds added to the dilution water? What
purpose does each serve?

If you conducted a 7 day BOD test, calculate BOD5 and the ultimate BOD
(Lo) of the sample assuming k=0.35/day (base e). Generate a graph
showing the change in BOD over time. Extend this graph to at least 0.9Lo.

If you conducted a 5 day BOD test, calculate BOD7 and the ultimate BOD
(Lo)of the sample assuming k=0.35/day (base e). Generate a graph
showing the change in BOD over time. Extend this graph to at least 0.9Lo.
References
Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 20th Ed.
Published jointly by APHA, AWWA and WPCF, 1998.
Laboratory Manual for CE 310: Introduction to Environmental Engineering,
Spring 2000, Ray, B.T., Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
Wastewater Engineering: Treatment, Disposal and Reuse, 3rd Ed., Metcalf and
Eddy, McGraw-Hill, 1991.
Standard Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Corbitt, R.A., McGraw-Hill,
1990.
9
Biochemical Oxygen Demand Lab Data Sheet
Name _________________________
Date _________________________
Laboratory Section _________________________
Treatment Facility _________________________
Initial Date and Time _________________________
Final Date and Time _________________________
Volume
WW
mL
Sample
DO
Initial DO Final DO uptake
mg/L
mg/L
mg/L
1
2
3
4
5
6
Dilution
Blank
Water
G-GA Standard
EQUIPMENT USED (include model numbers):
NOTES:
10
F
BOD
mg/L
COLIFORM LAB
Introduction
Pathogenic organisms present in water and wastewater are difficult to test for,
and are often in small numbers. Therefore, the typical approach is to test for the
presence of indicator organisms such as the coliform group. The coliform
bacteria are present in the intestinal tract of mammals. Although not pathogenic
themselves, the presence of coliform bacteria in large numbers may indicate the
possibility of contamination of the water supply by fecal matter or insufficient
treatment of a wastewater. One analytical method commonly used by regulatory
agencies and water utilities to test for coliform is the membrane filter technique.
The objective of this laboratory is to conduct this experiment, using different
sources of water and wastewater.
Materials and Equipment

Vacuum System

0.45 m membrane filter

Filtration apparatus

Pipets

Graduated cylinder

Petri dishes (pre-sterilized plastic dishes are available commercially)

Absorbent pads

Tweezers

Incubator (35±0.5°C with a relative humidity of at least 60%)

M-Endo medium (prepared by lab instructor)

Sterilized buffered dilution water (prepared by lab instructor)

Water and/or wastewater sample collected in sterilized glass or plastic
bottles
11
Note: Anything contacting the sample must be sterilized to prevent
contamination. This includes, but is not limited to, glassware, filters, pipets and
the filtration apparatus.
Procedure
Collect two different water samples from different sources. If collecting from a
treatment facility, collect the sample prior to chlorination if possible. Otherwise,
the chlorine must be neutralized with sodium thiosulfate immediately after
collecting. Drinking water samples should also be dechlorinated. Some
manufacturers of sample bottles place sodium thiosulfate in the sample bottles
prior to distribution.
Using sterile forceps, place a sterile membrane filter (grid side up) over the
porous plate of the flask of the filter device. Place the funnel unit over the flask
and lock it in place. Shake your sample 25 times to assure that it is well mixed.
Pipet the required volume of sample into the top of the filter apparatus. For
drinking water, 100 mL is the standard sample size. Filter the sample under a
partial vacuum. A satisfactory filtration time is within five minutes. If this cannot
be obtained, the required volume may be distributed among numerous
membranes (i.e. 100 mL may be filtered in two 50 mL or four 25 mL portions).
For analyzing samples other than drinking water, the required volume may be
estimated using Table 1. Because the range of sample volume is large, it is best
to analyze other waters by filtering three different sample volumes. When less
than 10 mL of sample is to be filtered, add approximately 10 mL of sterile dilution
water to the funnel before filtration. Alternately, you may pipet the sample into a
sterile bottle and mix with approximately 10 mL of sterile dilution water first, and
then filter the entire amount. This increase in water volume aids in the uniform
dispersion of the bacteria over the effective filtering surface.
Table 1: Approximate filtration volume
Source
Drinking water
Lakes
Bathing beaches
Streams, rivers
Unchlorinated wastewater
Approximate Volume
100
10-100 mL
0.01-10 mL
0.01-10 mL
0.0001-0.1 mL
After filtering the sample, and with the filter still in place, rinse the interior surface
of the funnel with 20 to 30 mL of sterile dilution water three times (this may be
applied from a squeeze bottle).
Place an adsorbent pad in the bottom of a sterilized petri dish. Saturate the pad
with 1.8-2.2 mL of M-Endo medium. Decant any excess medium. Remove the
filter from the filtration device using sterile forceps. Place in on the saturated pad
12
using a rolling motion to avoid the entrapment of air. The contact with the
medium is important, since the colonies will not grow without this contact.
Place the prepared cultures in waterproof bags and incubate in a submerged
water bath for 22-24 hr at 35±0.5°C. Do not incubate beyond 24 hr. After
incubating, remove the cultures. Count any colonies that develop a red color with
a metallic sheen. These are colonies of coliform bacteria. Report the results as #
of colonies/100 mL. Other bacteria may be present, but will not exhibit the
characteristic color and sheen. These colonies may be pink, blue, or white
lacking sheen.
In addition to the samples, test the dilution water. Evidence of contamination in
this sample indicates unsterile conditions and invalid data. A number of improper
procedures can result in less than desirable cultures.
Analysis
A suitable quantity of the sample water results in an ideal colony count of 20 to
80 coliform colonies and not more than 200 colonies. Less …
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