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Topic: Leadership and society
• 10 facts – write them in the presentation
• Use textbook and at least one other information resource
(not counting supporting video or audio aid) show
bibliography/references for your information , MLA format
• One 1-3 min support video or other audio visual.
• 3 multiple choice questions for classmates（ give the
• 1 essay/discussion questions for classmates
• Write 2 pages double spaced 12 point type summarizing
your topic and what you learned from this assignment
Piaget and the Development of Reasoning
Jean Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who became
intrigued the way children reasoned their wrong answers to the
questions that required logical thinking. He theorized that their
wrong answers were somehow related to important differences
between the way children and adults think. Piaget was the first
was the first psychologist to systematically conduct a study of
cognitive development, specifically in children. His study
consisted of theories on child cognitive development, a series of
tests to study different cognitive abilities, and observational
studies of cognition in children. Before Piaget’s experiment, it was
assumed by the general public that children are not as competent
as adults when it comes to the thought process. Ultimately, Piaget
was able to prove that children are able to think in different ways
comparable to adults.
The goal of Piaget’s theory was to explain the processes
and mechanisms experienced through childhood, from the age of
an infant’s to a child’s, later to develop into an individual adult who
can later be capable of reasoning and thinking, using hypotheses.
Piaget theorized that children first construct an understanding of
the world and their setting around them, and then experience
discrepancies between what their actually discover and
experience in their environment and the idea of what they already
know. This was Piaget’s theory of cognitive development, as it
was a progressive re-organization of mental processes generated
from taking in environmental experiences and biological
Piaget’s cognitive theory was composed of three basic
components: schemas, adaptation processes that enable the
transition from one stage to another, and the four stages of
development. Schemas, as Piaget defined, is “a cohesive,
repeatable action sequence possessing component actions that
are tightly interconnected and governed by a core meaning”.
Schemas are merely basic building blocks of intelligent behavior,
or a way or organizing knowledge. Adaptation processes happen
through assimilation, accommodation, and equilibrium.
Assimilation is the process of taking in new information into our
already existing schemas. It is using an existing schema to deal
with a new object or situation. Accommodation is another part of
adaptation that involves changing or altering our existing schemas
in light of new information. This happens when the existing
schema does not work, and needs to be changed to deal with a
new object or situation. Equilibrium is the force that moves
development along, as Piaget thought that cognitive development
does not progress at a steady rate, but more in “leaps and
bounds”. Equilibrium happens when a child’s schema works with
new information through assimilation. Unpleasant states of
disequilibrium happen when new information is unable to fit into
an existing schema, which is referred to as assimilation. Piaget’s
famous four stages of development is sensorimotor stage,
preoperational stage, concrete operational stage, and the formal
operational stage. The sensorimotor stage occurs from birth to
about age 2. At this stage, our understanding is limited to direct
contact, which includes sucking, touching, listening, and looking.
The preoperational stage occurs from about age 2 to age 7. At
this stage, we develop the ability to use symbols. We are learning
how to count, but we do not understand what the numbers mean.
The concrete operational stage occurs from age 7 to age 12. At
this stage, our reasoning abilities are more developed. We can
now understand numbers, size, causation, and speed. The
operational stage occurs after the about the age of 12. At this
stage, we are now capable of abstract thinking. We can talk about
concepts, come to conclusions based on general principles, and
use rules to solve abstract problems.
From this assignment, I learned that although children do
not process complex information at such a young age, their minds
are forming in a complex and systematic way. It was interesting to
learn how the development of reasoning in children occur through
the same stages, more or less. Learning about Piaget’s stages of
reasoning development made me more aware of how fragile and
complex the shaping of a young child’s mind is.
1. 1, Jean Piaget, a Swiss psychologist, studied the development of the
mind – specifically how we learn to reason.
2. 2. The Piaget stages of development describes the stages of normal
intellectual development from infancy through adulthood.
3. 3. Piaget set up a laboratory where gave children of different ages
problems to solve.
4. 4. After years of testing, Piaget concluded that children go through a
natural process as they develop their ability to reason.
5. 5. The first stage is the sensorimotor stage, which is from birth to
about age 2. At this stage, our understanding is limited to direct contact,
which includes sucking, touching, listening, and looking.
6. 6. The second stage is the preoperational stage, which is from about
age 2 to age 7. At this stage, we develop the ability to use symbols. We
are learning how to count, but we do not understand what the numbers
7. 7. The third stage is the concrete operational stage, which is about
from age 7 to age 12. At this stage, our reasoning abilities are more
developed. We can now understand numbers, size, causation, and speed.
8. 8. The fourth stage is the formal operational stage, which is after the
about the age of 12. At this stage, we are now capable of abstract
thinking. We can talk about concepts, come to conclusions based on
general principles, and use rules to solve abstract problems.
9. 9. Assimilation is the process of taking in new information into our
already existing schemas.
1 10. Accommodation is another part of adaptation that involves
changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information.
Support video/audio visual:
Piaget’s stages of cognitive development | Processing the
Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy
(Links to an external site.)
Links to an external site.
3 multiple choice questions:
1. What is the correct order of Piaget stages of development?
A. sensoriomotor, concrete operational, preoperational, formal
B. formal operational, concrete operational, preoperational,
C. sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal
D. preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational,
2. At what stage are you able to think abstractly?
A. sensorimotor stage
B. preoperational stage
C. concrete operational stage
D. formal operational stage
3. What were the test subjects of Piaget’s experiment?
1 essay/discussion questions:
Do you agree with Piaget’s stages of development in this current day?
Why or why not? Provide examples.
(Answers to essay question not necessary if they express opinions)
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