Post your Rough Draft here before class on Monday, March 18th, then, following the peer response instructions below, reply to two (2) other Rough Drafts by the end of class. The Final Draft will be due Wednesday Night, 3/20 Although you are only required to respond to two drafts, feel free to read and comment on other drafts. Reading other people’s drafts will help you develop a perspective on your own draft. Post a response to at least two rough drafts. Please respond to someone who has not yet received a response, so that everyone will receive feedback. You get points for posting the rough draft and completing peer reviews, but also, posting your rough draft counts for points toward your final draft, as do posting responses to other drafts . PEER RESPONSE INSTRUCTIONSAnswer the following questions:What is the thesis? Describe in your own words what you think the thesis is.What information could you add or change to make the thesis more specific or clearer?Note any claims or evidence which seem out of place, or not particularly credible or convincing. Which claims and/or evidence seem especially convincing? When passages or examples are cited, does the writer explain how and why they’re significant? Do the examples continually relate back to the main idea? Mention anywhere you feel theclaims and/or evidence could be explained further, or more clearly linked to the thesis.Is the opposing view clear? Describe the opposing view briefly, in your own words.Point out anything confusing or not quite clear.What do you want to know more about?Include anything else you’d like to point out. You can mention any grammar/punctuation/ MLA mistakes.What do you think is the strongest part of the draft?
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13 March 2019
Accentuating the Truth of Working Mothers
The term, “second shift”, was originated by Arlie Russell Hochschild in the book, The
Second Shift. This book was published in 1989 (Berlinsky). Thus, the “second-shift” is not a new
concept and many women continue to follow this traditional role of being a working mother.
These women work full-time, and then come home to complete a “second shift” of household
tasks and childcare. According to Martha Copp, gender roles in this area have changed only a
little. More fathers are stepping up to help with household tasks and childcare, yet mothers still
have the burden of this “second shift”. Working mothers are expected to do the bulk of the
childcare and household tasks, while the fathers are known as the breadwinners of the family.
When men hold their power through income, this power translates into the home. They receive
more privileges and benefits compared to the women who have obligations. Whereas if the wife
earns more than her husband, this power of having a high status does not translate into the home.
Women believe that they have to honor the man’s breadwinner status by working full-time and
working a “second shift” at home.
Being a good wife and mother are different than the roles of a good father and husband.
The different roles of a women, wife, mother, and worker are independent and compete for time
with another. Motherhood conflicts with work, whereas fatherhood does not. Fatherhood occurs
at the same time as work because work and family roles are interdependent and compatible. A
father being a good provider fulfills the duties of worker, husband, and father duties
Imagine being the mother of four children, all aged two years apart. The father works
full-time, and you are left all by yourself during the day with the children and the majority of the
household tasks. Seems hectic and stressful, right? My mother did exactly this and she did not
start working part-time until my younger sister was 9 years old. She says, “Mothers are often
thinking of doing all the home tasks, whereas fathers are sometimes looking to get a break.” She
chose not to work because she was busy with childcare and household tasks such as cleaning,
cooking, and home care. Transition
Resentfulness, frustration, exhaustion, and feeling overwhelmed. These powerful
emotions are usually linked with negativity but can also be connected to motherhood. This is
exactly how Jelise Ballon feels. Ballon mostly feels this exhaustion and an increase in resent
during her late nights, when her responsibilities seem to crush her by their weight and timeconsumption. It is 10:30 at night, her children are in bed, and her husband is sleeping next to her
on the couch. She turns off the tv and the computer and puts the only functional cordless home
phone back into the charger. She stops to fill the water for the dog, since the kid responsible for
feeding forgot to provide the dog with water. When she goes up the stairs along the way, she
picks up a stray sock, a dirty dish towel, and a neglected toy. With each step the resentment
heightens, and she feels as if she is drowning in her own overwhelmed state. She goes into the
kitchen to put the cold leftovers from dinner into the refrigerator, where there are still old
leftovers needed to be thrown out. She thinks to herself, “Does it occur to anyone in this home
this food needs to be thrown away?” After, she enters the living room picking up dirty tissues,
school papers, and cups. Ballon trips over a pair of shoes that someone left out and turns off all
the lights that were left on by the children. In this moment, she realizes her first instinct is she
does not want this life. All the nuisances lead to her building and overflowing resentment
No matter what job you have, it is going to be stressful and involve hard work. It is
necessary to have a job in order to have some kind of living. Some people even have multiple
jobs in order to pay for living expenses. That is exactly what working mothers do. These mothers
go from one job directly to the next, which fulfills the role of housewife. A full-time homemaker
can be as laborious or even more so than a full-time job outside the home. The gender gap at
home is perpetual, due to the cultural assumptions about gender. Household tasks and childcare
are considered “feminine”, which can decrease a man’s dignity and masculinity and support the
freedom of women. In the Tanagawa family, Nina does 70% of the childcare and 80% of the
housework, while she receives more income than her husband. Nina also works the “second
shift” at home for decreasing her husband’s pride, and her husband expects her to be grateful for
him accepting the humiliation of her earning more than him Explain (Crossen). Motherhood can
have both its positives and negatives, but the negatives What negatives? can make a mother feel
very overwhelmed especially as well as the burden of work.
Being a homemaker is a domestic job within itself, although it is unpaid work. A fulltime homemaker can be as laborious or even more than a full-time job outside the home. There
needs to be more equality between men and women with home responsibilities, although both
parents might work full-time. This inequality within the home creates stress, health problems,
and a lack of self-care for working mothers. Being the primary homemaker is doing a job meant
for two people. Moving towards equality in the home will help these working mothers have less
of a burden, improve their overall health and well-being, and have more career opportunities
such as increased wages and promotions. Transition
In history, women have always been expected to fill the role of homemaker and this
expectation continues although women work full-time. The expectation for men is much less.
They are allowed to relax after work, while the women take care of the children and the
household tasks. Women put in hard work at home after they’ve been productive at work outside
of the home. Since women do more work in the home, this is their natural environment. Whereas
men are less clued in about what needs to be done around house. Despite income, hours, and
status outside the home, women do more housework than men. Berlinsky-Shine reports 54% of
women do all of most of the housework compared with 22% of men. Men see household tasks
and child care as optional and some try to avoid these responsibilities. Men have more freedom
than women within the household tasks they have to do. Men’s tasks are less repetitive and can
be done at any time, such as mowing the lawn, taking out the trash, and home, car, and yard
repair. Men spend a quarter of the 19.3 hours women spend of household tasks (Laster). Whereas
women’s tasks are repetitive and time-consuming like cleaning. Men have the time to sit around
in their man cave, drinking beer while watching television, without a care in the world. Add
quote and transition
Topic sentence “The difference, however, is in the nature and scope of these
responsibilities in the home environment in particular,” Dr. Joyce said. For example, the United
Nations reported that women do nearly three times as much unpaid domestic work as men”
(Wong). The more responsibilities a working mother takes on, there will be an increase in stress
levels. The chronic stress levels of mothers are 40 percent higher than full-time women without
children (Beard et al.). After a long day of work, mothers are expected to do even more work
completed in the home. There are a lot of responsibilities within the home such as laundry,
cleaning, cooking, and childcare. Mothers need to remember the schedule of all the family
members, and make sure everyone is where they need to be at the right time. Sports practices and
games, music lessons and concerts, school, play dates, vacations, after-school activities and
events, assemblies, parent and teacher conferences are all some things children have going on.
Some children might have more going on depending on their involvement in school and other
activities. This can be a lot of responsibility for mothers and even listing all these activities
Raising children while working isn’t an easy task. The children need to be closely
watched because essentially raising children is giving them the tools and support so they can
become independent and go out on their own into the world. During this time, they learn right
from wrong and can receive the love and nurture children need. Mothers constantly need to be
active and alert to keep an eye on the children or might need to be available via email or phone
for work. They also need to make sure they are completed the household tasks that need to get
done. One skill that could be beneficial for working mothers is multi-tasking explain. Mothers
are very selfless, even when their efforts go unnoticed. This kind of work is called “invisible
work” which is expected by mothers. This “invisible work” can include planning and organizing
activities for the family (Copp) and emotional work, such as surface acting or forcing emotions.
Emotional work is dismissed and not considered work, although it can be as equally exhausting
as paid work (Wong). Even when mothers finish their to-do list, there’s always some other
cleaning or other task needed to be done. It is like buying a car Use a stronger example. The car
doesn’t stay clean and pristine forever. There are other expenses such as car washes, replacement
parts, and maybe a paint job. No wonder many mothers are stressed with their never-ending to-
do list. Everyone has sympathy for working mothers, but nobody really knows how stressful
motherhood can be until one has their own children. Motherhood and taking care of the home is
a lot of tasks to delegate to just one person. “63% of working mothers agree with the statement
‘Sometimes I feel like a married single mom’…‘92% of working moms say they are
overwhelmed with workplace, home and parenting responsibilities’” (Herrick). Explain and add
The substantial workload of working mothers means there is less time or no time for selfcare, and this limits their quality of life. Most of the time, mothers are concerned about others
because they need to make sure their family members are taken care of first with their needs.
This can cause an imbalance in their lives, such as skipping meals or having sleep deprivation.
Working mothers are less likely make their selves a priority, therefore they put their own health
at risk by not having a balance of activity, rest, exercise, and nutrition. Mothers can cut out parts
of their social life in order to care for their family, this means less dates with a husband or a
girls’ night out. Working mothers could lose interest in hobbies or having relaxation time
because they believe they always need to be available and active for serving their children. For
example, in one’s career fewer working mothers want to be in a leadership position. “While 43%
of women who share responsibilities evenly with their partner aspire to become top executives,
only 34% of women who do a majority of housework and child care have the same aspiration”
(Adamczyk). Explain quote Because of a working mothers’ long to-do list, they could conclude
they have no time for fun and a social life, or even time for breaks. Therefore, they become loyal
to serving others always, instead of themselves.
A lack of self-care and a substantial to-do list leads to increased stress in working
mothers. This stress can lead to health and emotional problems, such as anger, sadness, and
anxiety. One working mother reported she had gotten insomnia from her stress. Insomnia is a
sleep disorder that is categorized by having trouble staying or falling asleep. This working
mother explained her dreams led to a feeling of being unrested. She states, “After I became a
first-time mother, I quickly realized between work and family, I was so busy caring for other
people and work that I felt like I’d lost myself,” she said. “I’d put my own physical and mental
needs on the back burner”. This is a common story for mothers, and these kinds of stories are
often easily dismissed and scorned because they are considered reality and a trade-off of being a
mother. Or mothers themselves, dismiss their difficulties between work and family because they
think this conflict is natural and there is nothing to do about it. Instead of dismissing and
ridiculing these struggling mothers, we could realize this as an issue and have solutions, such as
hiring outside help. The issue with this is that mostly women, and not men, are hired for help
which supports homemaking and childcare as “feminine”. Stress can also cause anxiety. Women
consistently report higher stress levels and are twice as likely to suffer from severe stress and
anxiety than men. More anxiety disorders are found in women. Working mothers could put their
heart health at risk by having a lack of self-care, such as an increased chance of heart attacks
More women are joining the workforce in today’s society. Men and women work 11
hours more each week than in the 1970s, and mothers spend the same amount of time with their
children as in the 1950s (Herrick). About half of the adult women are employed. The other half
of women are mostly considered as full-time homemakers. The greatest problem working
women have is the responsibility of family and work. Also, homemaking was the most popular
reason for not seeking employment in the next year with 40.3% (“Reasons”). There are many
challenges women face in the workplace, such as gender stereotypes and being held back in their
careers. Therefore, working mothers are less likely to have success with moving up in the
professional working world. Working mothers have less time for work due to family and home
responsibilities. This results in less opportunities for increased wages and promotions. A
common belief is women and mothers are less dedicated and motivated to do their work. They
spend less time and effort at work. In this way, women could receive less training and have less
experience than men, and this affects their value and competitiveness in the work world. In a
study of male and female scientists, housework affected the quality and quantity of the scientific
work. It was reported that women create less articles, but the articles of women were cited more
than men’s. In the scientific field, the amount of publications and grant are very important. Even
when women have more experience and a higher degree than men, they still do more household
work and child care. According to Adamczyk in a study of 34,000 workers in 132 companies,
women at every career level do more housework and child care than men. Women are believed
to be less productive at work, because they save their energy for family and home duties. These
working women might be assigned less challenging and less important work than others. This
makes these women feel undervalued at work.
Since women might not be highly valued in the workplace, companies could be
disinclined to change the work polices assisting others in family-friendly benefits. Most
companies do not support a balance of work and family. In a recent study, including 22 European
and English-speaking countries, American parents reported the highest levels of unhappiness
compared to non-parents explain more. This can be explained by a lack of family work policies.
It is evident how working parents could be frustrated by having less time for their families
without work policies supporting the balance of family and work. In Washington, most
companies provide maternal leave, but many new fathers are finding it difficult to spend more
time with their newborn (Bulger). Even when mothers take maternal leave, the housework is not
distributed evenly (Adamzyck). According to Herrick, 60% of mothers return to work before
their child’s first birthday. Explain these
Add opposing view
In the end, we all are just humans. Nobody has to work, take care of the kids, and
complete all of the household tasks. That is why other people are there to help us. It is important
to split all the childcare of household tasks equally. This way, children will catch on when you
set this example of balance and equality in the home. They can use the same method of equality
and balance when they have their own families. There are always solutions for anyone who
struggling, such as childcare, nannies, babysitters, family members, and maids. Societal norms
put pressure on women, when actually men are fully capable of doing their share of the work at
home. Just because household tasks and taking care of children are considered “feminine”,
doesn’t mean men should not take any responsibilities within the home. This damages the health
and well-being of the women just because they have to pick up the slack of the men and do twice
as much work as they should. Any type of work, especially motherhood, is physically and
mentally demanding, drains energy levels, and affects views about working. If men continue to
let women do all the work with the children and the home, they will drive them to the point of
insanity and giving up. This could result in families separating or family conflicts, such as a
strain in the marriage with resentment and detachment.
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Berlinsky-Shine, Laura. “The Second Shift: Leveling the Playing Field at Work and
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Bulger, Adam. “What Are the Laws Around Paternity Leave and Family Leave in the U.S.?”
Fatherly, 21 March 2018, www.fatherly.com/love-money/paternity-leave-laws-state-us/.
Coontz, Stephanie. “Do Millennial Men Want Stay-at-Home Wives?” The New York Times, 31
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Hill, Valerie. Personal Interview. 13 March 2019.
“Insomnia (Acute & Chronic): Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment.” WebMD, 2005-2019,
Laster, Jill. “Unlike Men, Female Scientists Have a Second Shift: Housework.” Chronicle of
Higher Education, vol. 56, no. 20, 29 Jan. 2010, p. A10. EBSCOhost.
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United States,1600-2000 Database. Web.
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