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ASSIGNMENT WILL BE SUBMITTED THROUGH TURNITIN, THEREFORE IT CANNOT BE PLAGIARIZED!!After reading the following chapters from your Textbook or Week 1
Lecture (in Lecture link), answer the questions below. Please, give your
answers in your own words, do not copy and paste from the textbook or
other sources Chapter 1: The Manager’s Job Learning objectives are listed at the beginning of each Chapter. 1. What is the process of management? (Use a work experience or
personal example to show the process of management). What are the
managerial roles? (Use a work experience or personal example to show
different managerial roles). 2. What are the two major reasons you would want to become a manager
or would not like to become a manager? (Explain fully by using work
experience or personal example). Chapter 2: International Management and Cultural Diversity 3. Identify and briefly describe at least five of the major
challenges facing the global managerial worker. Support your answer by
using an additional source of information. 4. Describe how cultural diversity can give a firm a competitive
advantage (or help the firm be more profitable.) Use your own company as
an example to support your answer.

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THE MANAGER’S JOB [PowerPoint Slide 1]
The purpose of Chapter 1 is to provide an overview of the nature of managerial work. It could be argued
that the entire book has a similar purpose. It is therefore necessary to touch upon topics in Chapter 1 that
are covered again in later chapters. The chapter provides information on key managerial topics such as (a)
the meaning of the term manager, (b) an overview of the process of management, (c) a discussion of
managerial roles, and (d) a summary of the major developments in the evolution of management thought.
Learning Objectives
Explain what the term manager means and identify different types of manager.
Describe the process of management, including the functions of management.
Describe the various managerial roles.
Identify the basic managerial skills and understand how they can be developed.
Identify the major developments in the evolution of management thought.
Chapter Outline and Lecture Notes
Managers play a vital role in society—they pull together resources to get important things accomplished.
WHO IS A MANAGER? [PowerPoint Slide 2]
A manager is a person responsible for the work performance of group members. He or she has the
formal authority to commit organizational resources. Management is the process of using
organizational resources to achieve organizational objectives through the functions of planning,
organizing and staffing, leading, and controlling.
A. Levels of Management [PowerPoint Slide 3]
Managerial jobs are typically divided into three levels:
Top-Level Managers. Top-level managers, or executives, are empowered to
make major decisions affecting the present and future of
the firm. C-level manager
is a recent term to describe top-level managers because
they usually have chief in
their title. About one percent of jobs in organizations
are truly executive positions.
A few of the recent c-level positions often found in large
organizations are (a) chief
of staff, (b) chief commercial officer, and (c) chief
privacy officer.
Middle-Level Managers. Middle-level managers are the layer between top- and firstlevel managers. Much of their work involves the coordination of work, and the
dissemination of information. Middle-management jobs have declined in numbers as many
organizations have downsized but they still play a major role in operating an organization.
First-Level Managers. Managers who supervise operatives are
referred to as firstlevel managers or supervisors. Supervisory jobs have been upgraded in many
organizations, as a result of reducing the number of layers of management. The current
emphasis on productivity and cost control has also upgraded the supervisory role. The vast
majority of students taking this course have at one time reported to a first-level manager
[PowerPoint Slide 4]
Managerial jobs can be divided into functional and general managers, administrators, entrepreneurs
and small-business owners, and team leaders.
Functional and General Managers
Functional managers supervise the work of employees engaged in specialized activities, such as
accounting and quality control. General managers are responsible for the work of several
different groups performing a variety of functions. Company presidents and division heads are
general managers. Key tasks of general managers include shaping the work environment and
crafting a strategic vision.
An administrator is a manager who works in a public or nonprofit organization (including
educational institutions) rather than in a business firm. The fact that individual contributors in
nonprofit organizations are sometimes referred to as administrators often causes confusion.
Entrepreneurs and Small-Business Owners
Entrepreneurs are people who begin a new business based on an innovative idea for a product
or service. A small-business owner operates a small business that is not necessarily
entrepreneurial (innovative). A major characteristic of both entrepreneurs and small-business
owners is their passion for their work.
Recent research has identified three roles, or activities, within entrepreneurial work that arouse
passion: opportunity recognition, venture creation, and venture growth.
D. Team Leaders
A team leader coordinates the work of a small group of people, while acting as a facilitator and
catalyst. Team leaders are found at many organizational levels, and are also referred to as project
managers, process managers, and task-force leaders.
All of the managerial jobs describe above vary considerably on the demands placed on the job
holder, such as some CEO jobs more demanding and stressful than others.
Managerial work can be regarded as a process, a series of actions that brings about a goal. To achieve
that objective, the manager uses resources and carries out the four managerial functions.
Resources Used by Managers [PowerPoint Slide 6]
Managers use four types of resources:
Human Resources. Human resources are the employees needed to get the job done.
Financial Resources. Any money used by the organization is classified as a
financial resource.
Physical Resources. Physical resources are the firm’s tangible goods and real estate,
including raw materials, office space, production facilities, office equipment, and vehicles.
Information Resources. Data used to accomplish the job are classified as
information resources.
As originally designated by Peter Drucker, managers are knowledge workers and
therefore rely heavily on information resources. Managers must convert data into information
which is not an easy task.
The Four Managerial Functions [PowerPoint Slide 7]
The classical, or standard, functions of management remain a useful way of
understanding management.
Planning. Planning involves setting goals and figuring out ways of reaching them.
Planning is the central function of management.
Organizing and Staffing. Organizing is the process of making sure the necessary
human and physical resources are available to carry out a plan and achieve
organizational goals. Staffing involves ensuring there are the necessary human
resources to achieve organizational goals. Hiring is a typical staffing activity. (Organizing
and staff is now often referred to as talent management.)
Leading. Leading is the managerial function of influencing others to achieve
organizational objectives. Leadership is the interpersonal aspect of management.
According to Henry Mintzberg, effective leaders develop the sense of community
shared purpose that is essential for cooperative effort in all organizations.
also execute.
Controlling. Controlling is the managerial function of ensuring that performance
conforms to plans. Controlling involves comparing actual performance to a
predetermined standard. Computerized controls are widely used.
Managerial level influences how much time managers spend on the four managerial functions.
Executives spend more time on strategic (high-level and long-range) planning than do middle- or
first-level managers. First-level managers spend the most time in face-to-face leadership of
A role is an expected set of activities or behaviors stemming from one’s job. Roles are another
important way of understanding managerial work.
The two planning roles are strategic (long-range and high-level) planner and operational (dayby-day) planner.
B. Organizing and Staffing
�� Five roles fit the organizing function: organizer, liaison, staffing
coordinator, resource
allocator, and task delegator. Talent management is included in the organizing and
staffing roles.
Eight roles are part of the leadership function: motivator and coach, figurehead, spokesperson,
negotiator, team builder, team player, technical problem solver, and entrepreneur.
The monitoring role is virtually identical to controlling. The disturbance handler role can also be
classified as a controlling role because it brings disruptions back in line.
Managerial Roles Currently Emphasized [PowerPoint Slide 10]
Managerial work has shifted substantially away from the controller and director role to
that of coach, facilitator, and supporter. Many managers today work as partners with
team members to jointly achieve results.
The Influence of Management Level on Managerial Roles [PowerPoint Slide
A manager’s level of responsibility influences which roles he or she is likely to engage in most
frequently. For example, the most important roles for top-level managers are liaison,
spokesperson, figurehead, and strategic planner.
G. Management as a Practice [PowerPoint Slides 12, 13]
Management is more of a practice, than a science or profession. Managers sometimes
make use of systematic knowledge, yet they also rely on the intuition that stems from experience.
Management is not a profession in the sense of being a licensed occupation such as law, medicine,
or electrician. Another point of view is that to gain public trust, management needs to become a
profession that follows an ethical code.
Management could become more professionalized with the use of evidence-based
management, the systematic use of the best available evidence to improve managerial practice.
To use this approach, managers would rely on both scientific evidence as well as local business
THE FIVE MANAGERIAL SKILLS [PowerPoint Slides 14, 15]
To be effective, managers need to possess technical, interpersonal, conceptual, diagnostic,
and political skills.
Technical Skill
Technical skill involves an understanding of and proficiency in a specific activity
involves methods, processes, procedures, or techniques. Budget preparation is an example of a
technical skill.
Interpersonal Skill
Interpersonal (or human relations) skill is the manager’s ability to work effectively as a
team member and to build cooperative effort in the unit. Communication skills are an
example of an important interpersonal skill. An important subset of interpersonal skills
for managers is multiculturalism, or the ability to work effectively and conduct business
with people from different cultures. Many managers at all levels ultimately fail because
their interpersonal skills are not good enough for the demands of the job.
Conceptual Skill
Conceptual skill is the ability to see the organization as a total entity (the “big picture”). Strategic
planning requires conceptual skill. The need for conceptual skill continues to grow.
Diagnostic Skill
Diagnostic skill involves investigating a problem and then choosing a course of action to solve it.
Political Skill
Political skill is the ability to acquire the power necessary to reach objectives. Managers
high in political skill possess a keens sense of astuteness and understanding of people.
Negotiating and forming alliances are examples of political skills. Political skill should
be regarded as a supplement to job competence and other basic skills.
Experience and education—including formal training—are both important for
development of management skills. You can learn managerial concepts from a book, or
lecture, and then apply them using the general learning model: (1) conceptual
information and behavioral guidelines, (2) conceptual information demonstrated by
examples, (3) skill-development exercises, (4) feedback on skill utilization, or
performance, from others, and (5) frequent practice of what you have learned, including
making adjustments from feedback.
We emphasize again that experience is important for the development of management skills. Yet
experience is likely to be more valuable if it is enhanced with education.
Management as a practice has an almost unlimited history. As a formal study,
management began in the 1700s as part of the Industrial Revolution.
The Classical Approach to Management [PowerPoint Slide 18]
The classical approach to management encompasses scientific
management and
administrative management. The focus of scientific management was on the
application of scientific methods to increase individual workers’ productivity.
Administrative management was concerned primarily with how organizations
should be managed and structured. One of the key contributions of the classical
school has been to study management from the framework of planning,
leading, and controlling. Alfred D. Chandler J., the Harvard University business historian,
was a key figure in promoting the importance of the classical approach to management. His
famous thesis is that a firm’s structure is determined or chosen by its strategy; other wise the
firm becomes inefficient.
The Behavioral Approach [PowerPoint Slide 19]
The behavioral approach to management emphasizes improving
through the psychological
makeup of people. The theme of the behavioral (or human
approach is to focus on understanding people. Three direct cornerstones of
the human resources approach are the Hawthorne studies, Theory X and Theory Y,
and Maslow’s need hierarchy.
The Hawthorne Studies. Workers in the Hawthorne experiments reacted
positively because management cared about them. The Hawthorne effect is
the tendency of people to behave differently when they receive attention
because they respond to the demands of the situation.
Theory X and Theory Y of Douglas McGregor [PowerPoint Slide
Theory X is a set of traditional assumptions about people.
Managers who hold
these assumptions are pessimistic about workers’ capabilities.
They believe
that workers dislike work, seek to avoid responsibility, are not
ambitious, and
must be supervised closely. Theory Y is an alternative
and optimistic set of
Maslow’s need Hierarchy
[PowerPoint Slide 21]
Maslow suggested that humans
are motivated by efforts to satisfy a hierarchy
of needs, ranging from basic
needs to those for self-actualization, or reaching
one’s potential. The need hierarchy prompted managers to think about ways of
satisfying a wide range of worker needs to keep them motivated.
Quantitative Approaches to Management [PowerPoint Slide 22]
The quantitative approach to management is a group of methods to
decision making that is based on the scientific method. Frequently used quantitative tools and
techniques of the quantitative approach include statistics, linear programming, network
analysis, decision trees, and computer simulations. Frederick Taylor’s work provided the
foundation for the quantitative approach to management. However, operations research
stemming from World War II is the true beginning of quantitative approaches to management.
The Systems Perspective [PowerPoint Slide 23]
The systems perspective is a way of viewing problems more than a specific approach to
management. It is based on the concept that an organization is a system, or an entity of
interrelated parts. If you adjust one part of the system, other parts will be affected
automatically. From a systems viewpoint, the organization also interacts with the outside
world, transforming inputs (such as money and material) into outputs (such as products and
services). Two other systems concepts are important. Entropy is the tendency of a system to
run down and die if it does not receive fresh inputs from its environment. Synergy means that
the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
The Contingency Approach [PowerPoint Slide 24]
The contingency approach of management emphasizes that there
is no one best
way to manage people or work. A method that leads to high productivity or morale in one
situation may not achieve the same results in another. The contingency approach is derived
from the study of leadership and organization structures. Common sense also contributes
heavily to the contingency approach.
The Information Technology Era and Beyond [PowerPoint Slide 25]
The information technology era began in the 1950s with data processing. By the late
1980s, the impact of information technology and the Internet began to influence how
managers manage work and people. Two economists report that the impact of the Internet
on business is similar to the impact of electricity at the beginning of the 20th century.
The history of management is being written each year in the sense that the practice of
management continues to evolve. An example of a leading-edge approach to management is
evidence-based management whereby managers translate principles based on best evidence
into management practices (as described above).
Chapter 3
The purpose of Chapter 2 is to help managerial workers better understand two related prominent forces in
their environment: the internationalization of management and cultural diversity. Understanding should
lead to improved ability to deal with the challenges presented by these pervasive forces. To achieve its
purpose, the chapter describes multinational corporations, along with cultural diversity, both in the
international and domestic realms.
Learning Objectives
Describe the importance of multinational corporations in international business.
Recognize the importance of sensitivity to cultural differences in international enterprise.
Identify major challenges facing the global managerial worker.
Explain various methods of entry into world markets.
Pinpoint success factors in the global marketplace, and several positive and negative
aspects of globalization.
Describe the scope of diversity and the competitive advantage of a culturally diverse
Summarize organizational practices to encourage diversity.
Chapter Outline and Lecture Notes
The internationalization (or global integration) of business and management exerts a major
influence on the manager’s job. The impact of global integration is dramatized by the fact
that many complex manufactured products are built with components from several countries. The
internationalization of management is part of the entire world becoming
more global (the world is flat). One challenge is to work well with organizations and
from other countries.
A. The Multinational Corporation [PowerPoint Slide 3]
The heart of international trade is the multinational corporation (MNC), a firm
units in two or more countries in addition to its own. An MNC has headquarters in one
country and subsidiaries in others. The transnational corporation is a special type of
MNC that operates worldwide without having one national headquarter. Operations in
other countries are not regarded as “foreign operations.” Globalization has resulted in
many large companies merging with each other, leaving a small number of
Trade Agreements Among Countries [PowerPoint Slide 4]
Four agreements have facilitated international trade.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
NAFTA establishes liberal trading relationships among the United States, Canada, and
Mexico. Many companies have benefited from NAFTA, yet some labor unions believe the
agreement has resulted in some job
losses. By the tenth anniversary of NAFTA, at
least one-half million U. S. workers had been displaced.
2. The Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) [PowerPoint Slide 5]
The United States-Dominican Republic-Central American Free Trade Agreement
(CA …
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