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ProposalDescribe your proposed solution (100-250 words).Preparing an Implementation PlanDevelop an implementation plan (1,000-1,500 words). The elements that should be included in your plan are listed below:Method of obtaining necessary approval(s) and securing support from your organization’s leadership and fellow staff.Description of current problem, issue, or deficit requiring a change. If you are proposing a change in current policy, process, or procedure when delivering patient care, describe first the current policy, process, or procedure as a baseline for comparison.Detailed explanation of proposed solution (new policy, process, procedure, or education to address the problem/deficit).Rationale for selecting proposed solution.Evidence from your review of literature in Topic 2 to support your proposed solution and reason for change.Description of implementation logistics. (When and how will the change be integrated into the current organizational structure, culture, and workflow? Who will be responsible for initiating the change, educating staff, and overseeing the implementation process?)Resources required for implementation: staff; educational materials (pamphlets, handouts, posters, and PowerPoint presentations); assessment tools (questionnaires, surveys, pre- and post-tests to assess knowledge of participants at baseline and after intervention); technology (technological or software needs); funds (cost of educating staff, printing or producing educational materials, gathering and analyzing data before, during, and following implementation); and staff to initiate, oversee, and evaluate change.Evaluation PlanPrepare an evaluation plan (500-750 words) supported by your critical appraisal of the literature.Discuss methods to evaluate the effectiveness of your proposed solution.Describe what your projected outcomes will be and what variables will be assessed.General RequirementsPrepare this assignment according to the guidelines found in the APA Style Guide
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Running head: ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE SERVICES
Access to Health Care Services
Cordell King
HLT-490V
03/23/2019
Instructor Collins
1
ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE SERVICES
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Introduction
Access to effective and quality healthcare is a major health care problem in the developing
world. Access to medical care tends to be more of a patient’s problem. A significant number of
people suffer and die from conditions for which there are exist efficient interventions. the available
health care centers are not just ineffective but also insufficient. The poor people tend to be the least
healthy and probably have the least access to quality health care. Significant health gains could be
realized through focusing on marginal resources as well as treating the poor. Such concerns should
motivate the prioritization of programs that consider the health care wants of the poor especially
child and maternal health as well as primary health care.
Reviewing the Literature and Theory
According to the article written by Aday, et al, 2014, having an access to quality and
comprehensive health care is very essential in promoting and sustaining health. This will not only
help to manage and prevent diseases but will also help minimize premature death and unnecessary
disorders. The article centers on three aspects of access to care; timeliness of care, health services
and insurance coverage. Also, health care includes oral health care and getting the required
prescribed drugs. Access to health care involves timely using health services to attain the best
health results. The article does not provide any statistical information to illustrate the weight of the
problem. The article just gives the theoretical research on the problem with no statistical data. The
article compares the rate of mortality who those who cannot access medical care easily and those
who can. My proposed change is improving the cover rates for effective treatment and prevention.
Yes, the articles support my proposed change and even proposes some better methods of change
(Aday, et al, 2014).
ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE SERVICES
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In his article, Bhatt, & Bathija, 2018, found out that the concept of access t health care are
studies and incorporated into a framework that perceives the policy of health as designed to impact
the characteristics of the delivery of health care. Health care planners and policy makers have made
public their concerns that access to health care should be improved. Different programs have been
in put in place to help achieve equality when it comes to access to health care. Also, the article
gives statistical data of the people impacted in various areas to prove the seriousness of the issue.
According to the article, high rates of mobility have been noticed in people with poor access to
health care (Bhatt, & Bathija, 2018). Notably, the article supports my proposed change and still
proposes more changes.
Fried et al, 2010 found out that, access to medical care is the essential to health care
performance in the whole world. However, access to medical care is a complicated concept as
shown by various authors. The article suggests a conceptualization of health care access and
describes the process of achieving quality health care and how to benefit from the services. The
article synthesizes published literature in which the access to health care has been performed. The
cited frameworks help develop a revised framework. The article conceptualizes fives aspects of
accessibility including; approachability, acceptability, affordability and appropriateness (Fried et
al, 2010). In this article there is no statistical data provided but just a simple theoretical analysis of
the issue. According to the article, poor access to health care is directly proportional to high
mobility rates. Also, the article supports my proposed change and gives many more proposals on
change.
Grover, et al 2007, defines health care access as the ease with which a person can get
required health services. The research examines the economic, cultural, geographical and social
factors that impact international access to health care; the connection between access and health
ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE SERVICES
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or given populations in the US such as ethnic and racial minorities, limited English knowledge,
children as well as the elderly. The article provides statistical data which gives more information
concerning the problem (Grover, et al 2007). Also, the article suggests that people who cannot
easily access quality and comprehensive care have high mortality rates. Still, the article supports
my proposed change.
According to Gulliford & Morgan, 2003 many Americans die from non-communicable
illnesses at very higher rates compared to many citizens from other developed nations. It is sad
that many people have been reluctant to seek medical care because of the cost. The article
describes a panel of experts of the National Research Council as well as the Institute of Medicine
who assessed the country’s access to health by comparing with that of other advanced nations.
Americans were found to have the second highest deaths from non-communicable diseases such
as heart disease and diabetes. Americans were even worse when it came to maternal and infant
deaths. The articles also give statistical information including the percentage and number of people
who cannot effectively assess medical care (Gulliford et al, 2002). Also, mortality rates of the most
affected is provided in the article. The article also supports my proposed change and proposes
many more changes.
The author, Krahn et al, 2006, judged access to medical care on the basis of use and
availability of services. A lot of inequalities are evident and the deprived urban areas are the
most affected. The author makes analyses that suggests that an improved health care supply is
associated with reduced deaths as well as improved health. The article provides statistical data of
as well as the mobility rates of the people in deprived urban areas. Still, the article supports my
proposed changes and provides many more changes to improve health care access (Krahn et al,
2006).
ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE SERVICES
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In his research work, Kronenfeld, 2011 found out that, the primary component of attaining
universal coverage of health care is by making sure that everyone has an access to both
comprehensive and quality health care. The article used the Global Burden of Disease, Injures and
Risk Factors to evaluate individual health care quality and access with HAQ (Health Care Access
and Quality) for over 100 territories and nations. Over 32 death causes which would not have taken
place in the presence of quality and effective care took place (Kronenfeld, 2011). The research
article provides statistical data and mortality rates of the people who are highly affected. Still, the
article supports my proposed change in improving health care access.
McMillan, et al, 2013 focused on the challenges that people individuals with intellectual
disabilities go through when they try to get access to medical health. The article highlights that
people with intellectual disabilities tend to have poorer health than the other people and they may
encounter various hinderances when trying to access medical care. Fortunately, most of these
hinderances have been identified to be not only avoidable but also modifiable. The inequities in
access to health care have been discovered. Providing equal access to medical care for people with
intellectual disorders need various responses at different levels and various major stakeholders. In
the article the number approximate number as well as the mortality rates of people with intellectual
disability who are lacking access to proper medical care s given (McMillan, et al, 2013). Also,
apart from supporting my proposed change the article proposes many other relevant changes.
Ortega, et al, 2007, found out that, many Americans living in vulnerable urban and rural
conditions have a special need for hospitals. Many communities may be at risk of losing their
access to health opportunities and services that they need to maintain and improve their health.
The article does not however, provide any statistical information or mortality rates of the affected
individuals. The article highlights that special programs that have been put in place help improve
ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE SERVICES
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the unique conditions of vulnerable communities are not very urgent now and what is urgently
needed are comprehensive and integrated approaches reform the delivery of health care to these
vulnerable communities (Ortega, et al, 2007).
According to Owusu-Frimpong, et al, 2010, patient centered care tends to be a significant
approach to medical care. This strategy focusses on partnerships by health care givers and patients
and takes into practice the preferences of the patient hence ensuring flexibility in providing health
care services. The article highlights that the strategy moves beyond the traditional approaches to
health care. The article does not give any statistical data or mortality rates of people affected but
rather focus on the strategies of improving the problem. The proposed strategies are in support of
my proposed change (Owusu-Frimpong, et al, 2010).
According to People, H., & US Department of Health and Human Services, 2000,
everyone has the right to access health care but then they should contribute to the cost of health
care. The article states that any sick person can get into a health care center, get treatment and be
billed later. Also, everybody should be able to contribute to the treatment that they receive.
Similar to article ten, this article too does not focus much on the problem but rather the strategies
for improving the problem. Hence, the article does not give any statistical data or mortality rates
of people who have such problems (People, H., & US Department of Health and Human
Services, 2000).
In his research work, Petersen, et al ,2005 found out that, people living in remote rural
environments tend to have shorter life span, higher disease levels and injury as well as very poor
access to health care opportunities, information and services. According to the article, poor health
results in the in the rural areas may be because of various reasons such as lack of employment
opportunities, income as well as a poor access to medical care. The article gives the statistical
ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE SERVICES
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information as well as the mortality rates of the people in the rural areas who cannot effectively
get an access to health services (Petersen, et al ,2005).
Reynolds, 2009 states that access is concerned with aiding individuals to command
necessary health care resources so as at to improve and preserve health. Access is a serious concept
that needs assessment. If health care services are available and enough then the there is an
opportunity to obtain health care and a people may need to get an access to such services. The
extent in which people get access to the health care services is based on the financial and structural
hindrances that restrict the usage of the services. The available services must be effective and
relevant if the people are to achieve satisfactory health care. In an attempt to define health care
access, the article provides the statistical data and morbidity rates of persons who lack access to
comprehensive medical care. Still, it has provided the solutions to improving health care which
are in line with my proposed change (Reynolds, 2009).
Smith, 2004 found out that, there’s growing demand or health care services on the health
system because of the aging population as well as the rise of chronic diseases. Many regional areas
have limited and restricted access to appropriate health care leading too higher rates of
hospitalization and poor health results. The article has provided the statistical data of the increasing
population and of the persons with chronic diseases. The rates of people who die from these
chronical infections due to lack of effective medical care access (Smith, 2004).
Gulliford et al, 2002 explored the hinderances of accessing primary health care for
economically and socially disadvantaged individuals in rural areas. The article uses interviews in
which twenty people that are over 12 years living in the rural areas and given financial support
are interviewed. The interviews on the target groups were transcribed and audio recorded. The
research discovered that many barriers hinder this group of people from accessing health care
ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE SERVICES
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and a lot still needs to be done to ensure they get the gain relevant health care. The article has
provided the estimate number of the socially disadvantaged individuals who have poor access to
health care and their death rates (Gulliford et al, 2002).
Incorporating a Theory
Referring to the literature review above, governments should work hand in hand in
ensuring deliverance of quality healthcare services to the citizens. To achieve the implementation
of the suggested solution, there are a number of theories that must be considered. These theories
will comprise of the following: – Social Cognitive Theory, The Health Belief Model and Stages of
Change Model also referred to as Transtheoretical Model. Among these theories, I will use the
Health Belief Model in implementing the proposed solution (Zellman, 2015).
The Health Belief Model theory offers guidelines ion diverse health care promotions and
strategies that must be put in place to improve on the patient’s health. Moreover, the theory
explains and predicts the expected improvements in terms of quality healthcare if the proposed
changes will be implemented. Moreover, the theory focuses on collecting information from the
patients to determine on the perceptions and responses concerning healthcare changes.
The Health Belief Model theory supports my project of improving on patient’s healthcare
since it focuses on ensuring quality healthcare services to all. Using this theory, I will have enough
guidelines required to implement to implement access to quality medical care successfully
(Zellman, 2015).
In incorporating this theory, I will begin by identifying the number of people in my state
who are lacking access to medical care services. The next step will involve conducting public
involvement surveys as a way of ensuring the public gets to know what my project is all about.
ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE SERVICES
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Using the procedures and guidelines offered by the theory, I will be able to determine public
expectations as far as my project is concerned.
ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE SERVICES
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References
Aday, L. A., & Andersen, R. (2014). A framework for the study of access to medical
care. Health services research, 9(3), 208.
Bhatt, J., & Bathija, P. (2018). Ensuring Access to Quality Health Care in Vulnerable
Communities. Academic Medicine, 93(9), 1271.
Fried, L. P., Bentley, M. E., Buekens, P., Burke, D. S., Frenk, J. J., Klag, M. J., & Spencer, H. C.
(2010). Global health is public health. The Lancet, 375(9714), 535-537.
Grover, J. (2007). Healthcare. Detroit: Greenhaven Press.
Gulliford, M., & Morgan, M. (2003). Access to health care. London: Routledge.
Gulliford, M., Figueroa-Munoz, J., Morgan, M., Hughes, D., Gibson, B., Beech, R., & Hudson,
M. (2002). What does’ access to health care’mean?. Journal of health services research &
policy, 7(3), 186-188.
Krahn, G. L., Hammond, L., & Turner, A. (2006). A cascade of disparities: health and health
care access for people with intellectual disabilities. Mental retardation and
developmental disabilities research reviews, 12(1), 70-82.
Kronenfeld, J. (2011). Access to care and factors that impact access, patients as partners in care
and changing roles of health providers. Bingley, U.K.: Emerald.
McMillan, S. S., Kendall, E., Sav, A., King, M. A., Whitty, J. A., Kelly, F., & Wheeler, A. J.
(2013). Patient-centered approaches to health care: a systematic review of randomized
controlled trials. Medical Care Research and Review, 70(6), 567-596.
Ortega, A. N., Fang, H., Perez, V. H., Rizzo, J. A., Carter-Pokras, O., Wallace, S. P., & Gelberg,
L. (2007). Health care access, use of services, and experiences among undocumented
Mexicans and other Latinos. Archives of internal medicine, 167(21), 2354-2360.
ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE SERVICES
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Owusu-Frimpong, N., Nwankwo, S., & Dason, B. (2010). Measuring service quality and patient
satisfaction with access to public and private healthcare delivery. International Journal of
Public Sector Management, 23(3), 203-220.
People, H., & US Department of Health and Human Services. (2000). Healthy people 2010.
Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, US Department of Health and
Human Services.
Petersen, P. E., & Yamamoto, T. (2005). Improving the oral health of older people: the approach
of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community dentistry and oral
epidemiology, 33(2), 81-92.
Reynolds, A. (2009). Patient-centered care. Radiologic Technology, 81(2), 133-147.
Smith, J. D. (2004). Australia’s rural and remote health: A social justice perspective. Tertiary
Press.
Zellman, G. (2015). The Health Belief Model and Teenage Contraceptive Behavior. [S.l.]:
Distributed by ERIC Clearinghouse.
Table of Evidence
Study 1
Author
Study title
Research Questions
Design
Setting/Sample
Methods:
intervention/instruments
Analysis
Key findings
Recommendations
How this supports
EBP/Capstone
Study 2
Study 3
Study 4
Study 5

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