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Essay Prompt:Given that another primary season is underway, a serious contender for the U.S. presidency (you decide the gender and party) has invited you to join her campaign as an undergraduate special advisor. She has heard about your recent “MMW 122: Exploring the Modern World” experience and wants your insights on what the global history of the past 250 years can teach a responsible and effective world leader today. Specifically, she would like to have your input, based exclusively on what you have learned in MMW 122, in helping her define her general policy platform in one of these three following areas: 1) how to achieve greater social fairness (think race, gender, class, etc.), 2) how to achieve greater economic equality (think property, capital, labor, development, etc.), and 3) how to achieve greater individual autonomy and sense of personal freedom (think consumerism, education, nationalism, mass culture, etc.).She is not interested in hearing your personal political leanings or partisan values, nor is she asking you to consider what is politically expedient to get her elected (her other million-dollar consultants can do that!). Instead, she wants you to speak from a historical perspective based strictly on your MMW 122 experience. She wants you to focus on only one of these three general areas, by discussing specific historical examples and ideas from your readings and lectures to back up your overall perspective (your thesis).In your essay response, you need to incorporate and address at least four different textual sources assigned in the course in relation to your chosen topic. No need for direct quotations or text citations, but you must fully discuss the relevance of each source to your topic. (Since the final essay is meant to be cumulative in scope, at least one of the four sources must come from pre-midterm material; at least one must come from post-midterm material) In addition to the examples you have prepared, she will ask you to explain how TWO specific terms or names selected from the course review guides relate to your chosen topic (e.g. how do SAPs relate to economic equality?) These TWO items will be mandatory for you to address in connection to your thesis. This is the only part of the final essay that can be considered a “surprise” and it will make up one-fifth of your essay grade. The terms selected will have an obvious connection to each of the three respective topics. If you have done the course readings or attended lectures regularly, making the connections should not be hard. Guide:Demonstrate your understanding of key, overarching problems we have covered in the course and develop a well-substantiated, thesis-based essay. In your essay, you must focus primarily on readings from the course syllabus, supplemented by course lectures and section discussions. The key challenge is for you to demonstrate that you have reflected on the assigned course readings thoroughly and critically, in conjunction with the lectures. Be sure to explain the relevance of the examples you choose (either direct or nuanced) in a coherent, reflective, and concrete manner.In addition, please include as many terms/ passage form the 2 word documents provided below. Thank you.


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MMW 122
Chang Track
Final Exam Review Guide
Winter 2016
Review Session: Center Hall 109, Tuesday, March 15 from 8-9 pm
(This is meant to be a review guide, not the exam itself. Ultimately, you are accountable for
all the key materials in the readings and lectures.)
Time and location for final exam: Thursday, March 17 from 3-6 pm in Peterson 110
• Please bring two unmarked bluebooks for exchange (only exchange one at start of exam)
• If you arrive more than 10 minutes after the start of the exam, you will forfeit your right
to take the exam—please do not show up LATE!
• Final Exam will be designed for 2 hours, even though you will have 3 hours to complete
Part I. Objective
You need to be familiar with the historical context and significance of the following names and
terms from your readings and lectures. Be sure you are able to address the appropriate “who?”
“what?” “where?” and “when?’, and most importantly, “why?” issues associated with each
one. Multiple choice and matching terms questions will be drawn from this guide.
Key Names & Terms for Weeks 6 through 10
Orientalism and Islamaphobia
Huntington’s “civilizational consciousness” 1996
From his book, The Clash of Civilizations, “Civilization consciousness is increasing; conflict
between civilizations will supplant ideological and other forms of conflict as the dominant global
form of conflict; international relations, historically a game played out within Western
civilization, will increasingly be de-Westernized and become a game in which non-Western
civilizations are actors and not simply objects”
• Basically is stating that religion and culture will be the main source of conflict after the
Cold War, rather than ideology and economics
– “Interactions between peoples of different civilizations are increasing; these
increasing interactions intensify civilization consciousness and awareness of differences
between civilizations and commonalities within civilizations. Differences include history,
language, culture, tradition, and religion which create different views in relationships between
god and man, husband and wife, as well as view on rights and responsibilities, liberty and
authority, equality and hierarchy.”.
Kin-country syndrome
Described by Huntington as source of conflict unique from past. Phenomenon of having groups
within a civilization being able to recruit their civilization in a fight or war against another
Groups or states belonging to one civilization that become involved in war with people from a
different civilization naturally try to rally support from other members of their own civilization.
Balkan ethnic conflicts as example
The Serbs, Bosnians, and Croatians were all supported by different powers on each side,
according to their beliefs, e.g. Croatians were supported by West because they were Christian
• If groups of states are able to gather support from the same civilization, then Croatians
getting support from the West because of their religion is an example of Kin-country
syndrome. They gained support based on their shared religion.
Unsecularization of geopolitics
Religion becoming an increasingly powerful force against globalization.
Religion reinforces the revival of ethnic identities where geographical proximity gives rise to
conflicting territorial claims. Religion plays an increasing role in determining which countries, or
territories, will align together.
Confucian-Islamic connection
from Samuel Huntington’s Clash of Civilizations: connection has emerged to challenge Western
interests, values, and power. China and Middle East are significantly expanding their military
capabilities leading to what has been called “weapon states”
Edward Said’s rebuttal
“The Clash of Ignorance” was presented as a rebuttal to Samuel P. Huntington’s now prominent
theory “The Clash of Civilizations.”
Huntington argues that after the Cold War, the fundamental source of world conflict will be
primarily cultural and religious. Huntington’s theory principally revolves around the civilizations
of “the West” and “Islam” and the author famously states that “the fault lines between
civilizations will be the battle lines of the future. //what is fault line??<--- they are referring to geographic fault lines… they are places of tension where earthquakes occur… metaphor for tension where future wars will occur On the other hand, Said argues that ignorance is the reason for conflict and not culture/religion. He says that Huntington oversimplifies the idea of civilizations and he does not take into account global interactions between and within civilizations. To expand on this, western societies view Islam in a homogenous perspective when in fact, it is very diversed. Also, that this western fear of this “Cosmic Civilization”, that this Confucian-Islamic connection, is a fantasy. The danger is that fantasy could become a reality if western societies keep pushing this idea. called it a clash of ignorance; "a great deal of demagogy and downright ignorance is involved in presuming to speak for a whole religion or civilization"; "it is better to think in terms of powerful and powerless communities, the secular politics of reason and ignorance, and universal principles of justice and injustice, than to wander off in search of vast abstractions that may give momentary satisfaction but little self-knowledge or informed analysis" Ayatollah Khomeini Used religious authority in 1979 Iranian Revolution to overthrow the Shah (king) of Iran. He attributed the success of the revolution to Islam, not to liberal ideology, and to the peasants, not to the educated liberals. Emphasized the difference between this revolution and the western model of revolution. He insisted that the struggle for "human rights" was according to the values of Islam, not based on liberal traditions Wanted to remove the Westernized government in Iran. Martyrs at Khurdad vs. “xenomaniacs” Piece by Ayatollah Khomeini: martyrs that died were poor muslims from lower echelon of society. He wants audience to know that they were not western idealists but the poor that made revolution succeed. trying to draw a sharp line between this revolution vs. enlightenment revolution (not in common with western). Xenomaniacs are those who are infatuated with Western Ideals. He believed they should either be destroyed or cured. Osama bin Laden’s call for “jihad” Called for Jihad against American militarism, but also against the threat of Western media and the invasion of American culture. Wanted to liberate islam from sinners. He twisted the meaning of Jihad which sparked global terrorism. Jihad is often a misunderstood concept. It means the struggle - religious duty of muslim to practice/preserve their religion. The internal/external struggle of being a good Muslim (praying 5 times a day, fasting, etc.) Meaning of “Al Qaeda” It’s translated as “the base” or the foundation Base: non elites, or foundation of true islam. Osama would distort the meaning of the Koran and Islam to advance his agenda An extremist organization founded and led by Osama bin Laden after the Soviets invaded Afghanistan in 1979, with aims to help Muslim volunteers join the resistance. (The US actually helped fund these Muslim extremists because they were fighting against the Soviet Union during the Cold War) The organization was responsible for a series of bombings directed at U.S. embassies, ships, and barracks, as well as the attacks on New York and Washington in 2001 U.S. presence in Saudi Arabia When Saddam Hussein decided to invade Kuwait, the US got involved and pushed Saddam Hussein back, but let him stay in power. As a result, the US maintained a strong military presence in both Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. US only cared about this area because there was oil there, while they let Bosnians be slaughtered. Pointed out that the US has a double-standard when it came to promoting “human rights” because the US was (*still is) selective on who to help. The Myth of the Nation Reaction to Napoleonic conquests As Napoleon attempted to conquer Europe and consolidate power, crumbling traditional affiliations along the way, different regions were compelled to resist by differentiating themselves as unique autonomous bodies. With the failure of Napoleon's conquest, these different regions attempted to define themselves based on language and common customs. These groups formed into different powers, which then struggled to reorganize the balance of power in Europe. Traditional sense of identity in Europe prior to 19 century. Important because it shows that oppression creates a sense of nationalism, a sense of common suffering (whether fictional or real). th Johann Gottfried Herder A popular German philosopher and poet. Throughout his work you can see expressions of nationalism, captured through folk songs/tales, and poetry. He is a symbol of the emerging notion of Volksgeist but he did not coin the term. Volksgeist Spirit of the German people Johann Gottlieb Fichte In his piece, "Address to the German nation," Fichte envisions "invisible bonds" among all German people. These bonds were rooted in historical myths, which claimed that Germans inherited their freedom and independence from ancestors, thus providing an aura of common sacrifice and struggle. These historical myths assume that German tribes had a preexisting sense of nationalism. Fichte called on Germans to live up to their "heritage." The significance here is on reinventing the past, as a tool for unification. Once people buy into the myth of the nation, they are willing to sacrifice for it. “Invisible bonds” of Germans Based on bonds rooted in both language and history. Fichte claimed that they are intrinsic yet hidden from the eyes of Germans themselves. Professor Chang argued that calling bonds intrinsic, yet fabricated, must involve myopia (near sightedness) and amnesia on the part of citizens (because you’ll see too many divisions; counterproductive). This is why you see a bombardment of nationalist ideological brainwashing through education, language, and conflicts. Not seeing clearly is often the key ingredient in the nationalistic agenda. Germanic tribal legacy Fichte believed that German tribes refused to become Latinized and did not want to succumb to pleasures of Roman lives, they rather have died than become Roman. Ernest Renan says this was not true because German Barbarians actually embraced Roman/Latin life, took on Latin women, and Christianity. The rule of myth making is incredibly important. This is what Renan points out that Fichte is superimposing this idea on the people. Otto von Bismarck This was the appointed Chancellor of the German Nation by Kaiser Wilhelm. He used the military force to strengthen Prussia; used against Austria, Denmark, and France. Victories reinforced national pride among people; concept of jumping on the bandwagon. By 1871, the new modern German state was created. “Blood and Iron” agenda - Speech about the unification of German territories (consolidate all German speaking people across Europe). Prussian unification Kaiser Wilhelm declared emperor of the Second Reich (the 1st Holy Roman Empire). This signaled a shift from the German nation as an ideal to a reality. 1834 creation of an “economic union” of German states—Zollverein Prussia exploited the nationalistic sentiments among German speaking people; saw itself as the German embryo, the seed of a future German nation. Ernest Renan “Approach the idea of a nation in the most dispassionate way.” Warned everyone before his lecture because it was going to be painful to hear, that it would touch a nerve. He gave a lecture in 1882 called "What is a Nation?" He criticized Fichte's view by asserting that German leaders embraced Latin tongue, married Latin women, and adopted Latin customs and Christianity. Criticized Fitche’s sense of superiority over other civilizations; He also stated that the idea of a nation is a modern concept; nothing internal about it. The mold of a nation does come from earlier times, but that does not make it eternal, only explains where it comes from. Each territory got its name from the name of the tribe. France is from Franks. Lombardi is from Lombards. Hungary is from Huns. He also argued that everyone was mixed in one way or another since only 1 out 10 French people could actually trace their descent from the Franks. Partition of Verdun The Grandsons of Charlemagne (King of the Franks) split the empire into parts into French and German speaking area. They got tired of fighting so made arbitrary separations and were based on the agreement that the Rhine River would be the partition. Each side had its own natural divine right and gave them the sense of “eternalness”; i.e. It’s German or French soil and therefore if you step unto my soil I’ll kill you even though it was completely arbitrary. Necessity of “historical error” National consciousness requires people to remember (history), but more than that, it also requires people to forget or re-invent (mythology). Myth of national unity require you to forget violence that brought about it, nationalism can easily become a self-perpetuating and self-fulfilling fantasy. For national identity to work you cannot see too far back (Myopia) and you can’t remember too clearly (Amnesia). These are the two main ingredient in nationalist agenda, that why historical error is necessary for nationalism to work. Chang- the-man-长唱场常 says historical error is a crucial factor in the creation of a nation. (Is this a similar concept to “invisible bonds???”) no- necessity of historical error is talking about how it’s important to forget the shitty things a nation has done to other people (ie not talk about it in a presidential speech) and to remember good things or even revise history to fit the ideas you are trying get across (ie, partition of verdun, Charlemagne had many grandsons, drew line to split up land… as time went on people forgot that this line represented the land of related people in time the land marked two different lands that spoke of each side as their own native soil with independent qualities and they actually spilled blood to protect the dirt on each side of the line against each other when in reality they initially came from the same land) Invisible bonds are bonds with language and historical error is basically just revising history... invisible bonds are just bonds that make german people “special” and hold them together bc they 1) speak the same lingo 2) same ancestors shared same experience (which is bullshit… invisible bonds is an example of historical error to build a bs idea) I see….thanks, I was starting to mix the two…np good luck with ur shit doo, thanks you gonna delete this now lol… nah just leave it dude It will help others ...k cool thanks doods Memory of Bartholomew’s Day Massacre In August 1572, appx. 20,000-50,000 French Huguenots/Protestants were massacred by their own French Catholic neighbors. Catholics and Protestants, the national community, had to forget these certain events in order to be a nation. In other words, myths were invented (more historical error). Undermines/eliminates the national narrative they are trying to create if they bring this up. “Ethnographic principle” The assumption that nations are based on the commonality of race when there is no such thing as pure race; centuries of mixing between nations. Double-edge sword: one can use race to subjugate a group but that group can use race to rebel against them. Michelet on the French Revolution He spoke about the patriotism for those who died in the French Revolution but those fighting weren't fighting for a French nation but rather were fighting for social justice. Ideas that these revolutionaries died for the nation, without knowing it themselves. Again, the pattern of myth making appears. Revisionist history Revising and reinterpreting history to suit one's own needs based on ideology of exclusion, differentiation, and antagonism.. “History can undermine the myth of a nation when we look too closely or too far back” Revisionist history is important to continue and keep promoting nationalistic ideologies. -- Idk how we’re supposed to differentiate this from historical error… Historical error has to do with forgetting or omitting historical facts whereas revisionist history, one revises historical facts to fit an agenda, example teaching us that George Washington was an enlightened leader and he treated his slaves as family but in reality they tried to run away from him etc. “Spiritual principle” of a nation Having common glories in the past can help unify people. People can form a nation when they share more qualities and have shared experiences. The past memories that a community has (e.g. shared suffering) & the present consent. National identity as a “daily plebiscite” By consenting the nation the community should be able to decide at any point that they are still part of that nation. Plebiscite = nation wide vote “Daily plebiscite” is essentially the idea that a nation makes a daily decision to continue being a nation, and at any point they may choose to discontinue being one. This concept is also shaky because consent of the majority people could be wrong. I.e. Nazi Germany. Print capitalism and “imagined community” Every story/books were filled with stories which helped fuel literacy, nationalism, and allowed direct access to more people. The proliferation of newspapers and books helped spread ideas. mass media; print media/newspapers/books all contributes to sense of national community/imagine community vernacularization and nationalism Books were published in the common language to unite the people. By creating a common dialect, the idea of nationalism is further enhanced because knowledge can be spread faster and with ease. Anti-Semitism in Nazi Germany Wilhelm Marr’s term “Anti-Semitism” A term he coined referring to the culture conflict he saw between Jews assimilating into German culture and the Germans themselves. This term also has the connotations of Social Darwinism. The rhetoric against the Jews was new. Before it was simply their religion, but now it has a racial element. Semite has a racial connotation. It’s not “anti-Jew” it’s “anti-Semite” Wilhelm portrayed Jews as the “model minority” and the Germans as the victims of the Jews. Hitler’s platform in 1920s Still fairly frustrated with the loss of WWI, became the propaganda officer of the National Socialist German Workers Party, later called the Nazis. Obviously anti semitism ran thick in the early Nazi party and their anticapital rhetoric put the Jews at risk for their assumed participation in the cause of the depression. The Nazi Party platform of 1920 was conceived shortly after the Germans were defeated in WWI. At this point in history, the Nazi Party was very small and insignificant, but this platform was important because it contains many of the Nazi political objectives which were to be realized when Hitler and the Nazi Party took control of Germany in 1933. After the Great Depression, which came with the economic crisis, Germany was hit the hardest with unemployment of 43%. During this time was when the Nazi party saw the number of their members rise. There is a correlation between the health of the economy and the actions of its people. (potential point for essay portion of final) “Lebensraum” The German word for living space. A key element of Nazi ideology. Entailed Germany’s expansion into Eastern Europe and Western Russia for the purpose of providing new land for the growth of the Aryan race. This plan also included the extermination and/or enslavement of the Polish (Hitler offere ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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