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Topic: Evidence-Based Practice· Select Quality Improvement (QI) Project· Deliver a 15-20 minute, 10-15 slide (excluding title and reference slide)· Presentation on the research problem you have identified. · Please include background date with statistical data that identifies the problem, the purpose statement, research question, design, sample, and analysis plan. · Provide examples of evidence-based or best practices to improved healthcare outcomes and/or recommendations for implementation.· Provide visual aids (in addition to PowerPoint i.e. informational handouts, scholarly videos, display boards)· APA format· Use a minimum of five scholarly references.. Attached the project in word . The ppt should be Notes to the speaker
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Running head: ETHICAL CONDUCT IN RESEARCH
1
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH ON THE ARTICLE “SCHOOL-BASED OBESITY
INTERVENTION ASSOCIATED WITH THREE YEAR DECREASE IN STUDENT WEIGHT
STATUS IN A LOW-INCOME SCHOOL DISTRICT
Name:
Maikel Arian Garcia Chaviano
Eugenia Padilla
Nodelya Romero
Ernesto Amador Fraga
Julio Ramirez Ajo
Ana Luisa Gonzalez
Institution affiliation:
Miami Regional College
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH
2
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH ON THE ARTICLE “SCHOOL-BASED OBESITY
INTERVENTION ASSOCIATED WITH THREE YEAR DECREASE IN STUDENT WEIGHT
STATUS IN A LOW-INCOME SCHOOL DISTRICT”
Introduction
Definition of terms
Ethics are morals or principles that guide human beings in distinguishing what is wrong
and what is right. They are norms of conducts that shields human dignity in daily endeavors of
human beings. Research entails extracting sensitive information from people with various
religious beliefs, different education levels, and other norms. It is prudent and professional to
understand their definition of wrong and right and respect their opinions and boundaries. In
doing so, the respondents will feel respected and will be free, to tell the truth as they are sure of
the protection of their interests as far as the research is concerned (Morris et al., 2016). The
world is diverse with numerous races, religions, beliefs and divergent opinions. What is viewed
by one individual as the right may be an abomination in the eyes of another person? As the
saying put it, one man’s meat is another man’s poison. Compromise and mutual respect are
paramount for collaborative work to sustain.
Embracing ethical conduct in research
There are numerous advantages of embracing moral norms in research work. First, it is
the only way to promote and facilitate the objective of the study like truth and avoidance of error.
If there is no treatment of respondents with dignity and respect, they may not be willing to
provide factual information. Others may refuse to answer questions while others will give false
information to maintain the status quo as they will fear to speak the truth. Secondly, any
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH
3
research will involve individual from different works of life. A great deal of cooperation and
coordination among many people is paramount. Cooperation and coordination will only be
possible if the ethical norms are respected. The ethical standards like mutual respect will
promote values that are paramount to collaborative work.
Lastly, ethical norms enhance valuable social and moral value like human rights,
compliance with the law, social and individual responsibility, and health and public safety. A
valid example is a medical researcher who fabricates data as the findings may lead to wrong
conclusions that may lead to death.
The nursing research paradox
As we stated in the beginning, ethical research entails respect of the dignity of the
subjects in gathering and publication of the information. However, in the nursing sector,
researchers are confronted with three forces that conflict. They encounter society, nursing, and
science. Tayade (2016) found that it is impossible to avoid conflict in nursing research (Tayade,
2016). As a result, severe ethical consideration is necessary for nursing research, and the obese
article is part of the nursing research.
Summary, Childhood obesity article
Cadzow, Chambers, and Sandell (2015) conducted an epidemiological study on how
school-based interventions can help reduce cases of obesity and overweight status through
increased physical activity and health education (Cadzow, Chambers, & Sandell, 2015). The
authors claim that the responses based on academic institutions indicate that there is a declining
intake of diets with no nutritional value and a rise in physical activities by students. The impact
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH
4
of the school programs also shows that they inform students about making healthy food choices.
However, there has been a relatively low efficiency in the reduction of weight. In 2007, reports
showed that nationally, the average for overweight among school going children was 16.0 while
that of obese was 18.7%. At the beginning of the investigation, the number of students who were
obese was 21.4% in Lockport, New York, the school district. The data collection at the premises
of the school was under the coordination of the staff of the region in which they organized days
for training sessions to facilitate the team toward the collection of accurate data regarding reports
of updates to grant activities. The district contracted the Primary Care Research Institute, an
external assessor belonging to the SUNY at the Buffalo Department of Family Medicine, to
create an evaluation strategy, gather and examine the information, and help in reporting to the
United States Department of Education. The team charged with evaluation received approval
from the Institutional Review Board before embarking on the exercise of collecting data. The
leader of the program suggested that the alterations made to the equipment and physical
education curriculum can affect the weight of students.
Methods
The author used a cohort research design involving a three-year longitudinal study of the
body weight, height, and Body Mass Index (BMI). The study also included the percentiles of
BMI of student children of grades three to twelve gathered by the Lockport district of New York
with a purpose of the federal grant requirements for reporting. There was a 100% eligibility for
participation of all the students that were present during the data collection period. The leaders
responsible for data evaluation received authorization and approval from the Institutional Review
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH
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Board (IRB) to analyze data from de-identified students which they school district personnel
provided them.
Sample Size
The researcher’s study sample constituted all the students in grades 3-12 who were
present in the Lockport City School District. Approximately 4,000 students participated in the
study over the three-year project. The sample size was large enough as it was roughly half of the
population. The population size was 4,000 students, and the sample size was 2,259 children.
Further, the gender parity was obeyed as the number of males almost equaled the number
of females in the sample size. The sample size comprised of 2,259 children where 1,152 were
female while male involved 1,107. A large sample is essential as it provides accurate mean
examples. Also, it depicts the real picture of the whole population. On the other hand, a small
sample does not give a precise description of the entire community because it does not provide
accurate mean samples. In conclusion, a large sample is useful in a research study, and it
contains a relatively precise mean sample.
The author reported a sample of 2,259 students who possessed both baseline (2007) and
endpoint (2010) measurements of data. 39% of the cohort were elementary students who were in
grades 3-5 (n = 881), 38% were middle school students in grades 6-8 (n = 858), and 23% were
high school students in grades 9-12 (n = 520) in the year 2007. 51% (n = 1152) of the study
sample comprised of females and non-Hispanic white constituted 89% (n = 2010) representing
the overall population of students. The African American/black comprised of 6 % (n = 135), the
Hispanic/Latino consisted of 3 % (n = 68). The children that participated in the National Lunch
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH
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Program comprised of 35 % (n = 791) and 51 % (n = 1152) in the years 2007 and 2010
correspondingly.
Interventions
Before the Physical Education Program Grant, the district personnel noted that students
did not know about fitness and nutrition. They also lacked enough time to meet the physical
activity and education program of the state and had no nonconventional encouraging equipment
and a syllabus centered in state physical education standards. The gaps helped set the goals of the
program in which the evaluators and district workers created a multi-level intervention of three
years including the purchase of new equipment for fitness. The Grant money catered for payment
of expenses related to afterschool programming, the time staff for supervision community access
to athletic amenities of the school.
Data Analysis
The authors analyzed the data using SPSS version 17.0. The software performed a
statistical analysis by BMI percentiles as well as weight status according to the category. The
classification of the BMI results was in line with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
percentiles for adolescents and children: underweight (5th), healthy weight (C5th–85th),
overweight (C85th–95th), and obese (C95th). The researchers analyzed the data on weight status
for wide variation from the beginning to the endpoint. The analysis included data from students
with measures for at least first and last time points. The initial descriptive examination was
complete for the 2259 sample. Paired tests of the sample compared BMI percentile from the Fall
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH
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of 2007 to the Spring of 2010. Lastly, there was a comparison between results and concurrent
national data.
Results
The sample of 2,259 represented almost equally between males (49%) and females
(51%). 39% of the total population was elementary students, 38 % middle school, and 23 % high
school. The overweight and obesity rates in Lockport, New York, surpassed the county’s levels
of 25.8 against 19.3 % among children of ages 6–11 years and 18.6 against 17.2 % among ages
12–19 years received a categorization of overweight or obese in both Lockport and the nation.
The paired sample t-test showed that of the 2,259 there was a statistically significant decline in
mean BMI percentile from 70.3 to 65.7 % (p.001).
A Chi-square test examining the weight status showed that over the three years, the
percentage of children under the overweight categorization or obese for that matter declined
from 18.7 and 22.0 % to 16.7 and 18.3 % correspondingly (p.001). The researchers conducted
additional t-tests of paired-samples on BMI percentile by the stratification of weight status. The
mean of BMI percentile reduced from nearly 98% to 95% among those classified as obese at
baseline. The mean BMI percentile for students classified as overweight at baseline declined
from 91% to 84%. The population declined more pronouncedly in obesity levels compared to
national statistics of a similar time. Obesity levels fell by nearly a half a percentage countywide
while in the study population is reduced by about four percent.
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH
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Discussion
There was an improvement for many students in terms of weight status during the three
years of study. However, weight status possibly improved better for other students based on
variables of age, sex, self-image, and attitude toward physical activity. In general, elementary
students take part more in physical education class in comparison to older students and can
explain how they were present more consistently on the data collection period. Continuous
observing and conversation regarding healthy weight and related healthy habits, marked by
participating in screening twice annually, could have led to the change in behavior and loss of
mass. Researches of the weight loss show that loss of weight among high-risk populations
associates with recurrent contact with participants or patients.
The target population included all the students who were in grades 3-12 and were present
in the Lockport District School, New York in the days of the data collection. The target was
about 4,000 students both males and females. The research targeted students in overall grades 3
to 12. The study involved children and adolescents who belonged to the elementary school,
middle school, and high school but did not include older adults as well as students who were in
colleges and universities. Thus, it excludes adults and individuals who were former high school
students as well as children who were yet to join the elementary school. The sample size
constituted of 2,259 students in which 1,152 were females while the males were 1,107 students.
The authors determined the sample size through evaluating the population size of the
4,000 students and getting a number of the students who were available during the collection of
data. The evaluators obtained approval from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) to analyze the
de-identified data of the students gained from school district personnel. They defined the sample
size by categorizing the three groups; elementary school, middle school, and high school
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH
9
students to participate in the study depending on their presence during the time of collecting data.
The population sample included the whites who were the majority, the African American, and
the Hispanic/Latino in percentages of 89, 6, and three respectively.
The stating of the research questions
The authors stated the problems of the research clearly and ethically. First, they do not
inquire about personal information about the obese condition but the solution. Therefore, they
cannot offend or embarrass the respondents as they will not have a direct implication. The
research question is, in the children in grades 3-12 (P), what is the effect of the school-based
intervention(I) on a reduction in childhood obesity’s incidence(O) compared with the absence of
response (C) within three years (T)? The abbreviations are also coherent with the parameters
they represent.
The target population
A low-income school district was appropriate as most of the low-income parents
concentrate well on the weight and height status of their children. Most of them focused on
struggling to fulfill basic human needs. Therefore, the school-based intervention will yield
excellent results as it will accommodate all the students. For instance, children from rich
background have well-informed parents. Further, they have fitness facilities that may facilitate
the exercise of their kids.
The research targeted students between grades 3 and 12. It also included the children and
adolescents who were in elementary, middle and high school. The population was an object of
the issue at hand, but they did not possess appropriate information and professional know-how of
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH
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the question at hand. Most adolescents do not understand the causes nor the effects of obese.
Further, they may have limited information on the same. For instance, a grade three student may
not know how to calculate the body mass index (BMI).
In conclusion, the target population was not appropriate. In this case, health practitioners
and other school experts were to be involved as they have vast information related to the research
question. However, the research followed gender parity and random selection during the period
of the investigation.
Data Collection Procedures
The data collection can be considered accurate as the primary source, or firsthand
information was utilized and control put in place to ensure the data collection process was
correct. The controls included assignment of district staff to coordinate data collection and
leaders to evaluate the research process. The heights and weights of the students were practically
measured, and their Body Mass Indices (BMIs) calculated.
Data analysis procedures
The investigation methods or systems for the information had a logical framing and then
legitimate introduction where there were detailed examinations. The information investigation
for this situation included inferential and factual inquiries of BMI percentiles for the
understudies having the sample size of 2259 understudies. The inferential factual investigations
utilized here included Chi-square tests and t-tests. Every set of the information obtained from the
excel and SPSS exceeded expectations, and their examination was measurable. Also, through
dissecting weight status by BMI percentiles, the weight got evaluated through this classification.
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH
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The information of weight status was investigated for the whole change from the begin to the
endpoint, and the outcomes for BMI results obtained were sorted as per CDC percentiles for the
teenagers and youngsters while deciding substantial weight, hefty, overweight, and underweight.
The procedures are accurate but complex to comprehend as complicated software like SPSS
were employed. However, the output is correct mathematically.
The purpose of the study.
The purpose of the research was appropriate as it was trying to find a way of addressing
the obesity problem by compelling learning institutions to be part of the action. For instance, the
high numbers of obesity cases in New York are solvable through school-based policies like
mandatory exercising of the students.
Ethical Considerations
Privacy of participants
Regardless of using the appropriate sample group and respondents, researches do not
adhere to all moral principles. Firstly, The secrecy of the respondents was not assured. Tayade
(2016) discovered that while some students will be confident to refute the failures or
shortcomings of their learning institutions, some may lack that confidence (Tayade, 2016). As a
result, they may be forced to falsify their responses to conform to the status quo.
Further, the responses of others may sway the opinions and views of others. Some may
uncritically agree or repeat the quotes of others. A confidential interview will be appropriate as it
will give students the freedom to bring the cat out of the basket to avoid flaws.
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH
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Informed Consent and conditions of participants
The major ethical issue in research is informed consent. Informed consent is the ability of
an individual to give opinion or view knowingly, voluntary and intelligently in a clear and
manifest way. A person must reach a certain age to have informed consent. It is the ability of
self-determination. The subjects must have accurate information about the research question to
facilitate informed consent. They have the right to access the associated risks of the research and
test.
Finally, the subjects must have the freedom to choose whether to participate or not.
Talbert (2018) found that participation must be voluntary and no penalties in refusal to join
(Talbert, 2018). In this case, the students were not given relevant information before the
research. They need assurance that the participation is voluntary and no penalties in refusal to
participate. Further, the random weight and height measurement depict that the exercise was not
voluntary.
The was no ethical consideration for both the consent and conditions of participants. To
start with, some of the respondents were under the age of consent. Grade 3 students are not
mature enough to give independent opinions and responses used in nursing research. In other
words, the information gathered may be below the actual requirement standards. On the other
hand, the conditions of the participants were unaddressed.
Although the researchers did not seek approval from the Institutional Review Board, they
fail to mention whether they obtained consent from the students who were the participants or the
parents and guardians of the participants. Sng, Yip, and Han (2016) found that the primary
ethical issue in research is the Informed consent of the major moral issue in conducting research.
Informed consent denotes that an individual willingly, consciously, and knowingly, and
ETHICAL CONDUCT OF RESEARCH
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concisely, gives his permission for participation in any research process (Sng, Yip, and Han,
2016). In this article, the authors make no mention as to whether they contacted the parents,
guardians or caregivers regarding the research that they were conducting.
It is also critical to consider the fact that the participants …
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