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From 810. Contemporary Project Management 4th Edition – Timothy Kloppenborg Textbook, Utilizing the ideas in Exhibits 15.1 and 15.3 in Page no: 502 and 506 respectively, Need to create a project closeout checklist for a project of one of the following types: Information systems Research and development Quality improvement Organizational change
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CHAPTER
14
Determining Project Progress
and Results
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
After completing this
chapter, you should
be able to:
Develop and demonstrate use of a change
control system.
Demonstrate how to
monitor and control
project risks with
various resolution
strategies.
Create and present a
project progress
report.
BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES:
Describe the importance of formal
reporting and
communications.
Demonstrate negotiating skills.
Manage conflicts
during the project
execution
TECHNICAL OBJECTIVES:
Describe project
quality control tools,
including how and
when to use each.
Calculate current
project schedule and
budget progress, and
predict future progress, using earned
value analysis.
Document project
progress using MS
Project.
Wavebreakmedia/Shutterstock.com
CORE OBJECTIVES:
The fundamental reason for determining project progress and results comes down
to one thing presenting actionable, decision-making information to project leaders.
A major U.S. electric utility company is continuously faced with the daunting
task of managing over 1,200 simultaneous projects in all phases of planning, execution, and completion over a geographic area consisting of five states. These
projects are supported by over 40 departments within the utility and hundreds
of external contractors and equipment suppliers. Over 85 percent of these projects take place over multiple years. There are over 15,000 activities tracked for
active projects every month. Today, many of these projects are related to SmartGrid efforts to fundamentally change the way the electric utility system delivers
power to homes, schools, and businesses.
This utility regularly sets the standard for its industry each year by completing
over 90 percent of its projects on time and utilizing its annual project budget
within just a few percentage points. How is this accomplished?
By identifying and collecting just the right amount of financial, scheduling,
resource, and risk management data, and by focusing intently on turning raw
data into actionable information for the groups leading and supporting the
456
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Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
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4.3 Direct and Manage Project Work
4.5 Monitor and Control Project Work
4.6 Perform Integrated Change Control
5.6 Control Scope
6.6 Control Schedule
7.4 Control Costs
8.2 Manage Quality
Scope Backlog
Burn Up Chart
Earned Value Analysis
8.3 Control Quality
9.6 Control Resources
10.2 Manage Communications
Progress Report
10.3 Monitor Communications
11.6 Implement Risk Responses
11.7 Monitor Risks
13.2 Manage Stakeholder
Engagement
13.3 Monitor Stakeholder
Engagement
PMBOK® GUIDE
Topics:
Direct and manage
project work
Monitor and control
project work
Perform integrated
change control
Monitor risks
Manage
communications
Monitor
communications
Manage quality
Control quality
Control scope
Control schedule
Control costs
CHAPTER OUTPUTS
Progress report
Scope backlog
Burndown chart
Earned value analysis
Change request
Change Request
projects, the utility s project controls staff can continuously find and highlight the
information that requires leadership attention and project team action.
With the large number of projects being managed, the focus on individual projects
decreases and management of the entire group of projects as a portfolio becomes paramount. The actionable information presented highlights significant issues for individual
projects, but more important, forecasts trends over the entire portfolio and extended
spans of time, helping turn earned-value statistics into meaningful strategies.
Presenting valuable decision-making data to the multiple resource and leadership groups required to support a project provides the critical linkage between
the feedback of raw data and the ability to successfully control a single project
or an entire multiyear portfolio. Project data collection and management present
the opportunity to simultaneously manage an organization s profit, people, and
planet objectives in an optimal way.
As you move forward with this chapter and your own projects, consider the
use and impact of the project information that needs to be collected. What are
the key factors for your project financial, environmental, resource management,
scheduling, risk identification, stakeholder management, or others? Who needs
the project progress data, and exactly what do they need to know to make
good decisions and successfully achieve organizational objectives?
Identifying, collecting, managing, and presenting data that allow you to control
critical aspects of your projects are fundamental elements of project success.
Paul Kling, director project management and controls,
Power Delivery Engineering, Duke Energy
T
he word determine in the context of “determine project progress and results” has
multiple meanings. While each offers a slightly different perspective, collectively,
they help a project manager understand what she needs to do to ensure that her project
457
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
458
Part 4 Performing Projects
is progressing adequately and will yield the intended results in the end. Determine can
mean the following:
To
To
To
To
To
give direction to or decide the course of
be the cause of, to influence, or to regulate
limit in scope
reach a decision
come to a conclusion or resolution1
Project managers, in the course of planning, give direction to a project. Many projects
also require replanning due to any number of causes. Project managers sometimes can
influence only how work is accomplished (when people do not report to them), but
they may be able to regulate or demand the work to be accomplished at a certain time
or in a specific manner. To be successful in influencing and regulating project work, the
project manager needs to consider the stakeholder priorities and communications needs,
as discovered in Chapter 6, and use those to design the monitoring and control mechanisms described in this chapter. Many stakeholders on projects attempt to persuade the
project manager and team to deliver more scope, but one important role of the project
manager is to jealously guard the agreed-upon scope. Throughout a project, decisions
will be made. In such instances, the project manager can do one of the following:
Personally make these decisions
Be part of a group that makes decisions
Delegate decisions to others
Facilitate the process by which each decision is made
Often, project managers need to follow up to ensure that decisions are made and then
carried out. Finally, the project manager is responsible for making sure that the project is
satisfactorily completed.
14-1 Project Balanced Scorecard Approach
To successfully accomplish all five aspects of project determination (direct, regulate,
limit, decide, and conclude) in managing project progress, a project manager can think
in terms of a balanced scorecard approach. The concept behind a balanced scorecard is
that an organization needs to be evaluated from the perspectives of customer, internal
business, financial, and growth and innovation. If one considers a project as a temporary
organization, the same perspectives make sense when monitoring and controlling a project. Exhibit 14.1 shows a project balanced scorecard approach to project determination.
When a project manager seeks to monitor and control a project, different critical
aspects are often interrelated, and thus, their impacts on each other must be considered.
For example, a proposed change may impact the scope, quality, schedule, and/or cost.
However, to understand project control, one must consider each aspect individually
before assessing the impact on all other factors. This chapter begins with the project
manager controlling internal project issues. The next major section of this chapter deals
with the customer-related issues of quality and scope. The final sections deal with the
financial issues of resources, schedule, and cost. The project manager can utilize a number of tools to manage schedule overloads and conflicts and to reprioritize the work.
Earned value and project scheduling software such as MS Project can prove to be useful
to manage these issues. Growth and innovation include issues of participant development covered in Chapter 5 and managing project knowledge covered in Chapter 15.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
Chapter 14 Determining Project Progress and Results
459
EXHIBIT 14.1
BALANCED SCORECARD APPROACH TO PROJECT DETERMINATION
INTERNAL PROJECT
CUSTOMER
FINANCIAL
Direct and manage project work
Manage quality
Control resources
Monitor and control project work
Control quality
Control schedule
Perform integrated change control
Control scope
Control costs
Implement risk responses
Monitor risks
Manage communication
Monitor communication
Source: Adapted from Kevin Devine, Timothy J. Kloppenborg, and Priscilla O’Clock, “Project Measurement and Success:
A Balanced Scorecard Approach,” Journal of Healthcare Finance 36 (4) (2010): 38–50.
14-2 Internal Project Issues
While all aspects of a project are important and interrelated when determining progress
and results, a logical starting place is with the project work that needs to be accomplished. Closely related are the risks that may impede the work and adequate communication. Collectively, these form the project’s internal issues. These issues can be
envisioned as the project’s nerve center. Problems in any of them travel to all other project areas just as nerves in a body carry information throughout. When dealing with this
project nerve center, project managers direct and manage project work; monitor and
control the project work; perform integrated change control; implement risk responses
monitor project risks; and manage and monitor communications.
14-2a Direct and Manage Project Work
Directing and managing project work is performing the work as defined in various components of the project management plan, including approved changes with an intent to
accomplish project objectives. When project managers authorize project work, they should
empower others to the extent possible, yet control them to the extent necessary. It should
be clear who is allowed to authorize each portion of work to commence. The project management plan identifies work to be accomplished, but the project manager or her appointee must tell someone when it is time to perform the work. Often, spending limits are
intertwined with work authorization (e.g., “Please perform this activity and do not spend
more than $X on it. Report back to me for approval if you need to spend more.”).
The work to be performed can come from one of several sources. The primary source is
the work package level of the work breakdown structure. However, approved corrective
actions, preventive actions, and defect repairs may also trigger work to be authorized.
When directing project work, trade-offs are often present both between projects and
other work within the project itself. Organizations often have many projects and a variety of other work that must all be accomplished. Some work is of higher priority than
other work. A project manager needs to understand where her work fits in the priority.
If her project is relatively low in priority, she may have trouble getting people and
resources to perform the project-related activities as per the planned schedule. In a case
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
460
Part 4 Performing Projects
like that, the project manager and sponsor should have open and transparent communications so the sponsor can either help the project manager secure the resources needed
or understand that the project could be delayed.
Projects often are resource-constrained or time-constrained. In resource-constrained
projects, the project is limited by budget constraints. In this case, the project schedule
gets extended. When a project is time-constrained or its completion date is nonnegotiable, organizations may have to expend more resources to complete the project, and project cost is likely to exceed the planned cost. In both the resource- and time-constrained
projects, project scope is often not compromised. However, one should remember that
the project manager should have some leeway with one of the three constraints. If all
the three constraints (cost, time, and scope) are fixed, it is unlikely that the project manager and the team will be successful in completing the project within time, on budget,
and with the promised scope and acceptable quality.
As the project progresses, are there changing priorities that impact project importance?
Remember, any proposed change to the project scope, quality, schedule, or budget needs to
be processed through the integrated change control system described later in this chapter.
Projects are undertaken with scope goals and with constraints on cost, schedule, and
quality. Exhibit 14.2 gives an example of Tatro, Inc., dealing with project trade-offs.
Well-developed project charters, effective stakeholder management, and clear communications help the project manager make sensible trade-off decisions. Sometimes, an
owner representative works closely with the project manager to make these decisions.
Skills an owner representative can use when working closely with a project manager to
make these trade-off decisions effectively are shown in Exhibit 14.3.
14-2b Monitor and Control Project Work
Monitoring and controlling project work includes a series of activities such as identifying
work packages for tracking, reviewing, and documenting the progress to ensure that the
project execution meets performance objectives as defined in the project plan. The term
monitor refers to reviewing the progress and capturing project performance data with reference to the project plan; developing performance measures; and communicating performance information. Control means assessing actual performance obtained from
monitoring a work element and comparing it with planned performance, determining variances, analyzing trends to identify and implement process improvements, evaluating possible alternatives, and finally, recommending appropriate corrective action as needed.
A variance is a measurable departure from a planned baseline or expected value.
Variance is often measured in quantitative terms, but qualitative measures cannot be
EXHIBIT 14.2
PROJECT TRADE-OFF DECISIONS AT TATRO, INC.
Tatro, Inc., is a company that describes itself as a designer, builder, and caretaker of fine landscaping. It has both commercial and private (homeowner) clients. Landscaping projects for private
homes often cost well over $100,000. Homeowners who contract for landscaping projects of this
magnitude are ultra-successful people who will not change their mind once they decide they want
something special. These clients tend to focus closely on the process of a project. They wish to have
polite, skilled workers with no interruptions. The reason they wish to have the project completed is
to create a “wow factor.” Therefore, they will rarely compromise at all on either scope or quality, but
they will often compromise on the necessary cost and schedule.
Source: Chris Tetrault, president, Tatro, Inc. Reprinted with permission.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Copyright 2019 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. WCN 02-200-203
Chapter 14 Determining Project Progress and Results
461
EXHIBIT 14.3
USEFUL OWNER REPRESENTATIVE SKILLS IN PROJECT
TRADE-OFF DECISION MAKING
Partnership
Building trust
Improving relations
Collaborating
Creating alliances
Assuring quality
Management
Planning
Managing change
Aligning resources
Leadership
Communicating
Team building
Technical
Project management
Knowledge of criteria
Source: Adapted from Denis R. Petersen and E. Lile Murphree, Jr., “The Impact of Owner Representatives in a
Design-Build Construction Environment,” Project Management Journal 35 (3) (September 2004): 35–36.
ruled out. Monitoring and controlling activities allow a project manager to keep an eye
on many project activities that can indicate how well the project performance is progressing. This prepares her to act if necessary to get the project back on track. The most
difficult part of monitoring and controlling is figuring out what metrics to keep, what
to measure, and how to report the results to various decision makers as necessary.
Monitoring and controlling are not activities that are done only once. Monitoring and
controlling activities occur along with project execution. Monitoring and controlling are
a continuous, overarching part of an entire project’s life cycle, from project initiation
through project closing. Since the purpose of monitoring and controlling project work
is to be able to take corrective action, these activities need to be timely. In fact, the
reverse of an old adage is in order. Instead of shooting the messenger when there is
bad news, reward the messenger if the message is delivered quickly enough to bring the
project back into control and at low cost.
To the extent possible, letting people self-control their work adds to their enthusiasm.
In other words, make them responsible and accountable by empowering people and delegating the work. That said, the project manager is ultimately accountab …
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