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I have attached the two reference. no plagiarize, spell check, and check your grammar. Please only use the attached below. 8-slides. the third references I dont have. Use pictures and make sure you site were the pictures came from. Imagine that you have been asked to deliver a presentation about the evolution of leadership to a high school management class. Create a 8- slide PowerPoint presentation (excluding the title and references slides) that highlights three key ways in which leadership and management theory has evolved from the industrial age to the present. Use four outside sources in addition to the required readings to support the statements made within your presentation. Also, within the PowerPoint presentation, incorporate at least 100 words of speaker notes for each content slideReferences Bocking, S. (2011). The evolution of theory: 10 ways science is changing our world. Alternatives Journal, (6), 24. Retrieved from….Yukl, G. (2013). Leadership in organizations (8th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall Yurii Safonov, Yevgen Maslennikov, & Nataliia Lenska. (2018). Evolution and Modern Tendencies in the Theory of Leadership. Baltic Journal of Economic Studies, Vol 4, Iss 1, Pp 304-310 (2018), (1), 304.…


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Baltic Journal of Economic Studies
Vol. 4, No. 1, 2018
Yurii Safonov1
Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman, Ukraine
Yevgen Maslennikov2, Nataliia Lenska3
Odesa I.I. Mechnikov National University, Ukraine
Abstract. Leadership as a social phenomenon accompanies mankind throughout its existence. In different
historical epochs, attempts were made to study leadership qualities on the basis of a description of the
personalities of great people. As a result, the idea of leadership quickly evolved as the accumulation of theoretical
and empirical material, revealing new facets of this complex phenomenon. In foreign social sciences, the
theory of leadership has developed in several directions and by now a number of complementary theories and
concepts have been developed, which predetermines the need to describe their continuity and development.
For this reason, the purpose of the paper is to analyse the basic theories and concepts of leadership, as a sociopsychological phenomenon, the most significant in the context of studying the formation of the leader as an
organizational leader. Methodology. The methodological and informational basis of the investigation is scientific
articles, materials of periodicals, resources of the Internet. To achieve the goal set, the following general scientific
and special methods were used: morphological analysis, system and structural-logical analysis, formalization,
analogy, comparison and integration, tabular method. Results. As a result of the research, a brief historical overview
of approaches to the study of leadership was given; the logical continuity of the basic concepts and methods of
research was considered; the main current trends in leadership research in recent years were revealed. Practical
implications. In order to realize the leadership potential, it is necessary to know what determines leadership,
on what it depends. Thus, the problem of studying the phenomenon of leadership in a modern organization is
relevant; the considered theories of leadership can be applied by managers depending on the level of economic
development of the organization. Value/originality. The authors identified current trends in the theory of
leadership and possibilities of their further development.
Key words: management, leadership, theories of leadership, leadership style, transformational leadership,
transactional leadership, behavioural approach, situational approach, charisma, emotional intelligence.
JEL Classification: B20, M12
1. Introduction
Leadership is a special type of attitude towards a
person, based on the recognition of his abilities to
manage and those human qualities that are so necessary
for the modern leader. Leadership is built on the
voluntary recognition of a person’s ability to understand
the interests of other people and to manage them in
accordance with these interests.
In the past, leadership was seen as a set of innate traits
or as features of a style of behaviour. Most definitions
of leadership include three components: influence,
group, and purpose. Firstly, leaders are people who
influence the behaviour of others. Secondly, leadership
is usually investigated in the context of groups,
especially working groups. Third, the leadership study
focuses on the group goal, which must be achieved.
Thus, the following definition of leadership can be
given: it is a process, in which a person influences
other members of a group to achieve the goals of a
group or organization. The true leader, capable of
leading people with him, is one who acquires universal
recognition among people.
Corresponding author:
Department of Macroeconomics and Public Administration, Kyiv National Economic University named after Vadym Hetman.
E-mail: [email protected]
Department of Economics and Management, Odesa I.I. Mechnikov National University.
E-mail: [email protected]
Department of Economics and Management, Odesa I.I. Mechnikov National University.
E-mail: [email protected]
Vol. 4, No. 1, 2018
The history of leadership research dates back to ancient
times. Scientists of antiquity and ancient China tried to
systematize and describe the qualities inherent in the
leader, unfortunately, not mastering modern scientific
methodology. However, over the past centuries, the
situation has changed dramatically; the scientific
approach has taken the lead. More and more theories
appeared, corresponding to the paradigm prevailing at
one time or another. At first, it was a personal approach,
from where the theory of leadership features emerged,
then behaviourism took over the dominant position
and then a behavioural approach emerged in leadership
psychology. Further, authentic theories of leadership
were created on the one hand, and attempts were made
to integrate opposing approaches on the other.
Each of these approaches has scientific leadership
concepts that explain this phenomenon. Let us consider
the most popular of them.
2. Evolution of the theory of features
The great man theory. This group of concepts is a prescientific, philosophical doctrine of leadership. Various
philosophers (Lao-Tzu, Confucius, Homer, Aristotle,
Plato, Niccolo Machiavelli) tried to design an image of
an ideal governor on the basis of notional conclusions
(Oganyan, 2006). They did not use the scientific
method and, obviously, they did not apply the approved
psychodiagnostic techniques. In this regard, the
understanding of the same feature could differ from one
author to another, and lists of leadership features often
contradicted each other. It is important that leadership
was considered only at the level of large groups. The
basic postulate of “The Great Man” theory was that it is
impossible to become a leader, they can only be born.
Time passed, scientific methods of researching the
personality appeared. However, this postulate remained
in force. The founder of the scientific approach was
F. Galton, who believed that the leading role in human
behaviour, including the leader, is played by hereditary
factors. The development of this idea could be seen
in the works of sociologists, social psychologists and
philosophers (F.A. Woods, J.G. Tarde, F. Nietzsche).
A. Wiggam argued that the reproduction of leaders
depends on the level of fertility among the ruling
classes (Wiggam, 1931). Finally, S. Klubeck and B.
Bass discovered that people who are not inclined to
leadership by nature can hardly be made leaders, except
to try to influence them with psychotherapy (Klubeck,
The trait theory of leadership. Soon serious concepts
of personal traits and, respectively, the questionnaires,
which allowed defining them, began to appear. Here,
first of all, it is necessary to mark out R. Cattell who in
1954 have compared leaders to other members of the
group; the first were ahead of the last on eight merits
of the personality: moral maturity (C); domination (Е);
Baltic Journal of Economic Studies
integrity of character (G); social courage (N); insight
(N); independence of harmful inclinations (O); will
power (Q3); lack of excessive experiences (Q4) (Daft,
Thus, the era of allocation of leadership skills where
each researcher studied the leader’s figure from a
position of own concept of personal traits and own
questionnaire has come. Among the most modern, the
concept of personal qualities “The Big Five” by Warren
Norman is considered to be the most recognized.
The great man theory has not reached a dead end. It
got a new birth in the theory of charismatic leadership.
Representatives of the theory of charisma insisted
on one, but integral quality, which makes a person a
leader – charisma. Charisma according to Max Weber is
the quality bestowed by God. He put charismatic power
in opposition to traditional and rational power. An
important difference between the theory of charisma
and the trait theory is the difference in the origin of
leadership power. In Weber’s concept, charismatic
power is a magical quality bestowed from above.
However, already in this concept, one can see hints of
scientific understanding. So, M. Weber insisted that in
order for the followers to recognize the leader’s qualities
in a leader, he must clearly argue his demands, prove his
own skills, and demonstrate that subordination to him
leads to certain results (Friedland, 1964).
Transformational leadership. Transformational
leadership is a modern embodiment of the theory
of charisma. The term “transformational leadership”
has been introduced by J.V. Downton (1973) for the
first time. However, this concept has already received
the development at James MacGregor Burns. He
understands transformational leadership as a process, in
which the leader and the follower, interacting definitely,
lift each other to the higher level of motivation and
personal/moral development. Leaders appeal to the
highest ideals and values and also accept and realize
these values in practice (Bensman, Givant, 1975).
Bernard Bass, Burns’s follower, investigated leadership
in the context of how a transformational leader influences
followers. Transformational leadership includes four
main components: charisma and idealized influence;
inspiring motivation; intellectual stimulation; individual
approach (Avolio, Bass, 1988). Various emotions and
feelings are inherent in the behaviour of the leader.
In particular, for the inspiring motivation process,
enthusiasm, optimism, and excitement are inherent;
for idealized influence – determination, confidence and
pride; for intellectual stimulation – hostility, challenge,
and anger; for an individual approach – sympathy, care,
and love (Connelly, 2002).
The theory of emotional intelligence and primary
leadership. The important role of emotions in the
process of transformational leadership made scientists
pay attention to the concept of emotional intelligence
(Fig. 1). A clear awareness of his mental processes
Baltic Journal of Economic Studies
and, in particular, the emotional state, is required from
the leader. The theory of emotional intelligence by
J.D. Mayer and P. Salovey, in the aftermath developed by
D. Goleman and R. Boyatzis, most clearly describes the
figure of the leader in this vein.
Trait theory
of leadership
Fig. 1. The theory of emotional leadership as a synthesis
of different approaches (Goleman, 2012)
The emotional brain (the limbic system) is responsible,
both for the demonstration of our emotions and for our
memory. When memorizing, the hippocampus connects
this or that sensory information with the emotional state,
and when similar sensory information is subsequently
presented, the emotional reaction is already recorded. On
these processes, for example, human intuition and the
phenomenon of bad apprehension are based. However,
emotional intelligence is more than an emotional brain.
So, D. Goleman singles out the following components
of emotional intelligence: knowledge of oneself and
one’s emotions; the ability to control oneself and one’s
Vol. 4, No. 1, 2018
feelings; the ability to understand the feelings and
desires of others; the ability to control the feelings and
desires of others. These qualities indicate the need to
use the complete work of the brain and its logical part,
even more so. Leaders either spontaneously experience
the emotions that they show to their followers, or they
easily create and demonstrate the appropriate emotions.
In other words, leaders control their feelings. Followers
react positively to positive emotions; there is an increase
in sympathy for the leader (Brotheridge, 2006). The
influence of the emotions of transformational leaders
on the emotions and affective reactions of followers can
be explained by emotional contamination (Newcombe,
Ashkanasy, 2002).
3. Evolution of the behavioural trend
in leadership researches
Leadership style theories. Behavioural theories
of leadership appeared simultaneously with the
occupation by behaviourism of a leading position in
scientific psychology. The basic “stimulus-response”
behaviourism formula also found an application in the
theory of leadership. It was assumed that we can get the
desired behaviour if we correctly select the stimulus that
this behaviour can cause. The idea arose that there is a
certain behavioural style that will make it possible to
achieve the greatest results. The most popular researches
in this vein were made by Kurt Lewin and Ralph
White. They investigated the influence of three styles
of leadership (liberal, authoritative, democratic) on the
performance of the group (Table 1). It turned out that
Table 1
Classification of leadership styles by K. Lewin (supplemented by the authors)
Methods of decision-making
Resolves all issues individually
Ways of bringing solutions to
Orders, controls, commands
the performer
Allocation of responsibility
Attitude to the initiative
Attitude to the recruitment
Style of communication
Nature of relations with the
Attitude to the discipline
Choice of the method of
influence on subordinates
Leadership styles
Consults with the subordinates
before making a decision
Waits for the directions from above
or decisions of the meeting
Offers, argues, affects
Asks, persuades
Allocates responsibility, delegates
Encourages, uses in the interests
Completely suppresses
of the matter
Does not accept or gets rid of
Selects business, competent
skilled workers
Keeps distance, is not
Is friendly, enjoys
Smooth manner of
Hard, dictated by the mood
communication, constant selfcontrol
A supporter of a reasonable
An adherent of formal discipline,
discipline, has differentiated
strict schedule
attitude to people
Regards punishment as the main
Uses various methods of
method of stimulation, rarely
encouragement and punishment
encourages the elected
Takes or passes to subordinates
Tries to shift off any responsibility
Gives to subordinates
Is not in charge of selection
Comes into contact with
subordinates only on their initiative
Gentle, flexible
Does not require respect for formal
discipline, patient to contraventions
Uses reward more often
Vol. 4, No. 1, 2018
the authoritative style led to the greatest productivity
but the relations in the group and the creativity of its
participants suffered. With the democratic style, the
opposite situation was observed. Liberal style showed
the worst results in all parameters. The classification of
K. Lewin became the basis for the creation of many new
models of leadership. However, they all came down to
finding intermediate options (for example, authoritativeliberal, authoritative-democratic leadership styles).
Later, based on this concept, Robert Blake and Jane
Mouton proposed their “Managerial Grid” (Fig. 2)
(Blake, Mouton, 1992). In their model, they claim that
there is the most effective style that combines both
the orientation to the result and the orientation to the
relationship. This style was called team leadership.
It is worth saying that the ideal style of leadership was
not found. Different styles of leadership turned out to
be effective in different situations, as K. Lewin himself
Motivational theories. Motivational theory by
R. Howe, B. Base understands leadership as an attempt to
change the behaviour of members of the group through
a change in their motivation. Abraham Maslow claimed
that leadership arises in the process of transforming
the desires of people into motives that depend on the
environment. This idea was concretized by J. LipmanBlumen in the concept of connective leadership,
according to which the modern leader should be able
Baltic Journal of Economic Studies
to establish connections between his motives and goals,
as well as the goals and motivations of other people.
Hence the emergence of many humanistic theories that
considered the conflict between the motivations of the
individual and the goals of the social structure, into
which he enters. It is necessary to build an organization
in such a way that it does not suppress the individual
and, at the same time, is effective.
Transactional leadership. Transactional leadership
was born from behavioural theories of exchange. They,
in turn, are based on the theory of operant conditioning
by B.F. Skinner and assume that any interaction of
people is an exchange where everyone bears the
benefits and costs. The first transactional theorist to
talk about leadership was Peter Blau. He pointed out
that leadership shows in a situation of nonequilibrium
exchange. In the case when the individual has nothing
to repay, he provides himself with a generalized loan.
If this option is implemented purposefully, we are
talking about the phenomenon of leadership. However,
the theory of transactional leadership was developed
in detail by E. Hollander. He understands leadership
as an exchange between a leader and followers. The
leader provides followers with benefits in the form
of: organizing actions; clarification of the situation;
coordination of efforts; attention. Followers also reward
the leader with: recognition; respect; the adoption of
influence (Hollander, 2009).
Fig. 2. Blake–Mouton Managerial Grid
Baltic Journal of Economic Studies
4. Evolution of the situational approach
in leadership
Situational theories. These theories deny the
personality in the course of leadership and direct all
attention to a situation. So, Herbert Spencer specifies
that it is not the person who changes time, but time
creates great people (Spencer, 1841). Also, the theory of
situational leadership by R. Stogdill notes that the same
person can become a leader in one situation and cannot
in another. The theory of “leadership substitutes” by
S. Kerr and J. Jermier assumes that presence of the leader
isn’t a necessary condition of productivity of group
as the absence of the leader can be compensated by
parameters of the situation (Pochebut, Chiker, 2000).
Personal and situational theories. Here at the same
time both psychological traits of the leader and a
condition, in which there is a leadership process, are
considered. So, according to K. Keyes, leadership is a
result of three factors: personal traits; features of the
group and its members; group problem. A.S. Kaze
Vol. 4, No. 1, 2018
also says that leadership is generated by three factors:
personal qualities of the leader, group, and situation.
And, for example, the main idea of the concept of
“the distributed leadership” consists that in a group it
is not obligatory to have one leader. At each stage of
implementation of the project by the interim leader,
there is a carrier of the competence, which is the most
demanded at present.
Situational-behavioural theories. This direction is a
combination of a situational and behavioural approach.
Here, the leadership behavioural styles that are
effective in a given situation are determined. The first
supporters of this direction in 1958 were Tannenbaum
and Schmidt, who pointed out that the leadership
style (authoritative or democratic) can be effective
depending on three variables: the characteristics of the
leader, the characteristics of the group, and situational
factors (Fig. 3) (Tannenbaum, 1961). However, the
most popular theory was Fred Fiedler’s theory, who
distinguished three situational variables: relations, task
structure and powers (Fig. 4). Efficiency is achieved
Fig. 3. The Tannenbaum–Schmidt Leadership Continuum
Fig. 4. Fiedler’s Contingency Model
Baltic Journal of Economic Studies
Vol. 4, No. 1, 2018
Fig. 5. The Three-Dimensional Model by W. Reddin
if, in the least and most favourable situations leaders
implement a work-oriented style, and in the neutral
situations – …
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