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Problem description: You oversee a manufacturing facility that produces an
automotive part (steel shaft for the gearbox). The acceptable dimension of the shaft is
2.5±0.05 inches in diameter with the most desirable product being exactly 2.5 inches.
Two vendors are trying to sell their equipment for the shaft-machining task to your
company, Automotive Parts Corporation. You have been asked to assess the
equipment from each vendor, and to make a recommendation on which one to make
the purchase from, supported by a justification for your decision.
You asked both vendors to supply data on the machining accuracy of their equipment
for the given task. Both vendors machined 100 shafts, collected data, plotted
histograms, fitted the histograms with normal distributions and supplied you with their
findings
Let X= diameter in inches of the gearbox shaft
Ace Machines: X has a normal distribution with mean 2.48 and variance 0.001
Best Machinery: X has a normal distribution with mean 2.51 and variance 0.002
When you are completing your memorandum be sure to address the following:
● Recommend a vendor using the given information, develop and discuss your
approach (give all details including quantitative justification). Your response to
this question must be directed to the audience described below.
● Examine the scenario as described and discuss what additional information
would be helpful to make this recommendation a stronger selection, and why
that information would be useful. Be careful not to negate your
recommendation as you explain this.
● Include your calculations as a titled addendum on its own page at the end of
Audience: You are creating this document for the company’s Chief Operating Officer,
Lin Gerard, and copying the Chief Financial Officer, Aileen Kitts. Documents involved in
major financial decisions like this may also be distributed by the addressees to other
executives and the corporate board members.
Document: Complete this assignment as a memorandum. Follow the guidance for
including setting your Word preferences to check for a more professional writing
approach. Examples of professional language constraints would include:
GRADING RUBRIC – 10 points total
Executive Summary is included – 1 point
Memorandum is divided into sections with titles – 1 point
A minimum of one graphic is included – 1 point
A conclusion is included – 1 point
Reviews are completed – 1 point
Reviews include actionable feedback – 2 points
The specific required evaluative language is included at the end of each review – 2
points
The Writing Center, George Mason University. This document contains two
memorandum. First, the document discusses how to think about the kinds of
audiences likely to read a business memo and what each needs from the
memo. Second, it discusses the organization and formatting of the document
content.
● How To Write a Business Memorandum . This is the guide for structuring
both the document and the content of this assignment.
● Statistics. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.The University
of North Carolina. This document discusses both how to read and how to
Purdue Online Writing Lab.
How to Write a Business Memorandum
Introduction
Use this document as a guide to lay out, organize, and structure your business
memorandum. The document has three sections: Formatting, Document Header, and Body
Organization and Content. The formatting section describes how to set up the document.
The document header section, provides you information on the layout and content of the
memorandum header. In the organization and content section you will find the minimum
sections required in the document and the content you will address in each.
FORMATTING
This section provides formatting information for your memorandum. If you do not know
how to accomplish any of the formatting requirements, there are many good online
Paper
§ Complete your internal business memorandum on 8 ½ x 11 inch plain white paper.
§ Use portrait page orientation with the 11-inch side vertical (see Figure 1).
§ You should not use templates for the memorandum that include decorative graphics in
the header and footer (i.e. do not use memorandum templates from word or elsewhere
that have graphics or images in the header and footer).
Margins & Page Footer
§ Set up the document with one-inch margins on all sides.
§ Place the subject line text of your memorandum in the document footer ½” from the
bottom and 1” from the left side of the page. Make the title in the footer one font size
smaller than the body text, to set it apart visually. Your inclusion of the title in the footer
allows for reassembly of printed copies if pages get separated (see Figure 1)
§ Number pages in the margin ½ inch from the bottom 1” from the right side of the paper
using the same size font as the body text.
1” margin (all sides)
Page number
Memorandum subject) (11 pt.)
Footer ½ inch from bottom
How to Write a Business Memorandum
1
Figure 1: Page Layout
How to Write a Business Memorandum
1
Paragraph Set-Up
§ Set up your document single spaced.
§ Set up your paragraphs left-justified with no indentation.
§ Remove extra point spacing before and after paragraphs. Manually add an extra line
between paragraphs, between paragraphs and titles or subtitles and between titles and
subtitles.
Font Style and Text Size
§ Use an easy to read and familiar font such as Times New Roman or Calisto (or other clean
serif font). You should avoid unusual, unfamiliar, or difficult to read fonts that may
make it harder for the memorandum’s audience to read the document.
§ Use 12 point font size, as it is a good size for readability of business documents. You
may go down a point size if it helps you keep the last few lines of a memorandum from
ending on a page alone.
§ Keep font size consistent in the document unless otherwise specified.
Document Title
§ Start a business memorandum document with the title “Memorandum” or “Memo”.
Use “Memorandum” for more formal communication, when communication is going to
people you work for or their bosses or those outside your organizational group. You
may use “Memo” as a title for less formal communication, such as within your working
group.
§ Center the title horizontally.
§ Use a bold, clean san serif font (i.e. Ariel Bold or Helvetica Bold) in a point size or two
larger than the rest of the text. This is the only part of the document that may have a
different font style. This title may have lines above and below to accent the title (see
Figure 1). If you use lines you must extend them margin-to-margin.
Section Titles
§ Start sections of the body of the memorandum with titles on their own lines. Makes the
titles easier to see by making them bold and/or underlined.
§ If sections need subsections title them is ways that are visually distinct, but less so than
the main titles (i.e. italicized)
Widows and Orphans
§ Widows and orphans are terms used in document formatting. You need to be aware of
these as you should NOT have them in your finished document.
§ Widows refers to titles at the bottom of a page where the information after them starts
on the next page.
§ Orphans refers to one or two lines of a paragraph left at the bottom of the page with
the rest of the paragraph on the next page.
§ You may set this up as a word rule but should also review your document after it is
completely written and edited to make sure there are no widows and orphans.
How to Write a Business Memorandum
2
This section addresses both the format and content of the memorandum header. This is the
lead into a memorandum document NOT a page header, and appears only on the first page
of the memorandum. The elements of the document header are: the addressee(s) (to), the
writer (from), the date, and the subject of the memorandum. If needed an additional section
may be included listing additional people or groups to which the memorandum will be sent.
§ First, is the primary recipient(s) and their title(s). List these one name and title per line.
§ Next is an optional line titled CC that lists people that are not primary recipients but
will be sent copies of the document, with their titles. This may also name groups.
Again, list them one name and title per line. Begin each name aligned vertically by
setting a tab that allows this.
§ The next line is who the memorandum is from and names the person(s) and titles of the
sender(s).
§ The next line is the date. Format this as month (spelled out fully), day, and year (see
Figure 2)
§ The last line is the subject; keep this short but also make it clear what the topic is. For
example, if you are requesting funding for new ambulances, a subject line that says
“Funds Request” is not enough detail, while “Funding Request for 2020 Ambulances
for Stations 64, 67, 82 and 95” is too much detail. A more ideal title would be “New
Ambulance Funding Request” Each line is left-justified. Leave a line between
of the text.
§ You may include a line below the header that goes across the page margin-to-margin.
An example of the title and header is provided in Figure 2.
Page Edge
To: Perri Lui, CEO, The Best Company
Kiran Desai, Legal Counsel, The Best Company
CC: Malik Washington, CFO, The Best Company
Alice Walker, Senior Process Technical Expert, The Best Company
Coopers Project Proposal Team
1-inch
1-inchmargin
margin
All
Allsizes
sizes
From: Alex Hernandez, Project Lead, The Best Company
Date: February 10, 2019
Subject: Coopers LLC Project Financials Approval Request
Figure 2: Memorandum Title and Header Example including Content Example
How to Write a Business Memorandum
3
CONTENT
Elements of a Statistical Analysis and Recommendation Memorandum
Include at minimum the following sections in your memorandum: summary, analysis,
conclusion, and addendum. The analysis and conclusion may have subsections, which
should be included if you feel subsections will enhance the clarity of your work. Edit the
with this.
(Executive) Summary
§ This section follows the header.
§ In a long document title this section “Executive Summary”, while in a shorter one, such
as this, it can be labeled “Summary”.
§ In this section you will describe the context, your process of analysis, and the
recommendation you are putting forward. The context must get a reader who is
unfamiliar with the background of what you presenting the essential information to
understand your memorandum. Present this concisely.
Analysis
§ This section follows the summary.
§ In this you will explain your input, analysis approach, findings and recommendation.
§ The data or input you started with,
§ How you approached the analysis and why it is appropriate for this issue,
§ What you know about the situation because of the analysis,
§ This is the section where you can use graphics to enhance your presentation. Use
graphics to:
§ Present data or information more compactly or,
§ Present contrasting data together to make the comparison easy to see or,
§ Make complex data, analysis, or discussion easier to understand.
Visual Support
§ Do not start your document with a graphic.
§ If you find you are using more than two sentences to present your data or analysis,
consider the use of tables, graphs, or charts.
§ Leave two lines above and below the table, chart, or graph with its number and title and
the body of the text.
§ Place the visual in the document where it can be seen at the same time as the text that
refers to it (name the figure or table in the text).
§ Avoid saying a graphic is above or below where you discuss it, in case you need to move
the location.
§ Be sure to include identification of all table and chart elements and a key where it is
needed to identify the image or table.
§ Include and locate numbers and titles appropriately.
How to Write a Business Memorandum
4
§ This is an optional section. You should divide this information out of the conclusion if
the content is more than a few sentences.
that could be sought and why and how it would make the recommendation stronger.
§ If there is a potential alternative option not addressed in the analysis, address why
this option is not as good as the one you are recommending.
§ If you have both these items in this section make sure to start with wording that ties
them together.
Conclusion
§ This is the bookend to the Summary at the beginning where you restate what you are
addressing, and what your recommendation is. It is important that you word this
differently than the summary at the beginning; this allows readers a second chance to be
clear on what you are telling them.
§ You may also include next steps when known.
§ An addendum starts on a new page with the title “Addendum” and a letter or number
with a title of the addendum (see Figure 3).
§ For this work include the mathematical analysis as an addendum. You may include an
addendum with the raw data, or a summary of the raw data, if it is not included in the
body of the memorandum. If you have additional research that you do not want to
Page Edge
1-inch margin