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Hello, I need someone to help me with my project I uploaded the word file for the project please read it carefully before you start working also there is 2 articles take a look of them as well The one on policy may help your considerations.The other is on school homicides which has a recent CDC report, https://www.cdc.gov/violenceprevention/youthviolence/schoolviolence/SAVD.html.thank you for help
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For this class project you’ll be addressing the issue of gun violence.
You will be expected to read about gun violence and develop a hypothesis, identify the data
source that can be used to address your hypothesis, and operationalize your plan with
population description, sampling features, an intervention, outcomes you will measure,
ethical issues you must address, and the benefits potentially gained by your intervention
including both population outcomes and economic benefits.
Here is a link to reviews that will point you to the many areas of gun violence from
practitioner perception to domestic violence. These reviews should give you enough
information to find a area of interest. Your hypothesis can then be developed from the
focus of your interest and you must develop an intervention to
study. https://academic.oup.com/epirev/article/38/1/1/2754874
/annurev-publhealth-040617-014600
https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146
A challenge you may face is that much of the gun violence work is older due to blocks on
government collection of data. When you design your intervention, remember that you
must adhere to current guidelines forbidding data that supports a position to limit
firearms. So, the focus of your hypothesis may be based on limiting firearms availability but
you can not test that approach and must show how other approaches can reduce the
undesirable outcomes of firearm exposure.
For example, suicide by firearms would be reduced if all persons with mental health
diagnosis were forbidden from firearm possession but you may not offer a ban on
possession. Instead, you must offer other approaches that might reduce suicide by firearm.
And no, banning bullets is the same thing.
For your project, please include these related areas together in your analysis.
Part 1: Your background data is drawn from national and local collections of information.
As we have spoken in class, data sources must be reviewed for their positive and negative
attributes to provide an accurate picture of the population you’re interested in.
For your chosen topic, please provide 3 positive and 3 negative attributes of the data
sources used. Please provide at least 2 refereed articles describing their positive and
negative attributes such that I may understand how you came to choose the attributes
you did.
Include this sentence in your part 1 “The data sources used for the assessment of my
chosen subject were…” and sentences like “Among the 3 positive attributes I see for this
data source are…” and “Among the 3 negative attributes I see for this data source are”.
These will help focus your opinions and likely should be in separate paragraphs.
Part 2: For your chosen topic, generate a hypothesis that explains how gun violence
occurs and how your intervention could affect the negative outcomes from
firearms and be careful to choose explanations that you can test. (Hint, it should be
something that you can think of ways to measure.) You can read about whatever part of
gun violence you like and when you say to yourself “Well, that is wrong” you have found
your focus.
Hypotheses can come from anywhere so do not assume you might not have a great idea for
a solution. I am reminded of the story of a health club whose shampoo budget was out of
control. Members kept taking the shampoo bottles. The board thought about searching
members bags, not offering shampoo, and many others till the janitor sitting in the back
starts chucking. The chair asks if he has a thought anad his reply is “Take the caps.” Simple
answers can come from anywhere so yes, you can find a good hypothesis worthy of testing.
Use a sentence like “The hypothesis is gun suicides depend on having guns that look like
guns and guns that are shaped like flowers would reduce gun suicides.”
Part 3: Design the study to answer your proposed hypothesis reducing negative
firearm outcomes.
You may find at this point that you may want to choose a new hypothesis or stat it in a
different way because it is too difficult to test. Welcome to science. You may have been
considering a project that is too big; you may consider if known factors such as A, B, or C,
which are known to be associated with outcome Y, may be easier to measure A, B, and C
rather than the long-term outcome Y.
For example, if you know that cigarette smoking is associated with lung cancer or
premature death, instead of measuring the effect of your intervention or idea that reduces
cancer or death, you might choose to measure how often someone stops smoking after you
have exposed some of them to your intervention.
Please indicate the nature of your study. You’ll need to suggest how likely your
intervention will be to produce change and that magnitude of change will determine how
many exposed individuals to your intervention and how many nonexposed individuals to
your intervention will need to be monitored. The study duration and specific outcome
measurements and how you plan to apply statistical measures to these outcomes must be
clearly defined.
You will be spared the need to draft a institutional review board (IRB) application and the
need for an informed consent but you should list the potential ethical concerns of patients
who are exposed to or not exposed to your proposed intervention. Flower-shaped guns
could trigger a psychological crisis if someone had been assaulted by a bouquet, so while a
goofy example, a plan for dealing with the issue would be an ethical responsibility.
Part 4: You’ll be asked to state if the results of your study are successful at improving
your hypothesis what can we expect as a potential benefit for adopting your
intervention. If your study is meaningful and addresses a concern of significant size or
cost, what will be the change in mortality, illnesses, employability, and potential cost
savings. You were not being asked to produce economic forcasts but to list these potential
benefits in a qualitative form.
For example, if I am able to reduce the number of individuals smoking cigarettes by 50% in
the one year duration of my study, I would expect that lung cancer is less frequent and life
expectancy will be longer, I would expect fewer patients to require medical attention for
lung disease and cancer, I would expect more individuals to work to the full length of their
life, and costs would be saved by less treatment of lung disease and cancer and the
requirement for less disability from medical diseases of the lung.
Needless to say, anyone using the example of flower shaped guns, will receive a 0.
Good luck and I expect these reports to be no more than 3 pages but can include tables
and charts as not counted addendums.
Opinion
VIEWPOINT
April M. Zeoli, PhD,
MPH
School of
Criminal Justice,
Michigan State
University,
East Lansing.
Daniel W. Webster,
ScD, MPH
Center for Gun
Research and Policy,
Johns Hopkins
Bloomberg School of
Public Health,
Baltimore, Maryland.
Firearm Policies That Work
The United States is among the global leaders in firearm injury deaths. In 2016, an estimated 37 000 firearmrelated deaths occurred in the United States, ranking
second only to Brazil.1 Although not a new development, the recent number of public mass shootings, particularly those occurring on school campuses, has increased support for stronger firearm laws and many state
lawmakers have voted for laws designed to keep firearms from dangerous individuals. Federal and state laws
prohibit some high-risk individuals from purchasing
or possessing firearms due to convictions for serious
crimes, restraining orders, or involuntary commitments issued by judges. Courts have consistently found
these laws to be constitutional, and some have been
evaluated in rigorous research to determine their effectiveness. This body of research suggests that laws restricting access to firearms for individuals at high risk of
the future commission of violence, based on their previous behaviors, may reduce firearm-related injuries and
deaths. Importantly, not all states have these laws; thus,
there remain opportunities for enactment and implementation of these laws with the goal of further reducing firearm violence.
Risk-Based Standards
Corresponding
Author: April M.
Zeoli, PhD, MPH,
School of
Criminal Justice,
Michigan State
University, 655
Auditorium Rd,
East Lansing, MI 48824
([email protected]).
Individuals who have used violence in the past are more
likely to commit violent acts in the future. For example,
based on a study conducted in 1998, among legal handgun purchasers in California, men who had been convicted of a violent misdemeanor offense prior to purchase (n = 672) were more likely to subsequently be
charged for murder, rape, aggravated assault, or robbery than those without such a history (n = 2795)
(relative risk, 9.4; 95% CI, 6.6-13.3).2 When a person with
a history of violence has access to a gun, consequences
can be lethal. In a case-control study conducted in 2003,
comparing cases (n = 220) of intimate partner homicide
with controls with nonlethal intimate partner violence
(n = 343), the odds of intimate partner homicide were
higher among violent male intimate partners who had access to a firearm (firearm access among 143 cases vs 82
controls; adjusted odds ratio, 5.38; P < .001).3 Research on laws that prohibit intimate partner violence perpetrators from accessing firearms help illustrate the reductions in lethal violence associated with risk-based firearm restrictions. In a quantitative policy analysis of state-level data from 1980 to 2013 for 45 US states, the federal law restricting individuals convicted of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence from firearm access was associated with an estimated 9% relative decrease in firearm intimate partner homicide, with a population-weighted estimated counterfactual mean rate (ie, an estimated projection of what the rates might have been in the absence of such laws) vs the actual mean rate of 0.49 vs 0.45 per 100 000 population aged jama.com at least 14 years in state-years with the law.4 In recognition that the use of criminal violence indicates high risk of future violence, some states have extended firearm restrictions to individuals convicted of a misdemeanor crime of violence regardless of the relationship between the suspect and the person harmed in the violent incident. The same quantitative policy analysis referred to above found that this law was associated with an estimated 23% relative decrease in intimate partner homicide in comparison with states that had only the federal law governing firearm restrictions for domestic violence misdemeanants, with a population-weighted estimated counterfactual mean rate of 1.06 vs an actual mean rate of 0.82 per 100 000 population aged at least 14 years.4 Evidence of the relationship of misdemeanor violence firearm prohibitions with nonpartner violence is mixed5; however, individuals who have committed misdemeanor violence are estimated to reoffend less frequently when under firearm restrictions.6 State laws that prohibit individuals under certain domestic violence restraining orders from purchasing or possessing a firearm are associated with an estimated 10% relative reduction in intimate partner homicide, with a population-weighted estimated counterfactual mean rate of 0.87 vs an actual mean rate of 0.78 per 100 000
population aged at least 14 years.4 However, many of
these state laws fail to extend firearm restrictions to specific groups of intimate partner violence perpetrators,
such as dating partners and those under emergency restraining orders. When restrictions are extended to these
high-risk groups, evidence suggests further reductions
in intimate partner homicide. In states that prohibit individuals under emergency restraining orders and, separately, those that included dating partners in their list of
disqualifying relationships from firearm access, compared with states that do not have a domestic violence
restraining order firearm restriction law, there was an associated estimated 13% relative reduction in intimate
partner homicide.4 For state-years that included emergency restraining orders as disqualifying from firearm
ownership, the population-weighted estimated counterfactual rate vs actual mean rate of intimate partner
homicide was 0.85 vs 0.74 per 100 000 population aged
at least 14 years. For state-years that included dating partners under restraining order firearm restrictions, the estimated counterfactual rate vs actual mean rate was 0.89
vs 0.77, respectively. The research, therefore, estimates greater reductions in homicide when a broader
group of high-risk individuals are prohibited from firearm access.
Extreme risk protection order laws, which are similar to domestic violence restraining orders in that these
laws allow the justice system to grant a civil protection
order, temporarily prohibit an individual at risk of violence toward themselves or others from possessing a
(Reprinted) JAMA March 12, 2019 Volume 321, Number 10
© 2019 American Medical Association. All rights reserved.
Downloaded From: https://jamanetwork.com/ by GEORGE MORRIS on 03/16/2019
937
Opinion Viewpoint
firearm. Research in Connecticut, conducted in 2017, found that removal of firearms, under an extreme risk protection order, from those
at risk of suicide was associated with 1 fewer firearm suicide for every 10 cases of firearms removal.7 Thirteen states have enacted some
form of these extreme risk protection order laws, which represent
a relatively new type of firearm violence prevention tool. Due to the
recentness of these laws, researchers are only now beginning to investigate their associations with interpersonal firearm violence.
Systems of Accountability
Successfully preventing prohibited high-risk individuals from accessing firearms requires systems that effectively implement those
restrictions with necessary mechanisms of accountability. For example, if a firearm owner is prohibited from possessing a firearm,
effective implementation of the prohibition requires the firearm
owner to relinquish any firearms that person already possesses. The
justice system must ensure, to the best of its ability, that the firearms are relinquished. In one analysis, laws that allowed or required judges to order relinquishment of firearms possessed by those
under domestic violence restraining order firearm restrictions were
associated with an estimated 12% relative reduction in intimate partner homicide rates compared with states that did not have a domestic violence restraining order firearm restriction law, with a population-weighted estimated counterfactual mean rate of 0.80 vs
actual mean rate of 0.70 per 100 000 population aged at least 14
years. No significant reductions were found in states with the domestic violence restraining order firearm restriction law but no relinquishment law.4
Similarly, systems that effectively prevent firearm acquisition
by prohibited individuals and deter individuals from transferring firearms to prohibited persons are key to influential firearm policies. In
30 states, private sellers (who are not licensed dealers) can sell handguns without the purchaser undergoing a criminal background check.
State laws that close the private-seller exemption from background checks without also having a purchaser licensing system have
not been associated with reduced firearm mortality. However, laws
requiring all prospective handgun purchasers to obtain permits or
licenses to purchase handguns directly from state or local law enforcement agencies, who complete a thorough criminal background check, have been associated with reductions in firearm
ARTICLE INFORMATION
Published Online: February 25, 2019.
doi:10.1001/jama.2019.0706
Correction: This article was corrected online March
1, 2019, to clarify a conflict of interest relationship.
Conflict of Interest Disclosures: Dr Zeoli reported
receiving grant support from the Joyce Foundation,
the US Department of Justice Bureau of Justice
Statistics, and as a subcontract with the University
of Michigan from the National Institutes of Health.
Dr Webster reported receiving grants from
Bloomberg Philanthropies as a portion of his salary
since 2017. No other disclosures were reported.
REFERENCES
1. Global Burden of Disease 2016 Injury
Collaborators. Global mortality from firearms,
938
deaths. One county-level study, conducted in 2018, found an estimated 11% relative reduction in firearm homicide, with a populationweighted estimated counterfactual mean rate vs actual mean rate
of 6.57 vs 5.85 per 100 000 population in county-years with the law.5
Civilian Gun-Carrying Policies
Over the last 30 years, changes in state laws have led to widespread state deregulation of concealed carrying of firearms
by civilians. Proponents of such deregulation claim that arming
more civilians with firearms will reduce violent crime including mass
shootings. These policy changes directly increase exposure to firearms for a group that is relatively low risk yet includes individuals
with histories of violence. Furthermore, large increases in firearms
carried by the public offers greater opportunities for guns to be stolen (from vehicles, for example) and thus be acquired by criminals.
Objective measurement of the effectiveness of the public carrying
firearms is fraught with methodological challenges, making conclusions about effectiveness nearly impossible. Studies of the effects
of laws that remove restrictions for civilian carrying of concealed firearms have produced mixed results, but recent findings suggest that
the laws are associated with increased risk of homicides (incidence
rate ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06).5 Future policy development and
research should consider the value of raising standards for legal
civilian gun carrying in public with respect to applicants’ prior history of violence and ability to safely respond to situations they might
encounter when carrying a concealed firearm.
Conclusions
Although there are important gaps in research, empirical evidence suggests that a number of policies are associated with
reduced firearm-related deaths. Effective policies focus on prohibiting high-risk individuals, as determined by previous violent
behaviors, from firearm access and depend on systems that
effectively block or remove firearm access by individuals legally
prohibited from possessing a firearm. These policies tend to have
broad public support and that support is increasing. Given the
public health implications of firearm deaths and trauma, as well as
the need for effective action to prevent these deaths, policy makers should adopt evidence-based policies to reduce firearm violence in the United States.
1990-2016. JAMA. 2018;320(8):792-814. doi:10.
1001/jama.2018.10060
partner homicide. Am J Epidemiol. 2018;187(11):
2365-2371. doi:10.1093/aje/kwy174
2. Wintemute GJ, Drake CM, Beaumont JJ, Wright
MA, Parham CA. Prior misdemeanor convictions as
a risk factor for later violent and firearm-related
criminal activity among authorized purchasers of
handguns. JAMA. 1998;280(24):2083-2087. doi:
10.1001/jama.280.24.2083
5. Crifasi CK, Merrill-Francis M, McCourt A, Vernick
JS, Wintemute GJ, Webster DW. Association
between firearm laws and homicide in large, urban
US counties. J Urban Health. 2018;95(3):383-390.
doi:10.1007/s11524-018-0273-3
3. Campbell JC, Webster D, Koziol-McLain J, et al.
Risk factors for femicide in abusive relationships:
results from a multisite case control study. Am J
Public Health. 2003;93(7):1089-1097. doi:10.2105/
AJPH.93.7.1089
6. Wintemute GJ, Wright MA, Drake CM,
Beaumont JJ. Subsequent criminal activity among
violent misdemeanants who seek to purchase
handguns: risk factors and effectiveness of denying
handgun purchase. JAMA. 2001;285(8):1019-1026.
doi:10.1001/jama.285.8.1019
4. Zeoli AM, McCourt A, Buggs S, Frattaroli S, Lilley
D, Webster DW. Analysis of the strength of legal
firearms restrictions for perpetrators of domestic
violence and …
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